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November 02, 1924 - Image 10

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 11-2-1924

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ofessor Slosson On

The League

By Preston W. Slosson

712 Arbor Street
Near State and Packard Sts.
Martin, Hailer U


In the present political campaign
many votes will be determined by
party affiliation, personal merits of!
the candidates and domestic issues.1
Every man must see things in his own
way, and I write for those to whom 1,
the question of foreign policy is of
paramount importance.
That would not always or usually
be the case., Until 1898 the United
States was very largely a self-con-
tained nation and its foreign policy
consisted largely of avoiding foreign
complications. But we live now in
a completely changed world. No
maxim of foreign policy from stage.
coach days-even from men as emi-
Monroe-is af much applicability in
the whole world in their course. The
present situation is this. In domes-
tic affairs we have attained a degree
of security and prosperity, a new and
higher standard of living, quite with-
out precedent either in America or
any other country. Nothing that
nerIt. as Washington, Jefferson, or
Messrs. Coolidge, Davis or LaFollette!
con4.. do, checked as they are by I
Congressional conservatism, could
greatly enhance or diminish this*
prosperity. If the United States were
thie whole world the result of an elec-
tipn would not at this time be of first
importance. But our prosperity and
security live under one continual
threat-the dange;r that it may be
swaraped by the poverty and In-
security prevailing in less favored
countriles. Ten years ago out ofhthe
distant Balkans, in which we had as
little a direct interest as in any part
of the whole earth's surface, rose a
storm cloud which eventually - cost us'
m-any thousand lives and billions of
our wealth. If after that, anyone can.
dream of national isolation as even.
a possibility or speak of any Euro-
pean question serious enough to
tfhreaten war as remote from our in-
tprests-well, I envy the brand of
opium. that he uses, that's all.t
Two international agencies; cos-
ly connected with each other, have
heen created to prevent a renewal of
tbe catastrophe of 1914. One, the
Court of International Justice, takes
care of "justiciable" cases, that is of
quarrels open to a legal decision. The
otler, the Council and Assembly of
the League or Nations, takes care o1
those equally important and peril-
onus cases which have passed the or-
dinary resources of diplomacy but
definite code of international law
which cannot. be referred to any
since they concern interests as well
as rights. Both types of mediation
are obviously essential to any security
of world peace. The only conceivable
alternative is the permanent possi-
bility of war. The United States be-
longs to neither the Court nor the
Council. It stands an "outlaw" (in
the literal sense Hof the word) among
the nations.

THE Issue ?
In this article, Prof. Preston W. Slosson of the history depart-
ment presents his arguments favoring the entry of the United States
into the League of Nations. Widely known as an authority on this
subject, Professor Slosson makes of the League question the real
issue of the presidential election to be held Tuesday.
It is with the hope of broadening the scope of student thought
with regard to American political affairs that The Daily presents this
article. To a certain extent partisan, it represents one side of a
controversy, the other side of which is treated elsewhere in this issue.

of the League have lost their places
already, others may do so this year,
and two years from now a definitely
friendly Senate is within the bounds
of possibility.




(Continued from Page Nine)
Coolidge has remained essentially pro-
vincial and unimaginative. He has
shown no qualities of political leader-
ship. He has been slow and hesitant

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(7) By the same act the League
defined the meaning of "act of ag-
gression" so that there is no longeri
the former uncertainty about the i
scope and intent of Article X whichi
frightened many people away fromf
the Covenant of the League.
(8) By this time five years exper-
ience has made clear how unjust
was the misrepresentation of ar-;
ticle X in 1919-20 when it was al-
most universally stated that this4
article flxed the boi'ndaries laid t
down by the Treaty of Versailles
and prevented -any changes in the!
future. Many peaceful frontier
readjustments have been made
since that time. All that is actual-
ly forbidden is aggressive interna
tional warfare.
(9) If the League infringes "nation-
ality" some one ought to informl
the fifty-five member nations of the'
League of that fact! None of them
seems to realize that its indepen-
dence and national sovereignty
have disappeared.
(10) As for the special question of
America's position in the world
many of us think that the country
would occupy a position of more
power and influence if seated in th(.
Council of a world-wide Confeder-
acy instead of squawking with panic
and scuttling for cover like a hen
in front of a Ford whenever the
bogie man of, "European diplomacy"
comes in sight.
Many will say: "I agree as to the

about making important decisions,
(and I may add Shotwell) have con- o
tributed mightily to the improvement and utterly powerless to forge the dis-!
cordant elements of his pry i
of international relations. Nor do I a unt cpleofdirectes party nto
a uit apale f drecedaction. He;
think that President Coolidge is in- a give no deceo psing
dividually prejudiced against the spossessing
League. But unfortunately the Re- large political policies. He clings to
publican party is bound hand and the past and present and seems to
foot by the attitude of its Senators i feel no responsibility whatever for1
and the tradition of the future. His speeches are devoted
andth trdiionofthe old fight t clbrtn pteehesy artudesoe
against Wilson. So long as President to celebrating the homely virtues of
Coolidge insists that our joining the economy, thrift, and decency,-wis- I
League is "a closed incident" it is dom of a sort. But the President of
self-deception to hope anything from the United States needs other sources
him and his party in getting into the of inspiration than Poor Richard's
League. Four years ago many people Almanac and the sap-bucket. I
voted the Republican ticket on the Davis has from the beginning of
pledge of Mr. Hughes and others that his career been a man marked for
a vote for Harding was a vote for the eminence. His position as head ofj
League with reservations. Four the bar association shows him to bel
years have passed and no "association recognized as a leader in the profes-
of nations" has been created as an sion, and a man of rare intellectualF
alternative to the League and we vigor. le has had actual experience
have yet to take the first step even with the post-war world. As Solicitor
to join the League, no matter with ;General he was in the thick of the
what reservations. struggles out, of which the new era
As for LaFollette any internation- has come. As Ambassador to Great!
alist should be ashamed to vote for Britain lie has a first-hand knowl-'
the Senator who was a "bitter ender" edge of foreign affairs. 'is large
against the League in any form and legal and business connections give
who has opposed even such limited warrant that his cabinet and other as-
measures of international co-opera- sociates will be, not politicians like;
tion as the Four-Power Pact which Pall, Daugherty. Slemp and Forbes,
guarantees the peace of the Pacific. but men of affairs and of, command-
Radical in domestic matters, Laiol- ing ability. For these reasons lie' will
lette is ultra-reactionary in his views give us what we need moat at this
of foreign policy. crucial moment, a man capable ofI
This leaves only Davis, who is per- being a wise, imaginative and vigor-
sonally a warm advocate of the Ous political leader.
League and (platform or no plat- ;





Read The Daily "Classified" Columns




general principle of inte
co-operation, but why just th
Is it the best possible plan
it not have many flaws?"
Quite true. We have no
the particular present syst
would scuttle it in a minute
ter plan equally certain o
adoption were to appear.
son that we stand by the
instead of any alternativel
association is simply ;that
exists andlit is easier to impr
is than to create what isn't.
Now what are the bearin
League issue on the pres
paign? I quite agree with
Reeves that such Americans
as Hughes, Dawes, Hoove

rnational form) will do all that he can as Pres- i"311111It i111111111t!1l iittttl!ii
e League? ident to further its cause. There is
n?. Does still the stubborn Senate to reckon ~
with, but many of the chief enemies r
brief for
tem and.
if a bet- Read the Want Ads *
f general -
The rea-
league om I
it nowI-
gs of the CONNIE'S - L
Professor Play for that Party.
statesmen For Engagements Call 2S4
or, Rooto
John a
S Get the habit
of Eatig at the -
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ay need in the student supply line-come i1 CA FETER IA
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... .

The main reason for this is the
strength of the old but now useless
tradition of national. isolation and a
vaguely defined fear of what is call-
ed "European diplomacy." Combined
with this is a distrust of the particu-
lar organization called the "League
of Nations" due to arguments levied
against it in the Senate in 1919 and
Five years experience have shown
many of these arguments to be quite
naseless-even granting that they
were ever honest. The following facts
are worth stressing:
(1) All important nations of the
world are members of the League
except ourselves, Germany and
Russia.. Germany is now seeking
admission. It is universally agreed
that any Russian government ex-
cept the present Bolshevist one
would at once apply for member-
ship. Practically all smixll nations
are also members and so far from
viewing the League with distrust
as a mere imperialistic alliance the:
small nations such as Norway, Hol-
land, Belgium and Czechoslovakia
are the most ardent friends that
the League has today.
(2) In the five turbulent years since
the League came into existence
there has been not one si.ngle in-,
stance of a war between any two
of its members. The only two in-
ternational struggles worthy to be
called "wars" since 1919 have been
Poland against Russia (out of the
League) and Greece against Tur-
key (at that time not yet in the
(3) On the other hand civil wars,
which are not in the jurisdiction of-
the League, have been very numer-
ous-in China, Russia, Ireland,
Mexico, etc. The League has never
intervened in such a case, which
ought to put at rest fears of inter-
ference with domestic concerns.
(4) Much was said about the separ-
ate representation of the British
Dominions adding to the voting
strength of Englanad. In no instance1
has England been able to marshal
a partisan vote against other na-
tions by this means.
(5) Many threatened wars have
been directly averted by mediation
of one or another of the League
(6) It is often urged, and with much
cogency, thaththe League has been
given only the small tasks of dip-
lomacy and that the "big things"
such as reparations, disarmament
the Franco-German disputes, etc.

i i

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