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October 24, 2002 - Image 16

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The Michigan Daily, 2002-10-24

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6B - The Michigan Daily - Weekeld MagaZiic - Thursday, October 24, 2002
Is the U responsible for students' health?

The Michigan Daily - Weekend Ml(aai e -
'Paid' paves way for your favorite rapper

By Megan Murray
Daily Staff Reporter
Since 1971, when the legal vot-
ing age became 18, students theo-
retically have had control over all
aspects of their lives. Universities
no longer imposed curfews or dress
codes, and co-ed dorms became the
norm. Parental influence became
less and less of a factor as bills and
reports were sent directly to the
Although the student is consid-
ered an adult, who is responsible
for the student's mental health?
When away at college, does the
responsibility for student's mental
well-being shift from the parent to
the University?
Suicide is the second leading
cause of death among college stu-
dents, and depression is a growing
issue. In recent years, the in loco
parentis debate surrounding uni-
versities has been reopened as to
whether the school should act in

place of the parent when a student's
health is at issue.
A recent example occurred at the
Massachusetts Institute of
Technology in 2000 when student
Elizabeth Shin burned herself to
death due to her severe depression

daughter's state, the Shins lost the
chance to save her life. To make the
matter more complicated, the Shins
claimed that M.I.T. failed to act in
their place - "in loco parentis to
the deceased."
Dr. Robert Winfield, University

and stress.
Her . parents
were never
informed that
the school psy-
chiatrist had
their daughter
due to her seri-
ous and dan-
gerous mental

A t the University, we
are not guided by
the legal in loco par-
entis, but rather guided by
good judgment for the stu-
dents' well-being.
- Dr. Robert Winfield
Director University Health Services

Health Service
director, com-
mented on the
difficult bal-
ance between
protecting a
student's per-
sonal safety
and protecting
a student's per-
sonal privacy.
"6 A t

Two years after the incident,
Shin's parents filed a $27 million
wrongful death suit again M.I.T.
They claimed that M.I.T had been
overly concerned with protecting
Elizabeth's confidentiality. By fail-
ing to inform them about their

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University Health Services, we act
as health care providers and teach-
ers for learning how to cope, rec-
ognize care and help individuals
who are experiencing depression.
At times when deemed appropriate,
we act in advisory ways, like a par-
ent would, but we do not take the
place of parents," he said.
"Generally, we treat students as
adults who are needing support and
care. At the University, we are not
guided by the legal in loco paren-
tis, but rather guided by good judg-
ment for the students' well-being,"
Winfield added.
Not only have universities treat-
ed students as adults but students
have also gained legal rights to pri-
vacy. Two decades ago, universi-
ties saw their roles as parental.
Today, the level of privacy control
has increased through such meas-
ures as the Health Insurance
Portability and Accountability Act
of 1996, which created higher
national standards for health care
records and data.
"HIPAA created a higher level of
privacy control and reinforced the
importance of confidentiality. In
general, the University protects the
privacy of the student unless there
is a profound risk to the safety of
the student or to other students,"

Winfield said.
Under the Family Educational
Rights and Privacy Act of 1974,
there is legal protection of a stu-
dent's educational records. FERPA
and HIPAA are important legal
means for guaranteed protection to
which all universities must adhere.
Todd Sevig, director of
University Counseling and
Psychological Services, said CAPS
is primarily governed by the
Michigan Mental Health Code as
opposed to specific University
"The mental health profession is
based on privileged communica-
tion in a confidential manner.
Confidentiality is the hallmark of
our profession and it is not taken
lightly," Sevig said.
"In accordance with the
Michigan Mental Health Code, the
University's responsibility for
mental illness
is to provide e men
adequate feSSIon
resources, edu- .e .
cation and pr1Vileg
quality services cation in a
along with
working with manner. Con
the community the hallmark
to increase o
a wa en ss,"Sion and it
Sevig added. lightly.
In the M.I.T.
case, Shin's
parents argued Director,dUni
that confiden- and Psy
tiality should have been breached.
It is a very unclear and gray area as
to when a university should break
confidentiality with a patient to
inform outside sources such as
family members. The decision is
often between violating the rule of
privacy to possibly save a person or
protecting the rule of privacy to
preserve the patient-doctor rela-
"It is a difficult judgment call,
because violating privacy damages
the established relationships. It is


also hard to know if the student is
in real danger or just experiencing
pain," Winfield said.
Although the University pro-
vides services such as CAPS and
UHS, there are many reasons why
students suffering from mental ill-
nesses like depression may not
seek the help they desperately
"There are also some societal
fears because in some cultures,
mental illnesses are more unac-
ceptable than in others. Thus, stu-
dents are more reticent to seek
help," Winfield added.
Other students in need of treat-
ment believe they cannot afford
treatment. Yet, the University pro-
vides alternatives and makes the
important resources available to all
Community awareness is essen-
tial to reduce the negative stigma
associated with
al health pro- i 11 n e s s es.
is based on When the com-
munity gets
d communi- involved in
confidential helping stu-
. dents, whether
identiality is it is faculty,
of our profeS- advisors or the
S not taken media, prob-
lemsmay be
treated before
- Todd Sevig they become
ersity Counseling too advanced.
ersiy Sevices p"Within the
l ogicalServices past five years,
there has been a fairly significant
increase on campus in the number
of people concerned about mental
health. The University has been
continually trying to advance
knowledge and coordination which
is wonderful," Sevig said.
"With University responsibility,
it is important to know it is not a
clear yes or no answer. Rather, it is
a multidimensional effort, collabo-
rating education, resources and
community to help any student who
needs assistance," Sevig added.

By Joseph Uban
Daily Arts Writer
"My favorite jam, back in the day,
was Eric B. for President," proclaimed
Phife on A Tribe Called Quest's Mid-
night Marauders. Assuming that Phife
wasn't alone in that opinion would not
be a stretch.
It also would not be a stretch to label
Paid in Full one of, if not the, most
influential hip-hop albums of all time. In
1987, Eric Barrier and William Griffm,f
known to most as Eric B. and Rakim,
dropped the hip-hop classic and revolu-
tionized rap music.
Most notable for its
liberal use of sam-
ples and Rakim's
rhyming style, Paid
in Full has probably
been in every promi-
nent emcee and producers' tape decks at
some point. But to truly understand why
Paid in Full has made such an impact,
one must first recognize the album's
quality in and of itself.
To call James Brown the "Godfather
of Rap" might not be a misnomer, even
if it does not sound as familiar as one of
his other better-known monikers. Sam-
pling Brown records has become a com-
mon practice in rap music, and there are
literally thousands of songs that have
done so. However, Eric B. popularized
the convention on Paid in Full, display-
ing a talent for sampling and setting a
precedent for one of hip-hop's distin-
guishing characteristics. Drawing from
Brown classics like "Say it Loud (I'm
Black and I'm Proud)," "Hot Pants,"
"Funky President" and "I Know You
Got Soul," Eric B. created "Move the
Crowd," "Paid in Full," "Eric B. Is Presi-
dent," and "I Know You Got Soul."
What made Eric B.'s use of the tracks
so impressive was that he found ways to
pare down the beats to accentuate
Rakim's rapping while still splicing in
enough instrument riffs, Brown excla-
mations and synthesized noises to keep
the tracks interesting. Barrier used the
same techniques to incorporate now-dis-
tinguished hip-hop sounds like the bass

line from Dennis Edwards'"Don't Look
Any Further," familiar to most as the
bass line from 2Pac's "Hit 'Em Up."
Additional proof of Eric B.'s produc-
tion prowess could be found in the tone
of the album and its effect on listeners.
Paid in Full was not the sort of album
which one casually put on in the back-
ground while attempting to seriously
concentrate on something else. Certainly
one could have listened while driving or
hanging out with friends, but its engag-
ing and often mesmerizing sound made
the record too difficult to completely
disregard. This owed to the album's
tempo and nature.
The former was
From never too fast, but
' the never too slow and
fVait produced a perfect
rhythm to which lis-
teners could shake
their heads and grad-
ually become entranced. In latter-day
music, a similar effect has been created
by trip-hop, yet Paid in Full was sonical-
ly simpler than its musical progeny.
The latter, the nature of the sound, was
so enrapturing because it never over-
whelmed audiences but still did not
sound monotonous. A modern-day analog
might be the music made by Wu-Tang
Clan's Rza, who, when at his best, pro-
vides artists and listeners with beats that
never overwhelm, never sound bland, and
never fail to capture ears.
To continue without cataloguing just
how many artists have used Paid In Full's
beats or samples first found by Eric B.
would be a mistake. The short list
includes 2Pac, Biggie, Dr. Dre, EPMD,
The Fugees, Ice Cube, LL Cool J, Nas,
NWA, A Tribe Called Quest and mostly
every other hip-hop act worth hearing.
Having raised sampling to an art form
is not all for which Paid in Full should
be remembered, though it certainly
would be enough. ("Ain't no Puffy, now
just Diddy," Sean? It's more like "Ain't
no sampling, ain't no Diddy.") Maybe
even more influential than its beats were
the album's lyrics, provided by Rakim.

To bet that no rapper in the past 15 years
has avoided using a Rakim-inspired bar
or two would most likely win a gambler
plenty of money. There is no way to over-
state how pervasive Rakim's rhymes have
become. Music fans need merely play
their favorite rap album to hear some
interpolation of Griffin's words. Those
keen enough to have noticed Jay-Z's
fondness for using lyrics first spit by
B.I.G. will surely find that those larcenies
pale in comparison to how many emcees
have been influenced - honestly or oth-
erwise --by Rakim.
Ahead of his time is probably the best
way to describe Rakim. Still in its rela-
tively nascent stages, hip-hop had never
before seen rhymes dropped with such
vivid imagery or sophisticated rhyme
schemes. In comparison to the street-
freestyling styles of other pioneering
rappers like Marley Marl, Doug E.
Fresh, and Slick Rick, Rakim's lyrics
were a treatise to their book reports.
Equally impressive was that Rakim
often made it difficult to pick out the
complex lyrics since his delivery style
was conversational, lulling listeners with
his consistent, confident, and measured
delivery. He clearly separated himself
from his contemporaries.

This microphone persona which
Rakim cultivated also served him as a
braggart. Unlike many other aspects of
hip-hop, Paid in Full did not introduce
the braggadocio present in most rap
music. However, Rakim's coolly stated
assertions and claims seemed more con-
vincing than most given his assured
style and talent. The narratives, similes
and metaphors that Rakim employed
have now become a general rhyme
schematic. Fledgling emcees, those
without enough to say and less-than-tal-
ented rappers need merely lay down a
few of Rakim's bars when they run out
of ideas or need some help getting their
own verses started. 2002's summer
street anthem, The Clipse's "Grindin"' is
proof of this trend, with Pusha T's open-
ing - "From ghetto to ghetto, to back
yard to yard" - obviously reminiscent
of the ending to "My Melody's" second
verse, "From party to party, backyard to
However, even hip-hop's elite have
sampled Rakim's voice, altered his
rhymes or patently stolen his lyrics.
Having done so does not wholly dimin-


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