*Page 2 - The Michigan Daily - Friday, March 10, 1989
Evolution linked to mate selection
BY NOELLE SHADWICK
Mating preferences vary little across cultures,
University researcher David Buss and his 50 col-
leagues report in the March issue of Behavioral
and Brain Science.
Men tend to prefer younger, physically attrac-
tive mates and women prefer older mates with fi-
nancially good prospects, the report said.
The study looked at samples of 10,047 men
and women from 33 countries between the av-
erage ages of 17 to 29.
Researchers asked men and women to rate or
rank two sets of characteristics on how desirable
or important they would be in choosing a mate.
In all but one of the findings, females valued
"good financial prospect" in a potential mate
more highly than males.
Men preferred to marry approximately 2.66
years younger while females preferred mates 3.42
Men found physical attractiveness in a mate
more important than females.
Though preferences varied between the sexes,
the researchers reported that across cultures males
and females preferred the same type of
This could mean, Buss said, that mating pref-
erences are rooted in evolutionary history.
Males and females in the animal kingdom
have different parental investments in reproduc-
tion, said Buss.
"Females have more parental investment," he
said, adding that they carry the baby, nurse it and
provide protection for it.
The role of females in the animal kingdom is
to increase reproductive success by providing
better protection and nutrition to the baby, Buss
In the animal kingdom, this often means
finding a male who can provide the best care for
Similarly, the male's ability to reproduce re-
lies on his ability to obtain a fertile mate, Buss
Applied to humans, females may choose older
mates because they provide better protection, and
males may choose physically attractive mates
because they appear to be more fertile.
"You can't prove the prediction," Buss said.
"If (the preferences) were arbitrary, then you
wouldn't expect to find it universally across cul-
tures. There was no culture that females valued
physical attractiveness more than males," he said.
The results reveal no definitive answer about
sexual selection of mates, the report
Continued from Page 1
Clevenger's later-than-usual entry
into the race.
After outlining his experience in
the community, as a councilmember
and as mayor, Jernigan said Cle-
,venger "is a blank slate as far as in-
volvement in the community."
Jernigan then defended his support
for the override of the Headlee
Amendment, which would raise
property taxes if approved, in order
to solve the city's budget deficit dif-
He blasted Clevenger for not ad-
vocating the override. "My opponent
says 'no' to a tax increase. That's
not an honest answer," Jernigan said.
Jernigan predicted layoffs and a
sharp reduction in services if the
Headlee override is not approved by
But Clevenger said, "We don't
need to override Headlee." Instead,
Clevenger said the city can find other
revenue sources by increasing fees
and selling unused city land.
The two candidates endorsed
mandatory recycling to ease the bur-
den on the city's overflowing land-
"I know of no other way (to solve
the landfill problem)," Clevenger
said. Mandatory recycling does not
mean imprisonment. It means a
standard to adhere to that is enforced
Jernigan recognized that manda-
tory recycling may be costly, but he
praised the City Council's recent
pledge to enact a mandatory recy-
cling ordinance in April in some
The two candidates also agreed on
the need for more affordable housing.
"We need a mix of housing and
we're working for that," Jernigan
said. He cited 60 new rooms at the
'Y' and 240 new houses being built
at the Turnberry development, each
costing less than $100,000, as evi-
dence of his "demonstrated leader-
ship" on the issue.
Clevenger pledged more city fi-
nancing for affordable housing pro-
grams and more "co-op" housingif
Continued from Page 1
dd of the semester. Rob Bell,
*- resenting the Student's Choice
xrty, promised to triple the amount
'~money allocated back to students.
And the Abolitionists, a party
Oat participated in the debate but
.ses not have a presidential
candidate, proposed to completely
Aissolve the Assembly.
. "MSA is either a practical joke or
nonexistent," Abolitionist candidate
'or LSA representative Jesse Walker
The fourth candidate, LSA
*sphomore Julie Murray, of the
$tudent Power party, said she could
.ot attend due to earlier
Despite an hour and a half of
heated questions, however, many of
the approximately 40 students who
observed the debate saw no decisive
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Sunday at 10 a.m.: Lent:
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at 6 p.m.: "Silence of christ"
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Holy Eucharist -5 p.m.
Celebrant and Preacher:
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As Music School sophomore
Laura Sankey, a present MSA
representative, observed afterwards,
"Everybody was pretty moderate."
The questions, presented by LSA
Student Government representatives,
were designed to express student
concerns about MSA's policies,
LSA-SG members said.
The issue of a new graduation
requirement dealing with "diversity"
was among those that split the
candidates. LSA junior Kittrie said h
favors Philosophy Prof. Peter
Railton's requirement proposal,
which specifically focuses on
racism. LSA sophomore Bell said he
supports "a graduation requirement
on diversity, not on racism per se."
However, engineering junior
Williams strongly opposed such a
requirement, asking, "How can you
grade what's in a person's soul or
mind?" There is "no evidence such a
class would help the issue," he
Although all the candidates agreed
that tuition increases must stop,
each proposed different ways to
tackle the problem.
"The fundamental problem is that
tuition isn't set when we are here,"
Bell said. "Student's Choice would
lobby for legislation that will make
tuition set when students are here."
A proposition unique to the
Conservative Coalition was to lobby
the private sector, including private
corporations and businesspeople, to
help reduce tuition. Williams said he
may introduce an MSA scholarship
to help decrease tuition for some
Then there was the question of
MSA's troubled relationship with
the University's Board of Regents,
which has threatened to cut MSA
funding in the past.
All the candidates advocated
rational negotiations as the best way
to improve relations with the board.
ARE A GREAT
WAY TO GET
j The University of Michigan
SCHOOL OF MUSIC
Sun. Stearns Collection Concert-
March 12 Vaudeville Revisited
Three generations of the Donahue Dance
Family, that graced Michigan stages
from-1928 until 1937; Mr. Bones-
Percy Danforth- will also perform, along
with a juggler, magician, and barbersho quartet.
Recital Hall, 2 p.m.
University Band and Campus Band-
Eric Becher and James Nissen, conductors.
Hill, 4 p.m.
Bryan and Keys Duo-
Keith Bryan, flute; Karen Keys, piano; James Winn,
guest flutist. Works by Hoffmeister,
Messiaen, Kuhlau, Prokofiev.
Rackham, 4 p.m.
For up-to-date information on School of Musicevents call the
24-hour MUSIC HOTLINE: 763-4726
Compiled from Associated Press and staff reports
3 plead guilty in defense scandal
ALEXANDRIA, Va. - A New York businessperson whose
testimony is considered key to unraveling the Pentagon purchasing
scandal pleaded guilty yesterday to bribing a high-ranking Navy official
and channeling illegal contributions to congressional campaigns.
Charles Gardner was joined in U.S. District Court by two private
consultants, James Neal and Kenneth Brooke, who pleaded guilty to other
U.S. Attorney Henry Hudson said outside the federal courthouse the
pleas were a significant development in the two-and-a-half-year-old
investigation into fraud in the Defense Department's procurement system.
Prosecutors said Gardner bribed Melvyn Paisley, a former assistant
secretary of the Navy and the highest-ranking official publicly identified
in the case so far.
Gardner arranged to buy Paisley's condominium at the Sun Valley,
Idaho, ski resort for an inflated price, the government said.
Poles to have Senate election
WARSAW, Poland - Government and opposition negotiators agreed
yesterday on free elections to a newly created senate in what could be the
first democratic national elections in the communist bloc.
In addition, the sides agreed to two-stage elections to the existing
Sejm, or parliament, in which opposition candidates would be free to run
for at least 35 percent of the seats.
Politburo member Janusz Revkowski, leader of the government-
Communist Party side at the talks, said anyone could run for the senate
who is nominated by an existing political or social group, or who
gathered 5,000 signatures.
Revkowski said that those elected and the resulting balance of power in
the chamber will depend entirely on the voters.
"There are no plans of any kind to arrange their composition before the
elections are held," he said.
Opposition negotiator Jacek Kuron said later on state television: "We
must admit that it is a step toward democracy, such as has never been
made anywhere else in this system."
School finance plan stalled;
quality bills passed by Senate
LANSING - School finance legislation remained stalled in the Senate
yesterday as Republicans and Democrats engaged in a game of political
chicken over providing the needed votes for passage.
However, the chamber did approve four bills designed to improve the
quality of Michigan schools, a move one education lobbyist said could be
key to passing the finance measure.
The bills would:
-require school boards to develop a core curriculum of basic courses for
-require school boards to adopt multi-year school improvement plans;
-authorize school competency and employability skills tests for
students to demonstrate they mastered the courses taken. However, a
school district could exempt itself from the policy; and
-require school boards to prepare and distribute annual education reports
detailing accreditation status, the core curriculum, and student
Gov. proposes bond spending
LANSING - Gov. James Blanchard unveiled yesterday the first wave
of spending fo the $800 million environmental and park bonds approved
by voters last fall.
The governor said he will ask the Legislature to approve spending
$101 million on toxic waste cleanup at 65 sites, closing landfills that
pose a threat to groundwater, and renovating state parks.
"The people of Michigan overwhelmingly approved our request for
funds to rid at the state of toxic wastes and we intend to act quickly to
restore the environment," Blanchard said.
Woman served detention for
child who missed school
POMONA, Kansas - A woman whose son was given detention for
missing high school believed it wasn't his fault, so she-served the.
punishment for him.
Vickey Escuivel said she turned off her three boys' alarm clocks after
she heard from a friend that school had been canceled because of a winter
storm Jan. 30.
But school wasn't cancelled.
The Escuivels realized school was in session after the snowstorm
stopped and one of the boys ran into two of his teachers at a store. The
teachers were getting lunch.
That story was good enough to get two sons of 'the hook, but the
Pomona High School principal wanted one to serve a detention.
Instead, Ms. Escuivel spent an hour and 45 minutes vacuuming and
cleaning at school March 3 and again Tuesday.
The idea of having Ms. Escuivel serve the sentence came from
superintendant James Cain, who said he "made the comment more in jest
than in meaning."
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