Page 2 - The Michigan Daily - Thursday, January 9, 1986
Experts: AIDS test inconclusive
BOSTON (UPI) - Researchers
warned yesterday that a positive
resultonta widely used test for ex-
"osure to AIDS is inconclusive
without a confirming test to rule out
"In the blood-screening business,
we're seeing the results of ELISA tests
that are not confirmed," said Alan
.Williams, a research scientist and
head of epidemiology at the American
Red Cross Biomedical Research and
" MANY OF THE people showing
false positives are women with
several children," Williams noted. "If
'ou look at total ELISA positivity,
there's little difference in percentages1
.between the numbers of males and1
females, when males actually far ex-1
ceed females" when retested. discovered by
A positive result on both ELISA,r
which stands for enzyme-lined im- Exposure tot
'Many of the people showi
positives are women with
munosorbent assay, and the more ex- body has develo
pensive and laborious Western blot proteins called an
test, is the only true test of exposure to but that does not n
the HTLV-3, the AIDS virus person will develof
U.S. and French The Western blot has been a com-
nmonly used technique for detecting
viruses and bacteria for many
he virus means the diseases over the years and has tur-
ned out to be very reliable in detecing
the AIDS antibody, according to of-
ficials at the Centers for Disease Con-
ng false trol in Atlanta.
several "The ELISA test by itself is not suf-
ficient for any population," Williams
said, whether the subjects are in-
travenous drug users, homosexual
l Williams, men or Haitians - all in high risk
h scientist groups - or others.
In a study of intravenous drug users
and AIDS reported in a letter to The
ped the defensive New England Journal of Medicine,
ntibodies to fight it Williams and colleagues at the Yale
ecessarily mean the School of Medicine found ELISA
p the disease. "alone is not a useful screening test."
Weinberger backs disguising nuclear tests
WASHINGTON (AP) - Defense
Secretary Caspar Weinberger,
backed by the chiefs of the U.S. armed
-forces, has recommended to
President Reagan that he disguise
nuclear missile tests and not disman-
"'tie two Poseidon nuclear submarines
in May, administration officials said
The Pentagon recommendations
are designed to respond to Soviet
practices that Reagan has told
"Congress violate arms control
,agreements with the United States.
BUT AN official who insisted on
anonymity, said the proposals were
challenged by other sectors of the U.S.
government as being in conflict with
the unratified 1979 Strategic Arms
Limitation Treaty and other accords.
"You could argue if we're saying to
'do these things we're violating the
treaties," the official said. "I'm sure
he will run into opposition."
Weinberger was supported in his
views by the Joint Chiefs of Staff,
another official said. In the past, the
military heads have not always taken
as hard a line as Weinberger and his
top civilian assistants in U.S. strategy
toward the Soviet Union.
REAGAN will be faced with a
decision on multiwarhead U.S.
nuclear missiles when the eighth new
Trident submarine becomes
operational in May. The United States
would move above the 1,200 limit on
such land and sea-based missiles
established in the 1979 treaty unless
he decided to retire older Poseidon
submarines or Minuteman III
The exceptions to Weinberger's
recommendations are being sent to
Reagan as he weighs a decision. But
since the Pentagon has the main
responsibility of framing a response
to Soviet actions under the treaties,
Weinberger's views could carry
special weight with the president.
He also suggested the United States
step up research on biological and
chemical weapons, the officials said.
AFTER intense debate within the
administration, Reagan decided last
June to dismantle a Poseidon nuclear
submarine and its 16 intercontinental
missiles to adhere to the 1979 treaty
when the seventh Trident began sea
trials in September.
Putting two Poseidons in dry dock,
as Weinberger reportedly suggested,
would mean they could be re-
assembled quickly. Dismantling the
submarines and their missiles would,
in effect, destroy them.
The issue of disguising missile tests
is one of the most controversial in the
arms control field.
THE 1979 treaty prohibits most
encoding in order to permit one side to
know the characteristics of the other
side's intercontinental ballistic
missiles and to determine if the
treaty's ban on more than one missile
is being violated.
Reagan has accused the Soviets of
testing a second new missile and
illegally encoding tests.
The New York Times, quoting
government officials, reported Wein-
berger's recommendations in yester-
days editions of the newspaper.
The State Department spokesman,
Bernard Kalb, said the study had been
prepared and was being assessed by
an inter-agency group. He provided
COMPILED FROM ASSOCIATED PRESS AND
UNITED PRESS INTERNATIONAL REPORTS
Patient may have received a
liver infected with AIDS
PITTSBURGH - Transplant experts, citing the severe shortage of
donors, yesterday defended surgeons who began a liver transplant before
receiving tests indicating the organ might be infected with AIDS.
Doctors at Presbyterian-University Hospital said a man who received
the liver was desperately ill, and they had no choice but to proceed with
surgery before tests results returned from the lab.
Health officials said the case points out the need for developing a rapid
test for AIDS antibodies.
Officials of organ transplant organizations said the Pittsburgh case
was not the first time a transplant patient had been exposed to AIDS
through a donor organ.
"I'm certain this is not the first case," said Thelma King Thiel,
president of the American Liver Foundation in Cedar Grove, N.J.
Unemployment drops to 7%
WASHINGTON - Unemployment last month dipped below 7 percent
for the first time in nearly six years, with a rebound in manufacturing
helping create 237,000 new jobs in December, the government reported
The number of people officially listed as unemployed fell by 138,000 in
December, dropping the civilian jobless rate to 6.9 percent, down 0.1 per-
cent from November and 0.2 percent from September and October, the
Labor Department said.
Total employment in December, aided by strong growth in both ser-
vice-related and manufacturing jobs, reached an all-time high of 108.2
million, the department's Bureau of Labor Statistics said. At the same
time, the ranks of the unemployed shrank from 8,161,000 in November to
December's unemployment rate was the lowest since April 1980, when
it also was 6.9 percent and was on the rise due to a recession.
With the figures showing the lowest monthly unemployment rate yet
during Ronald Reagan's presidency, the administration predicted the
jobs picture will continue to improve.
Court rules against Kodak
WASHINGTON - A Supreme Court justice yesterday refused to allow
Eastman Kodak Co. to remain in the instant photography business.
Justice Lewis Powell rejected the company's emergency request to
block a federal judge's ruling due to take effect today.
Kodak had sought emergency help from Chief Justice Warren Burger,
but Burger disqualified himself from considering the case. He gave no
The request then was referred to Powell.
While Kodak awaited yesterday's court action, the company based in
Rochester, N.Y., made plans to stop production and marketing of instant
film and cameras.
U.S. District Judge Rya Zobel ruled last October that Kodak infringed
on sever U.S. patents owned by Polaroid Corp. of Cambridge, Mass., and
has yet to determine what damages Kodak may be forced to pay.
Shegave Kodak until today to get out of the instant photography
Prevention of common cold
may be found, researchers say.
BOSTON - A nose spray made from the human hormone interferon is
the first treatment to protect people from catching the common cold, and
it may someday become a routine weapon against this pervasive woe,
Two new studies found that the spray is highly potent against
rhinovirus, by far the most frequent cause of colds, when people use it at
home. It can prevent nearly 80 percent of all colds caused by this variety
The spray was powerless against other germs, such as the influenza
virus, that also cause cold symptoms. But despite this shortcoming, those
who used the spray suffered 40 percent fewer colds overall than those who
"This is, to our knowledge, the first instance where it has been possible
under natural field conditions to show prevention of transmission of colds
in the household," said Dr. Frederick Hayden.
Mandela fights court expulsion
JOHANNESBURG, South Africa - Black activist Winnie Mandela ap-
peared in Supreme Court yesterday to challenge a government order
banning her fromher Soweto home.
In other developments, thousands of black students boycotted schools
across the country on the first day of the new school year, and police said
they shot to death a guerrilla of the outlawed African National Congress
in Soweto and arrested "a number" of other guerrillas and seized a cache
of Soviet-made weapons.
A six-member U.S. congressional delegation met President P.W.
Botha, and afterwards one member said he was "not encouraged at all"
the white government would move toward abolishing apartheid, the
system of racial segregation that reserves privileges for the nation's 5
million whites while denying rights to the 24 million blacks.
Mandela, giving black-power salutes and smiling, was mobbed by
about 250 cheering blacks as she left Supreme Court at the end of the first
day of the hearing where she is challenging the expulsion order.
The hearing on her suit, the first time she has challenged the gover-
nment in court through restrictions dating back 23 years, was to resume
Mandela's lawyer, Sidney Kentridge, argued that the Dec. 21 order
banning her from Johannesburg, its black township of Soweto and ad-
joining Roodepoort was invalid both because Law and Order Minister
Louis Le Grange gave no reasons and because its execution was
Kindergarten enrollment up by half-mnillion in 1984
WASHINGTON (AP) - Enrollment
1s rising in the nation's kindergartens
and nurseries as the children of the
Baby Boom generation begin
reaching school age, the Census
,Bureau reported yesterday.
Most of the new students are going
to public institutions, while privately
operated classes led the increase in
nursery schoolers between 1983 and
1984, the bureau found.
THE NUMBER of children in nur-
sery school and kindergarten in 1984
was about a half-million higher than
.in the 1980 Census, the bureau said.
"The 3- to 4-year-old population
began to increase in 1979, because of
an upward trend in the number of bir-
ths which began in 1976," the bureau
said in its annual report on school
Nursery school enrollment grew
from 2,031,000 in 1980 to 2,354,000 in
1984, while in the same period the
number of children in kindergarten
increased from 3,272,000 to 3,484,000.
THAT INCREASE reflected the
surge of Americans born in the post-
World War II Baby Boom reaching
their childbearing years.
Although this generation continues
to bear children at rates lower than
their parents, the large number of
people in the age group has produced
an increase in total births, which
population experts have termed an
"echo" of the baby boom.
In addition to this surge, the Census
Bureau observed that nursery school
enrollment has been rising steadily
since the 1960s because of the larger
number of parents enrolling their
children in these schools. This has
paralleled an increase in the number
of mothers seeking to continue their
education and careers.
BETWEEN 1983 and 1984 total
enrollment in nursery schools edged
up from 1,350,000 to 1,354,000, but that
showed a change in type of school
Making Dreams Come True
The Ann Arbor Inn presents the 2nd
Annual Bridal Fashion Show
Sunday, January 12, 1986
2 p.m.-5 p.m.
Featuring Conlin Brides Showcase Fashion Show
3:00-4:30 p.m., complimentary French pastries &
beverage, display booths, door prizes, free admission.
Have The Ann Arbor Inn plan your wedding reception with
an added touch of elegance. Wedding consultation service
available . . . Call 769-9500 (ext. 1109)
selected by parents.
Privately operated kindergartens
lost enrollment over the year, drop-
ping from 656,000 students to 531,000,
the study found. Enrollment at public
kindergartens, meanwhile, increased
from 2,706,000 to 2,953,000.
The same was true at the nursery
school level. Enrollment at public in-
stitutions declined sharply from
809,000 to 761,000 while it grew at
private schools, 1,541,000 to 1,593,000.
THOSE FIGURES reverse a trend
of increasing enrollment in private
nursery schools and kindergartens
over the last few years.
Despite the overall kindergarten
and nursery school increases, though,
the decline in elementary school
enrollment has not yet been reversed
nationwide, the report said.
Elementary school enrollment slip-
ped 360,000 from 1983 to 1984, to 26.8
million, and was 1.4 million below the
ENROLLMENT IN elementary
schools peaked in 1970 and has since
declined by 21 percent; falling 31 per-
cent in private schools.
There were 13.8 million students
enrolled in high school in 1984, 1.2
million fewer than in 1980. Depending
on dropout rates and other factors,
this decline seems likely to continue to
1991 and beyond, the Bureau noted.
College enrollment was 12.3 million.
up about 616,000 since 1980. However,
the number is not significantly more
than the 1981 enrollment, the report
Women continue to constitute 51
percent of college students, as they
have since 1980. - Graduate school
enrollment rose 21 percent between
1974 and 1984, to 1.8 million.
The Fuji Speciala
* Sushi and Sashimi
" Fish Teriyaki.
* Lobster Teriyaki 3
All Highly Recommended
by the Chef.
FUJI RESTAURANT * 327BRAUN CT.."0U3-3111
(Across from Kerrytown)
Vol. XCVI - No. 70
The Michigan Daily (ISSN 0745-967 X) is published Monday through
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