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July 15, 1970 - Image 2

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Michigan Daily, 1970-07-15
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4 * 4

-4

Page Two

THE MICHIGAN DAILY

Wednesday, July 15, 1970

Wednesday, July 15, 1970

THE MICHIGAN DAILY

FAULTY TEST PROCEDURES

Election
begins ii
From Wire Service Reports
WASHINGTON - The fight to win
Senate approval for direct popular elec-
tion of the President has begun behind
the scenes, with serious concern among
the organizers that it may fall short of
success.
The H o u s e - passed Constitutional
amendment embodying the direct elec-
tion plan will not reach the Senate floor
for at least six weeks, and a final vote is
unlikely before mid-September, but lob-
bying is already active and the lines are
hardening.
Supporters of the bill are not encour-
aged about prospects for securing elec-
toral reform. Backers of direct election
can count 54 Senators committed to vote
for the Senate Judiciary Committee last
April or leaning toward such a decision.
But a constitutional amendment re-
quires a two-thirds majority, or 67 votes,
and there are 27 Senators now listed as
opposed to the plan. This means that all
but six of the 19 Senators now regarded
as undecided must be converted into sup-
porters or the move to abolish the Elec-
toral College will fail.
Of these 19 undecided Senators, nine
are f r o m small or sparsely populates
statesrthat would lose a certain measure
of political influence if the electoral-vote
system were ended and total direct pop-
ulation vote substituted as a means of
electing a President. Another three are
from the South, and virtually all the oth-
er Southerners are lined up against the
plan.
In an attempt to convert 13 of these
reluctant Senators, a confederation of in-
terest groups has already opened a com-
bined operation, sending representatives
in a team to individual meetings with
each Senator or his top staff man.
Theserepresentatives include one of-
ficial each from the United States Chain-
ber of Commerce, United Automobile

reform
n Senate
Workers, International Ladies Garment
Workers Union, the League of Women
Voters, the American Bar Association and
the American Federation of Labor' and
Congress of Industrial Organizations.
This team has already seen a half-doz-
en Senators and made one convert and
one probable, but four of the undecided
men to whom they talked still remain
uncommitted.
Senator Birch Bayh (D-Ind.), chief
sponsor of the direct election plan, held
private meetings last week with two of
his principal Republican lieutenants,
Senators Howard H. Baker Jr. of Ten-
nessee and Henry Bellmon of Oklahoma.
He is counting on these two, plus Sen-
ator Robert P. Griffin (R-Mich.), the as-
sistant Republican floor leader, to re-
cruit support among the 10 Republicans
on the undecided list.
Under the present Electoral system, a
candidate who carries a state, however
narrowly, gets all its electoral votes and
the candidate who gets a majority of the
electoral vote wins. If there is no elec-
toral vote majority, the decision passes to
the House of Representatives, with each
state delegation casting one vote and an
absolute majority of 26 votes required for
election.
Principal criticism of this system has
centered on the fact that a candidate
may receive the most popular votes but
lose the election, and the likelihood of
political stalemate and bargaining if a
third-party candidate should force the
election into the House.
Under the direct-election plan, i the
candidate who got the largest total na-
tional vote would be elected, no matter
which states he carried or lost. If no
candidate got 40 per cent of the vote, a
runoff would be held between the top
two vote getters.

1970 cars below

exhaust stai

WASHINGTON (IP)-Federal pollution
officials conceded yesterday that all 1970
model cars fall significantly short of
claimed and certified exhaust reduction
standards because of faulty government
test procedures.
Present federal tests 'for certification
of prototype autos measure actual emis-
sion of hydrocarbons and carbon mon-
oxide 100 per cent too low, John T. Mid-
dleton, commissioner of the National Air
Pollution Control Administration con-
firmed.
As a result, he said, "1970 cars do not
achieve the percentage reductions in pol-
lutant emission intended under existing
regulations. In addition, actual per-miles
emission of pollutants is higher than the
standard numbers in present regulations."
Middleton announced new, tightened

test procedures effective for 1972 model
cars. He contended the technology nec-
essary for the improvement w a s not
available until this year.
The new procedures include direct
measurement of all emissions rather than
the present system of partial measure-
ment plus mathematical calculations:
improved detectors for hydrocarbons;
new driving patterns including stop-and-
go stresses and cold startups that better
reflect normal urban auto use.
Present regulations w e r e framed in
terms of the faulty procedures. Auto
manufacturers will not be prosecuted for
failure to. meet the numerical standards,
Middleton said.
Instead, he announced carmakers will
have an additional two years -- until the
1972 model year - to meet weakened

1970 standards 60 per cent more lenient
for carbon monoxide and 10 more len-
ient for hydrocarbons.
"Despite the higher figures, the actual
quantity of pollutants emitted by cars
complying with the proposed 1972 regu-
lations will be less than for 1970 cars
that comply with current regulations,"
Middleton said.
"This results because t h e much im-
proved measurement capability of the
proposed 1972 procedures produces con-
siderably higher readings for given quan-
tities for emission." he said.
Middleton conceded the government's
practice of testing only finely tuned pro-
totype cars and not production models
for certification adds error to the testing
defects.

"Cars
as well a
As con
exhaust
posed to
by 80 pe
69 per ce
The ac
procedur
carbons
oxide," \
He adi
by its pr
ards of
hydrocar
for cart
emission
nitrogen
time in 1
additives

-Associated rress
Hello Appalachia
President Richard Nixon waves from the hood of his car yesterday as he greets
a big crowd in downtown Louisville, Ky. Thousands flanked the streets from the
airport to the new Federal Bldg. where Nixon met with governors of the Ap-
palachian Regional Commission.
HICKEL WA RNING:
Mercury pollutersrmay
encounter legal action

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WASHINGTON VP)-Secretary of the
Interior Walter J. Hickel yesterday
threatened quick legal action against in-
dustries discharging mercury, a poisonous
metal, into waterways-unless states
move quickly to stop the pollution them-
selves.
Hickel gave no indication how long he
would wait, but aides indicated it would
not be long.
ss policy

UC, Flei
on calli
By ROB BIER
University Council (UC) met yesterday
with President Robben Fleming to discuss
how and when police are called on cam-
pus, and how UC might become involved
in that decision-making process.
Yesterday's meeting was part of the
work UC has been doing to define its job
and begin functioning since it began to
meet at the start of the summer.
Established in the by-laws by the Re-
gents at their February meeting, UC is a
nine-member tri-partitite body composed
of three representatives from the faculty,
students and administrators. It is charged
in the by-laws to "formulate and propose
regulations" for the entire University
and, among other powers, to advise the
president on "relations with the general
community including the use of law-en-
forcement agencies." The meeting with
Fleming was to discuss how UC could best
fulfill that charge.
In asking how UC might take part in
any decisions to call police on campus,
Prof. Raymond Kahn of the medical
school suggested that "somehow we should
prepare for crises and have distinct al-
ternatives to follow in different situ-
ations."
Fleming replied that while there was
no difficulty in some cases-such as the
shooting of a student on the Diag a year
ago-"The problem arises in connection
with what one might call political of-
fenses on campus. How one goes about
making a decision there is very hard to
routinize. We operate from a general prin-
ciple that we would rather not have po-
lice actions of that kind on campus.-
"But we can't avoid it sometimes be-
cause we begin to get destruction and
that is intolerable," Fleming added. "So,

ning discu

cgpolice to campus

you get a question of when do you move
and under whatcircumstances?"
He said that usually, some sort of ad
hoc group is formed to advise him before
he makes a decision. Steve Burghardt,
Grad, suggested de-centralizing the de-
cision-making, saying, "The decision-
makers would be able to say that it's not
just one group which is making the deci-
sion, but that several groups were in-
volved," thus relieving some of the burden
on Fleming and "beginning to allow for
clearing the air."
Fleming agreed that it would be pos-
sible to de-centralize the decision-making,
but added, "Suppose you get a half-dozen
different kinds of practices developing?

One unit decides that they don't want
any interference at all and will always
call the police while another will decide
that they will tolerate almost anything
rather than call the police. Some real
problems develop."
Those matters and others discussed
yesterday will go to a committee com-
posed of Kahn, Burghardt and Alfred
Sussman, interim dean of the literary col-
lege. Another committee, composed of
Jerry DeGrieck, Student Government
Council executive vice president, William
Steudi, director of student-community
relations and history Prof. Shaw Liver-
more, is working to define the areas in
which UC can and should make rules.

"The administration is developing hard
evidence" for use in court, Hickel said. He
added that a team of specialists is pin-
pointing areas where mercury is a threat
and laying the ground work for its con-
trol.
Incidents of mercury poisoning have
been rare in the United States, posing a
threat mainly to people who work with
it in industry.
But once added to the environment,
mercury persists for many years and can
build up with each input.
Hickel said there are indications "that
the presence of mercury in much of our
nation's water constitutes an imminent
health hazard."
He sent telegrams urging immediate
action to the governors of 17 states: Ala-
bama, Delaware, Georgia, Kentucky,
Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michi-
gan, North Carolina, New York, Ohio,
Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Washington,
West Virginia and Wisconsin.
Each telegram advised the governor of
"preliminary information,... that certain
firms in your state are discharging mer-
cury into waterways.
"I am prepared to pursue federal legal
action if this proves to be the case and if
prompt corrective action is not taken,"
the telegrams added. They urged gov-
ernors to find out which mercury users
are discharging mercury into waterways
and to start abatement action at one.
Asked how long Hickel would wait for
state action an aide commented, "when
he says now, he means now."
Officials refused to disclose at present
which waterways and which industries
were under suspicion.
The Geological Survey has begun stu-
dies to determine natural levels of mer-
cury compounds in the nation's air and
water. This would provide a basis for
judging how much mercury is added by
industry.
Mercury, the shiny liquid metal seen in
thermometers, occurs naturally in chem-
ical compounds found in rocks and soil,
dissolved in water or carried in water as
silt. Even at relatively low levels in water,
mercury compounds tend to concentrate
in the flesh of fish and can become a
danger to those eating such fish.
There have been no reported cases of
mercury poisoning from fish in the Unit-
ed States. But authorities are concerned
that discharges of mercury in industrial
wastes may build up mercury concentra-
tions to dangerous levels in certain areas,
either in drinking water, or in fish.
Water treatment facilities do not re-
move mercury from drinking water, offi-
cials say, and the only protection is to
keep mercury out of water sources in the
first place.

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.4

-Associatea rress

Back in the saddle of sorts

Justice Tom C. Clark smiles as he poses for a picture at the end of his first day
as a trial judge in U.S. District Court in San Francisco. Clark had been invited
to San Francisco to help ease the heavy load in court.

HOURS: MON.-FRI. 9:30-9, SAT. 9:30-6 i SOUTH U. ST(

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