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October 26, 1977 - Image 4

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Publication:
Michigan Daily, 1977-10-26

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Page 4-Wednesday, October 26, 1977-The Michigan Daily
Eighty-Eight Years of Editorial Freedom
420 Maynard St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109
Vol. LXXXVIII, No. 42 News Phone: 764-0552
Edited and managed by students at the University of Michigan
State probe of city's
:.invest-ments is needed

After Mao: China v.

world

T HE STATE OF Michigan appar-
I ently has decided that there is
reasonable suspicion that ex-City Ac-
countant Mark Levin's mishandling of
Ann Arbor finances was in violation of
state laws. Accordingly, the Michigan
Municipal Finance Commission
(MFC) has said it may bring criminal
or civil charges against Levin and
other as yet unknown city officials.
Levin was fired two weeks ago on
charges he made speculative invest-
ments with city funds, which nearly re-
z sulted in a multi-million dollar loss for
Ann Arbor.
The so-called arbitrage invest-
ments are not only risky, they are ille-
gal. Arbitrage involves borrowing fun-
;ds, which cities may not do without ap-
proval of the Michigan Municipal Fi-
pnance Commission.
Some Ann Arbor officials feel the
d potential legal actions unwarranted.
Councilman Gerald┬░ Bell, (R-Fifth
Ward) responded to the news of the
state probe by asking - somewhat rhe-
:, torically - "You can beat a dead hor-
se, can't you?"
But is it really. a dead horse? Has
Sthe City's investigation and subsequent
firing of Levin proved sufficient? We

think not, and we are pleased the state
has seen fit to fully investigate any
possible illegalities.
A central issue in the investments
probe is whether Ann Arbor (or any
government) can successfully investi-
gate itself, particularly when its own
high officials are the subjects of the in-
vestigation.
An understanding of human nature
suggests this is very difficult.
The citizens of Ann Arbor have the
right to know exactly what has trans-
pired with their tax dollars. If those
that have juggled these dollars are
found to have committed criminal of-
fenses, they should be prosecuted to
the fullest extent of the law. Now that
the state has entered the investigation,
hopefully these two ends will be speed-
ily achieved.
In addition to the-state probe, the
city should set up its own independent
investigation of the investments case.
The probers would need to be given
authority to see all records and have
access to all city personnel.
The investigators could report
directly to City Council, and in this way
have the freedom to check all aspects'
of the case, regardless of whose
feathers get ruffled.

By DAVID MILTON
On year after Mao Tse-tung's death, his last
great foreign policy goal.- a Sino-American
alliance - remains unrealized.
To achieve that goal Mao sacrificed even
his prized revolutionary domestic policy. Yet
today, Peking's relations with Washington
are stalemated.
FOR MORE than a year the national securi-
ty establishment - National Security Coun-
cil, Pentagon and State Department - split in
a struggle between hawks who wanted the
alliance with China to tip the world balance of
power against the Russians and those who be-
lieved such a policy could lead to nuclear war.
The advocates of massive arms aid to
China went to great lengths to persuade their
opponents that there was little the Soviet
Union could or would do to counter a U.S.-
sponsored modernization of the Chinese ar-
med forces. This was a miscalculation lead-
ing to a major foreign policy crisis for the in-
experienced Carter foreign policy team.
On May 14 of this year, during the middle of
the American strategic policy debate over
China, the Soviet Union threw its own cards
on the table in a commentary in Pravda warn-
ing Carter that the U.S. was playing with fire.
Moscow charged that Peking was preparing
for war against the West as well as against
the Soviet Union and that any military aid
sent to China would eventually be used to
launch a new world war.
The Russian meaning was loud and clear.
The Russians would not stand by while the

listen to it.
HOW HAS CHINA become so hopelessly di-
vorced from the main popular currents
flooding the international arena?
China's foreign policy over the past 30 years
has been shaped by Mao's efforts to break out
of the confines of a bi-polar world controlled
by Washington and Moscow decision-makers.
Those efforts were crowned with success
when both the Russians and Americans were
forced to treat China as an independent great
power. A triangular system of world power
then began to eclipse the old bi-polar system.
But today, the U.S. and the Soviet Union are
still the only two powers capable of
destroying the entire globes nd the
emergence of China has not :red the
special relationship between th" 'Big Two."
Over the past 30 years, China.has been con-
fronted with three basic strategic options -
alliance with the Soviet Union and the social-
ist camp, alliance with the Third World na-
tions, or - when the possibility arose - alli-
ance with the U.S. During different periods,
China has pursued all three options, with each
strategic shift exerting profound effects on
Chinese domestic policy.
IN THE EARLY 1950s, in the face of an
American economic blockade and unofficial
war with American armies in Korea, Mao ad-
vocated "leaning to one side," signed a frien-
dship treaty with the Soviet Union and joined
the socialist bloc. Then, during the late 1950s,
Mao decided to guarantee China's independ-

Vietnamese. Instead, Mao used the army as
an internal political instrument to overthrow
Liu and Teng Hsiao-ping who controlled the
Party. Liu Shao-chi was subsequently over-
thrown as a symbol of the Russian model of
socialism and labeled "China's Khrushchev."
CHINA'S strategic shift from alliance with
the socialist camp to alliance with revolution
in the Third World lasted in theory through-
out the Cultural Revolution, but in practice
Chinese foreign policy was inoperative during
those story years. 0
Then, on March 2, 1969, Chinese soldiers
opened fire on a Soviet patrol in a disputed
area on the Sino-Soviet border, killing seven
Russian soldiers and wounded 23. On March
15, the Soviets retaliated with a full-scale
military engagement in the same area during
which hundreds of troops on both sides were
killed or wounded.
Two weeks later, the Ninth Party
Congress opened in Peking. Lin Piao -
designated as Mao's successor - delivered
the main political report spelling out the third
major shift in China's strategic view of the
world.
For the first time in the history of the New
China, it was officially proclaimed that "im-
perialism" and "social imperialism" - that
is, the U.S. and the Soviet Union - had
become for China equal enemies.
Either during the Congress or immediately
after, Chairman Mao, allied with Premier
Chou En-lai, initiated a new power struggle
against Lin Piao. This struggle included
Mao's insistence that the Soviet Union must

.MSAA adopLE
bu they're t
IN WHAT can only be termed an ill-
directed and somewhat lazy ges-
ture, the Michigan Student-Assembly
┬░ last week adopted a set of guidelines to
: restrict future secret CIA activities on
this campus.
They adopted the wrong set of
u guidelines.
MSA toiled over the precedent-
setting guidelines established by Har-
vard last summer, which address only
those dealings between the CIA and
faculty members.
While we applaud the initiative
MSA has shown in their willingness to
deal with the CIA issue, it is only wor-
thwhile to note that the adopted guide-
lines have no discernable effect on
student-CIA relations.
*4 The Harvard guidelines, which' are
being considered for adaptation by this
University's Faculty Senate, would
g require faculty members to report any
contact with CIA agents with regard to
research activities and recruitment of
students. With the passage of such
rules by this campus, faculty members
Swould no longer be able to undertake
intelligence operations for the agency.
r s^
# a
.A
x-"-

-CIA rules,
ie wrong ones
The MSA action falls short because
the Harvard rules are not applicable to
students here. Instead of simply
passing a resolution relating to the
faculty's activities, MSA should have
undertaken to study and provide a new
set of guidelines governing the specific
relations between students and the
CIA.
Preventing future covert CIA ac-
tivities here is of crucial importance.
MSA is urging new standards on the
campus' faculty and administration,
but has done nothing to advance a set
of standards upon themselves.
It takes little more than changing the
wording of the Harvard guidelines to
adopt, them to this University. MSA
should instead adopt the principles
behind these guidelines and develop a
strong set of rules which limit covert
activities here by the CIA.
MSA has made a beginning toward
establishing such restrictions. That
much is commendable. The group
should now accept the responsibility
with which it has been charged and
evolveacomprehensive set of CIA
guidelines for students.

U.S. prepared to weight the world military
balance against them. The commentary was
significantly timed to appear one week before
the opening in Geneva of Soviet-American
talks seeking a new accord limiting strategic
weapons.
CARTER AND HIS National Security ad-
visor, Zbigniew Brzezinski, chose to continue
present policy toward China while giving
Peking a restricted amount of military
related technology.
China's new regime learned through Secre-
tary of State Vance's visit in August that the
Chinese gamble to play off Washington again-
st Moscow was not paying the expected divi-
dends - despite extraordinary efforts to woo
such foreign policy planners as .Schlesinger.
(who had been allowed to tour Chinese mili-
tary bases) and retired Admiral Elmo Zum-
walt (invited to the forging of joint Sino-
American efforts to deal with the Soviet
"polar bear").
On September 14, the newly rehabilitated
vice premier, Teng Hsiao-ping, showed his
pique over the failure of Chinese strategy.
Teng, in his usual acerbic style, told an eight-
member delegation from Japan's new Con-
servative Party that while the Russians were
prepared to fight a third world war, the
Americans did not have the will to do so. Teng
suggested that Japan should bolster its arma-
ment and defense capacity to meet the
Russian threat in Asia.
Peking's proposals are, at the least, embar,
rassing to the dignity of a leading socialist
nation. The monotonous Cassandra-like war-
ning from Peking that a third world war is
inevitable falls on deaf ears throughout the
world, except for the conservative American,
West German and Japanese politicians who
have beaten a path to the Chinese capital to

ence by developing a nuclear weapons pro-
gram.
Mao's shift to go-it-alone defense policy led
to a power struggle within the Chinese leader-
ship that Mao won eventually deposing the
Russian-backed minister of defense, Peng
Teh-huai. Peng was replaced by Mao's ally,
Marshal Lin Piao, who then began to rebuild
the Chinese army as a Maoist politcal instru-
ment. But Mao was unable to capture a
majority of support for his general line within
the central committee.
During the early 60s, party chief Liu Shao-
chi attempted to establish Peking as the cen-
ter of a new international communist move-
ment. Mao - lukewarm to this policy -
waited to see what the outcome might be. One
year later, the total annihilation of the Indo-
nesian Communist Party signalled the collap-
se of Liu Shao-chi's efforts.
Faced in the fall of 1965 with American in-
tervention in Vietnam and the bombing of
China's borders, Liu then revertedtto a stra-
tegy of "joint action" by China, the Soviet
Union and other Asian communist parties to
oppose the U.S. But Mao denounced Liu's poli-
cy of "joint action" and countered with the
publication of Lin Piao's historic article
"Long Live the Victory of the People's War."
Lin called for the revolutionary people of
the Third World to conduct armed struggles,
with or without communist leadership, so that
the revolutionary countryside of the world
might surround its imperialist city: the
United States. Lin urged these revolutionary
movements to follow a policy of self-reliance
rather than depending on outside aid from the
socialist countries.
After the publication of China's new stra-
tegic doctrine, Mao launched the Cuitural
Revolution, forestalling Liu Shao-chi 's inten-
tion of using the Chinese army to back up the

be considered China's main enemy and the
U.S. a secondary enemy.
WITHIN LITTLE MORE than a year, Mac
had won another major struggle over Chinese
strategic policy. Lin Piao was killed under
mysterious circumstances, and 40 to
generals were purged from the Chinese army
In the last analysis, Liu Shao-chi had pro
moted an alliance with the Soviet Union, Li
Piao advocated opposing both superpowers
and Mao advocated an alliance with the V.S
against the Soviets. Mao won - and Nixo
was invited to Peking.
Ironically, Mao's victory resulted in th
erosion and eventual collapse of hi
revolutionary domestic policy. In order t<
defeat Lin Piao, the Chairman was forced t<
ally himself with Teng Hsiao-ping and tht
very party leaders he had been fighting se
long on China's domestic front.
But today, with no Sino-Soviet alliance iii
the offing, and escape from the bi-polar world
into the Third World blocked, the new post-
Mao regime has come up with only one real
policy: to set in motion a broad and ambitious
program to make China a first-rate scientific,
technological and industrial nation_ by the
year 2000.
Meanwhile, China can boast only one rea
alliance in the world - with Cambodia.
The author taught at Peking's Firsi
Foreign Language Institute from 1964-69,
and now teaches at the University of Cali
fornia at Berkeley. Milton is co-autho
with Nancy Milton of The Wind Not
Subside: Years in Revolutionary
China 1964-69 (Pantheon, 1976). He also
writes for the Pacific News Service.

Health Service

Handbook

4!

. +t ,
ti _ __, (
1''
r Vi 1
, .
f /

By SYLVIA HACKER
and NANCY PALCHIK
QUESTION: I've tried giving up
smoking but not only do I keep
going back to it but it's becoming
a worse habit. I guess I'm not the
only one since I read that there is
more smoking now than ever be-
fore. Any advice or comments?
ANSWER: It just so happens
that we were recently reading a
very informative article about
smoking in the May 1976 issue of
Consumer Reports, and would be
happy to share some of the inter-
esting facts with you. Strange as
it may sound, one of the possible
explanations for an increase in
smoking may be the fact that
cigarette companies have cut
down on nicotine content.
Nicotine had been shown to be
highly addictive, and when
cigarette smoke contains less
nicotine than one is accustomed
to, the body tends to contrive
ways to get more smoke. Thus,
many studies have demonstrated
that the less nicotine in the cig-
arette smoke, the more cigaret-
tes smoked per day. Other ad-
justments which smokers make
to low-nicotine cigarettes include
smoking the cigarette to a shor-
ter butt, increasing the size of

THE TWO MAIN ingredients
which cause trouble in cigarettes
are tar and nicotine, and these
two are locked together in a fixed
ratio - roughly 14 or 15 milli-
grams of tar for every milligram
of nicotine. It has been suggested
by a British physician who has
done numerous studies on smok-
ing behavior, that a cigarette
needs to be designed containing
less than 2 milligrams of tar per
milligram of nicotine. This, he
feels, would offer a major health
advantage over most of today's
popular brands.
To see why, let's compare 3
brands: king-size Winston (one of
the best selling cigarettes), Doral
(advertised as low in tar and
nicotine) and a newly designed
hypothetical Brand C.
Nicotine
Brand Tar Yield (mg.)Yield (mg.>
Winston........20..........1.4
Doral......... 15.......... 1.0
Brand C ....... 2........... 1.4
Contrary to advertising claims,
few smokers are likely to benefit
by switching to Doral from Win-
ston or a similar cigarette. Many
of those who switch will compen-
sate for the lower nicotine yield
by smoking more cigarettes and

ide gas) intake would be drasti-
cally curtailed. This would
benefit everybody but the cigar-
ette companies, which stand to
profit more by pushing low-
nicotine brands which encourage
higher cigarette consumption.
OF COURSE, no smoking is
really "safe" as long as you are
inhaling any tar and carbon
monoxide, and subjecting your
-heart and circulatory system to
nicotine. However, polls show
that ,Americans are against
outlawing cigarettes and that
smoking clinics in general last
year had only a 20% success rate
after one year. Therefore, if, as
studies indicate, people desire
smoking, at least efforts should
should be made to develop a
"safer" cigarette.
In the meantime, while
waiting, we'd like to urge you to
try again to kick the habit and to
attend one ' of the ongoing
smoking-cessation clinics at
Health Service which we co-
sponsor with the Michigan Lung
Association. They are using a
new approach which appears to
be highly successful so far. For
more information, call the
regional office of the Michigan
Lung Association at 995-1030.

surgery qualified him as our con-
sultant, suggests the following:
It might interest you to know
that most women's breasts are
unequal in size although some
size differences are more pro-
nounced than others. Ideally, of
course, it would be great if we
could all accept our unique body
types without worrying about
societally imposed (and often
unrealistic) physical standards.
However, we all have to come to
terms with our own values and
decide what our priorities are.
Therefore, it is important to know
what options there are.
Operations are definitely avail-
able for either augmenting or de-
creasing breast size depending on
which route you might choose to
take, and are generally per-
formed by a plastic surgeon.
However, these operations are
very expensive, varying in price
depending on the extent of the
surgery.
May I suggest that you make
an appointment to come in to the
medical clinic to discuss this, at
which time we could consider the
possibility of referring you to a
plastic surgeon in the area for
consultation.
Please send all health related

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