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February 12, 1978 - Image 2

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1978-02-12

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Page 2-Sunday, February 12, 1978-The Michigan Daily


Vance seeks pact
to free Namibia



Reception: Tue-Fri. 10-6
February 3 Sat, Sun. 12- 5
7 -9 p.m 764-3234

tary of State Cyrus Vance and four
other Western foreign ministers con-
ferred with black guerrilla leaders
and South African officials yesterday
on ways to end South Africa's control
over Namibia.
The diplomats met separately with
the guerrillas and South African rep-
resentatives in sessions lasting a
total of three hours. The secretary of
state said the first round of talks was
"businesslike and straightforward."

Guerrilla leader Sam Nujoma said,
"We made a good start."
VANCE OPENED the two-day
conference that was described by a
French official as a crucial effort
designed to end a source of tension
that has plagued southern Africa
since 1946. At that time South Africa
refused to allow Namibia to become
a United Nations trust territory.
South Africa has administered
Namibia, a former German colony
also known as South-West Africa,
since 1920 under a League of Nations
The mandate was ruled invalid in
1966 by the League's successor, the
United Nations. It declared that
South Africa had abused the territory
by promoting racial segregation and
exploiting its mineral riches. Two
years ago, the United Nations called
for elections to be held in Namibia
under U.N. supervision.
SOUTH AFRICA has agreed to
relinquish its control over the terri
tory by the end of this year, but under
terms that are unacceptable to the
United Nations and the South-West
A f r i c a People's Organization
(SWAPO). SWAPO is the U.N.-recog-
nized nationalist group fighting for
The subject of the discussions was
an 11-page Western proposal drawn
up after months of negotiations
between the Western powers and
South Africa and SWAPO leaders.
The "Proposal for a Settlement of
the Namibian Situation" envisages
Namibia to become independent by
Dec. 31. It calls for a four-month po-
litical campaign ending with election
of a constituent assembly to draft a
constitution for an independent Nam-
A South African administrator-
general would run the elections but
would have to satisfy a U.N. special
representative of the "fairness" of
the process. And South Africa would
withdraw all of its troops - now
estimated at 20,000 - after the
election of the assembly.

Daily Photo by PETER SERONC
Walkers do a double-take as one young man decides to explore the wares of the Fourth Ave. Adult News store. A
bill now before City Council would crack down on local businesses like this one.
Cityaes toughechoice,
a-mong porn-alter nativ1e s

. S
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A Daily News Analysis
Since the Supreme Court ruled that
local communities could set their
own obscenity standards, localities
have been faced with a tough
dilemma. They must walk the deli-
cate tightrope between keeping a
check on the growth of pornography-
while respecting First Amendment
Few, if any, cities have actually
come to grips with the problem. Now
Ann Arbor is making its own attempt
to cope with pornography, but, like
everywhere else, the city's proposed
anti-smut law raises some very
serious issues.
BARELY HAD the law passed first
reading when the American Civil
Liberties Union (ACLU) was lam-
basting the plan. State ACLU direc-
tor Howard Simon blasted the bill as
"censorship with a velvet glove,"
while the Ann Arbor ACLU chair-
man, Don Coleman, took his objec-
tions directly to City Council.
Coleman told Council the proposed
bill "has a chilling effect on the First
Amendment of the Constitution."
The plan in question is a two-part
effort sponsored by Mayor Pro Tem
Louis Belcher (R-Fifth Ward). The
first section, which is scheduled for
debate tomorrow, would try to limit
the growth of adult entertainment
businesses through a strict rezoning
SPECIFICALLY, under the new
law, adult entertainment businesses
would be prohibited from opening
within 1500 feet of any school, church,
park, child care center, or within 1500
feet of any already existing porno-
graphic shop.
'"Adult entertainment businesses"
are defined as those shops catering in
materials which are "characterized
by their portrayals of human genitals
and pubic regions or acts of human
masturbation, sexual intercourse'or

The first part of the ordinance
leaves some questions unanswered,
SPECIFICALLY designed to keep
porn shops from opening up in resi-
dential neighborhoods, the law would
prohibit any adult entertainment
business from ever opening again in
Ann Arbor, since-few if any locations
can meet the stringent 1500 foot re-
The law is patterned after the
zoning law in Detroit, which was
upheld in court.
However, because that city is large
enough that there are many places
an adult business can locate while
still meeting the 1500 foot require-
THE SUPREME Court has upheld
the use of zoning as a way for
localities to control pornography,
and two schools of thought have
developed. One avenue is to spread
the porn shops out, as in the Belcher
1500 foot requirement. The alterna-
tive is to establish a zone specifically
designated for pornography.
Opponents of the technique of es-
tablishing a porn-zone point to Bos-
ton, and the problems of that city's
infamous "Combat Zone."
Since its inception, the Combat
Zone has seen a proliferation of
crime, drugs and prostitution asso-
ciated with the kind of element such
areas have a reputation of attracting.
THE ALTERNATIVE is to spread
the porn shops out, as Detroit has
done and Ann Arbor is trying to do
with the 1500 foot requirement. The
problem with the requirement, how-
ever, is that the end result could well
be a sex shop in every block.
The dilemma has been tackled in
Baltimore, which has one of the most
innovative attacks on pornography.
There, adult shops are officially
defined as businesses and restricted
to business districts in the city.
According to James Denbeck in the
zoning office, Baltimore's plan "is
not perfect, but it's generally work-
HE PROPOSED Ann Arborsor-
dinance, however, goes one step
further and makes location of an
adult business within 1500 feet of any
church, park or child care center
taboo. The result is, for all practical
purposes, to prohibit any new adult
businesses from opening within city
"It's using zoning for something
that it's obviously not designed, to
do," said Journalism Professor John
Stevens, who teaches a course in
First Amendment rights. "I think the
Brandeis University

zoning approach will undoubtedly
stand court review unless it is shown
that it results in a complete restric-
tion of adult establishments."
Likewise, ACLU Director Coleman
'says any court will not only look at
the legality of the Ann Arbor ordin-
ance, but its "practical effects" as
THE SECOND part of the Belcher
plan was only introduced last week,
but it, too, is already drawing fire.
That section deals with the display of
sexually explicit material in places
frequented by children,, like drug-
Specifically, that part of the law
prohibits the display of porn books
and magazines unless they are at
least four feet off the floor, or unless
only the top three inches of the cover
are showing.
Opponents are already lining up
against this part of the bill as being
both trite -and arbitrary. The most
vocal complaints are that an uncov-
ered book at 4-feet-i-inch would be
legal while an uncovered one at
3-feet-11-inches would be a violation.
ALSO, THE law defines children as
being under sixteen years old, and
many children under sixteen can see
four feet off the floor.
The ACLU is opposing this part of
the Belcher bill as vigordusly as the
first, claiming that the right to free
expression covers the right to display
as well.
The fact that both parts of the bill
could be in trouble before second
reading was shown at last Monday
night's Council meeting. Debate was
long and often heated, and the issues
touched on everything from the right
to free speech to the moral obliga-
tions of parents.
DEMOCRATS on Council could
also be caught in the bind of having to
vote against the pornography bill if
the ACLU objects to it, since the
Democrats have the reputation of
being the champions of human
Voting against the bill, however,
might be seen as voting in favor of
pornography, and this could become
an issue in the upcoming April
elections if the Republicans choose to
manipulate it.
To further complicate matters, the
Supreme Court is expected to come
out sometime soon with'a clarifica-
tion of its "community standards"
obscenity rule,
The Belcher bill, meanwhile, is still
in the simmering phase, and the first
part of the ordinance, the section
dealing with rezoning, is up for public
hearing tomorrow at 7:30 p.m. at
City Hall.

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upplen ent the copy as you would
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