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February 17, 1979 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1979-02-17

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Page 4--Saturday, February 17, 1979-The Michigan Daily
'U' factions'vie for piece


Fifth in a series
In this, the last of three articles on
the University budget, we will examine
y the effects of budgetary trends on dif-
ferent groups in the University com-
Administrative and
Maintenance Costs s
In times of declining overall real
revenue and expenditure, many people
s in the University community become
concerned about the amount of money
spent on administration and main-
tenance. The data show that the share
going to top-level administration in-
creased from .62% in 1968 to .70% in
1974 and then dropped back very
slightly to .69% by 1977, while the share
going to top-level as well as other ad-
c ministration and supportive activities
rose from 4.1% in 1968 to 4.5% in 1971
and then started falling.
THE SHARE GOING to maintenance
personnel increased steadily
throughout the whole nine-year period,
but the share going to maintenance.
supplies fell from 8.7% in 1968 to 6.2% in
1974 and only began to rise between 1974
and 1977. All in all, our figures provide
evidence of only a slight increase in the
burden of general administrative ex-
penses on the University budget over
the past decade, but they do show a
significant increase in the burden of
maintenance expenses since 1974.
Administration vs.
Faculty Salaries
A concern often voiced by faculty
members at the University is that too
much money has been allocated to ad-
ministrators and too little to faculty
members themselves. Table 1 shows
faculty and administrative salaries as a
percentage of the General Fund salary-
and-wage budget.
The figures show a significant overall
decline from 47.4% in 1968 to 43.5% in
1977 in the percentage of General Fund

salary and wage expenditures going to
faculty members for instruction, and
from 55.1% in 1968 to 48.9% in 1977 for
instruction and departmental research
BY CONTRAST, the percentage
allocated for administration has risen
steadily during the same period, from
18.896 in 1968 to 23.6% in 1977 for total
administrative salaries. This finding
does support the contention that faculty.
members have been losing ground to
other University employees in
general-and administrators in par-
ticular-in terms of their aggregate
claim on unrestricted General Fund
The Effect of the
Budget on Students
There are many ways in which the
University.budget affects students-as
payers of tuition fees, as recipients of
instruction, and as beneficiaries of
student services. A common perception
among students is that they are paying
more and receiving less as each year
goes by. To explore this subject we
present the results of our budgetary
analysis which relate to the financial
position of students at the University.
We begin by looking at the growth of
student fees in relation to other sources
of General Fund revenue, expressed in
terms of dollars per enrolled student.

The annual level of fees per student
(averaged across all schools and levels
at the Ann Arbor campus) more than
doubled from $697 in 1968 to $1555 in
1977, while other sources of General
Fund revenue per student increased
less rapidly. Expressing these current
dollar figures in terms of constant 1977
dollars, we note that fees per student
rose from $1252 in 1968 to $1555 in 1974
and then levelled off; all other sources
of revenue per student were lower in
1977 than in 1968. Over the nine-year
period as a whole, the real value of total
General Fund revenues per student
remained roughly constant; but the
real value of fees per student increased
by almost 25%.
TO GET AN idea of what students are
getting in return for their increasing fee
payments, we looked first at trends in
constant dollar expenditures from All
Three Funds for direct instruction (i.e.
the fraction of total faculty salaries
corresponding to actual teaching). To
express these expenditures on a per
student basis, we divided them by the
relevant measure of the number of
students taking courses at each school
and level-the number of "fiscal-year-
equated-students (FYES)." Our results
are shown in Table 2.
We find that total expenditure for
direct instruction (in real terms) in-
creased from $53 million in 1968 to $57

million in 1971 and then leve
on a per student basis,
declined from 1971 to 1977 an
lower than in 1968.I
dergraduate and graduat
struction expendituresI
varied during the nine-year
were roughly the same inv
were in 1968. For both und
and graduate instruction i
schools, there was a distinc
trend in expenditures perl
the period as a whole. It is in
note that expenditures on
struction per FYES are ro
as big in other schools as in
they are in both cases1
graduate than undergradua
The second basic Univers
oriented to students is stud
The two activities serving t
which most directly bene
are student aid and supj
tivities (including, for exam
counselling services an
recreational programs).
OUR FIGURES show th.
value of student aid from t
Fund rose significantly duri
year period as a whole; th
increased threefold from $
1971 to $15 million in 1974, be
back by about 20% betwee
1977. There is little doub
dramatic increase betwee

ever-shrinking pie
lled off; but 1974 was largely a consequence of the as it was in 1968. As a percentage of
it actually Black Action Movement strike of 1970, student fees, expenditures on suppor-
nd ended up discussed earlier this week. tive activities from All Three Funds
LS&A un- declined steadily duringJ he whole nine-
e direct in- Subtracting to General Fund figures year period, from 17% in 1968 to 13.4%
per FYES from those of All Three Funds, it is in 1977.
r period but clear that the real value of student aid We conclude that the risein student
1977 as they from the Designated and Expendable fees (in both current and constant
lergraduate Restricted Fund has declined very dollars) between 1968 and 1977 has not
n the other seriously, from $23 million in 1968 to $13 been matched by any commensurate
t downward million in 1977. The same trends in rise in expenditures on instruction or on
FYES over student aid show up slightly more ad- student service. The only type of
teresting to versely on a per student basis, since student-oriented expenditure that has
direct in- total enrollment at the Ann Arbor cam- increased significantly in real terms is
ughly twice pus increased slightly during the nine- student aid from the General Fund. But
LS&A, and year period. As a percentage of even this increase was more than offset
higher for assessed student fees, student aid from by a decline in student aid from the
te courses. All Three Funds has declined steadily Designated and Expendable Restricted
ity function since 1968, from 57.6% that year to Funds.
ent service. 43.9% in 1977. Moreover, since 1974 the trend in all
his function It should be noted that an increase in student-oriented expenditures has been
fit students the availability of student loans in downward in real terms. Underlying
portive ac- recent years has mitigated to some ex- the financial crunch on students, which
ple, student tent the effect of the declining real has become especially strong in recent
id student value of student aid. Moreover, many years, is the fact that hikes in student
students receive assistance from sour- fees have had to make up for
iat the real ces other than the University. inadequately growing other sources of
the General revenue.

ng the nine-
iey actually
5 million in
efore falling
en 1974 and
bt that the
m 1971 and

students increased in terms of real ex-
penditures from both the General Fund
and All Three Funds from 1968 to 1974,
and then fell back somewhat by 1977.
The real value of such expenditures per
student was virtually the same in 1977

Table 1: Faculty and Administrative Salaries as a Percentage of Total Salaries
and Wages (General Fund)

Table 2: Expenditures for Direct Instruction, By School and Level (All Three

1968 1971 1974 1977

Faculty Salaries
Departmental instruction ...........................
Departmental research ... . .......................
Total departmental.... ................-...-- ' -
Administrative Salaries
Top-level administration........ ..............
Other administration ................................
Total administration........................





Millions of 1977 $
School level / Year 1968 1971 1974 1977
1. LS&A undergraduate 13.8 14.2 14.3 14.2
2. LS&A graduate......6.8 6.1 5.8 5.3
3. Other undergraduate 10.5 12.2 11.7 11.9
4. Other graduate.......21.6 24.5 25.5 25.8
5.. Total direct
instruction .......... 52.7 57.0 57.3 57.2

1977 $ per FYES
1968 1971 1974 1977
971 963 1007 972
1378 1473 .1343 1395
2007 2233 2076 1927
2526 2396 2306 2289
1600 1647 1626 1595

TOMORROW: The real
role of the Regents
This series of articles on decision-
making at the University has been
adapted from a research report
titled "Conflict, and Power on the
Campus: Studies in the Political
Economy of the University of
Michigan," written by Andy
Brown, Harley Frazis, Jim Robb,
Mike Taylor, Eitan Yanich, and
Tom Weisskopf.
This article was written by Mike

U , i U

420 Maynard St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109
Eighty-Nine Years of Editorial Freedom

-Health Service Handbook-Gail Ryan
QUESTION: What is hyper- may also be dryness of the maintain i
ventilation and what causes it? mouth, a feeling of there being a u n plea s a
ANSWER: To answer your lump in the throat, sleeping resulting it
question I have consulted with problems, and blurred vision, refers to as
Dr. Kenneth Robbins, a and in more severe cases, fain- of the syndr
physician on the staff of the. ting, blackouts, and even oc- Should a1
Health Service. casional seizures. medical tr
Hyperventilation, as the two What can cause the hyper- bins belie
parts of the word imply, is- ventilation syndrome? Accor- physician i
caused by breathing too much: ding to Dr. Robbins, anxiety is are many
too deeply and too rapidly, with the most common cause. could caus
the deepness being the most College students are subject to ptoms, eith
important factor. an increased amount of stress, bination. If
and, even though they may niot cludes that
BREATHING accomplishes be aware of it, may express the caused by1
two major tasks: it takes in anxiety in altered breathing to anxiety,
oxven and removes carbon patterns. program is

Vol. LXXXIX, No. 116

News Phone: 764-0552

Edited and managed by students at the University of Michigan'

HE CARTER Administration fin-
ally conceded Thursday that the
rnation's 44-year-old Social Security
:System "discriminates against
women" and hasi become outmoded.
While this realization is long overdue,
it must be quickly backed up with in-
Ecreased federal spending to give
vomen equal benefits.
s Currently, women lose protection
gainst disability benefits if they take
"ime out from paid work to bear and
4ear children. They also receive
seduced Social Security benefits when
:they reach 65. In addition, a man and
yrife who both work receive less from
:social Security then a couple in which
-only the husband works, even if, the
:total earnings of the two couples are
In a 323-page report released by the
b~epartment of Health, Education and
:Welfare (HEW), it was stated that the
:ystem established in 1935 reflected
athe time in American society when
-amen worked all day while women took
sare of the home.
But America has changed, with
A t


Cial Security'
women now occupying 47 per cent of
the nation's jobs. Therefore they
deserve equal benefits at whatever
But that's the problem. HEW
Secretary Joseph Califano said to
equalize the present system would
require increased funding or else
reduction of other benefits. Since cut-
ting other benefits would remove
essential assistance in other key areas,
the only alternative is for the federal
government to spend more on the
Social Security System.
Already, however, the ad-
ministration has proposed in its budget
for the 1980 fiscal year, to cut back sp-
proximately $600 million in Social
Security benefits. This proposal is ex-
pected to be overwhelmingly defeated
by Congress but it's very doubtful that
there will be any increases in the
Realizing that the present system
contains some gross inequalities,
discriminating against women is a big
step toward eventually equalizing it.
But it is not enough. It will take federal
funds to change the system.

dioxide CO, from the body;
but breathing too deeply results
in an excess of CO2 being
removed. Although we think of
CO as a "waste product," a
certain amount is essential to
the system. A deficit of CO2
results in an alteration of the
balance of chemicals in the.
This deficit produces one or
more of a whole list of sym-
ptoms. These include
headaches, dizziness or light-
headedness, tingling sen-
sations, especially in the ex-
tremities or around the mouth,
gaseousness, chest pain, rapid
heart,trouble thinking clearly,
fatigue, and nervousness. There

hyperventilate notice some of
the symptoms mentioned
above, and, fearing heart
disease or some other serious
problem, become nervous when
the symptoms occur. They may
feel as if they are "short of
breath" and increase the rate.
and depth of their breathing to
compensate for this. (This may
be noticed by other persons, or
even by the person him/herself,
as an increased frequency of
sighing.) However, athis only
serves to further decrease the
level of CO, in the blood (and
once the level is low, only an oc-
casional sigh will be needed to

+The first
is getting t
'the control
breathing f
in his offi
ptoms, su
chest lights
bins instrt
breathe in
bag for anf
time. This
pelling, an
CO2 leveli
minutes, ti
lightness b(

t) and increase the
nt symptoms,
in what Dr. Robbins
s the cyclical nature
hyperventilator seek,
'eatment? Dr. Rob-
eves a visit to a
is in order, as there
other diseases that
se any of the sym-
her singly or in com-
f the physician con-
t the symptoms are
hyperventilation due
a two-part treatment
part of the treatment
the symptoms under
d of the patient. Dr.
has r the patient
. the symptoms
rapid and deep
for 2-4 minutes while
ice. Once the sym-
ch as tingling and
ness, occur, Dr. Rob-
ucts the patient to
lo a paper or plastic
equivalent amount of
causes the patient to
the CO2 s/he is ex-
nd reestablishes the
in the blood. Within,
he tingling and chest
egin to disappear.
PATIENT is then

educated about the syndrome
and is taught how to exercise
producing and removing the
symptoms. Dr. Robbins usually
suggests that this exercise be
done daily for at least a month,
and less frequently after that.
By doing this exercise the
patient learns that s/he has the
capacity to bring the entire
process under voluntary con-
trol, and learns to recognize the
symptoms early enough to stop
them before breathing into a
bag becomes necessary.
Thessecond part of treatment
is the treatment of the anxiety
itself, perhaps throug visits to
Counseling Services or another
psychological counseling agen-
cy. Whether to undertake coun-
seling is, of course, up to the
individual, but is something
many decide to do, especially
after they have become aware
of the connection between
stress and the onset of the sym-
Health related questions
should be directed to: The
Health Educator, U-M
Health Service, Division of
Office of Student Services,
207 Fletcher Ave., Ann Ar-


A ctivists need to ba
To the Daily: tions that "students just don't
While it is certainly disappoint- care." The problem lies with the
ing that only 11 students attended American system and the man-
the Open Forum on the Needs of ner in which it alienates citizens,
the University sponsored by the and especially young people.
Student' Advisory Committee on Systematically denied access to
Presidential Selection, to con- decision-making processes and
elude that "students just don't confronted by -an ever-growing,
care," (Daily, 27 January 1979) is complex, and dehumanizing
to paint a very simplistic and bureaucracy, many young people
distorted picture of the present hold out little hope for
political climate in which studen- meaningful reform in an
ts and young people find them- education and socialization
selves. There is a variety of process that discourages critical
examples of current issues about thinking let alone dissension, and
which there has been a great deal stunts creativity. The victims of
of student concern and activism: these institutions are left with lit-
the denial of tenure to Assistant tle confidence in their ability or
Professor Joel Samoff and the even their right to take control of
broader question of quality their own lives and education.
teaching at the University, The American media constantly
declining minority enrollment tells young people that they are
and rising attrition rates, apathetic, while it is exploitation
University investments in cor- and de-personalization that
porations with holdings in South students and young people ex-
Africa, intelligence agency ac- perience. In addition to this myth
tivities on campus, University of apathy, there is much
treatment of campus labor, nostalgia and historical distor-
nuclear power, repression in Iran tion of the 60's, such that students
and Latin America, Palestinian feel compelled to either live up to
human rights, the boycotts of the standards set by 60's ac-
J.P. Stevens, Nestle, and Libby tivists, or give up and accept this
products, the fate of the Michigan imposed image that they belong
Union, and Hill dining facility to the "me generation" of which
consoliation, to name a few. Even Anne Sharp and the Daily seem
former University President so fond..

ttle student
creative, constructive alter-
native means of expression,
dissent, and change. It is the
primary task of current student
activists (of which there are in-
deed a considerable number) to
pursue current alternatives for
action, create new ones, inform
their fellow students, and provide
open access to the larger Univer-
sity community.
The University itself offers a
few outlets for new ideas and
programs such as student gover-
nments and token positions on
University committees. Some ac-_
tivists are currently pursuing
these options and attempting to
deal with- and transform the
bureaucracy from within the in-
stitution itself. While these in-
stitutional outlets are useful and
educational,. they are limited
both in number and in their
potential to effect fundamental
change in the University and in-
crease the role of students in the
educational process. Hence the
need to create constructive, non-
bureaucratic means for
educational change that can
mobilize students from outside of
the University structure. This is a
difficult and time-consuming
task for which student activists
are often isolated and sometimes

disruption of a minority of leftist
groups, while the constructive ef-
forts of the majority of student
groups are ignored as they are
not sensational enough to be con-
sidered newsworthy. Students
thus find little incentive to
become involved when confron-
ted with such a situation-they
are alienated from the University
bureaucracy and from student
groups that are working for
change because of the
dissemination of a variety of
myths about the nature of studen-
ts and student activists.
So it is not the case that studen-
ts are apathetic, but rather that
the University is apathetic about
students. The news media does a
great service to the University
administration by perpetuating a
myth on which the institution
depends heavily in order to fun-
ction freely in the interest of
maintaining the status quo. The
myth of student apathy is a
means by which student activists
are isolated from the student
body at large and thus easily
It is particularly.* important
that current activists continue to
organize and mobilize students in
spite of such myths about the
futility of their efforts and the

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