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December 16, 1959 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1959-12-16

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IT

Early Bird

EL7 xd ' EmBigy
Seventieth Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSIT of MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY Of BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241

Pben OpinimoAre-O re
Truth Wll Prev&il

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.-

AY, DECEMBER 16, 1959

NIGHT EDITOR: KENNETH McELDOWNEY

Federal School Aid:
Imperative Measure

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AT HILL AUDITORIUM *
Universty Choirs
Sing Fine Program
T HAS BEEN quite a while since the University of Michigan com-
bined choirs have presented a program that was such a large-scale
production, yet so completely entertaining. This concert was actually
an experience. It is amazing how so large a group can provide such a
variety of music and moods using both select groups and non-musicians
together.
The opening motet "Hodie Christus natus est" is a fine example of
the superb antiphonal effects achieved by Gabrielli and his masterful
brass parts. However, last night's performance lacked brilliance.
The choir was somewhat of a disappointment, even though the
brass choirs came through quite fully (often overshadowing the vocal-
ists). The soprano part was scarce-
ly audible at times and the "Alle- IN E R TNG
luias" failed to convey their obvi INTERPRETING
ous meaning. However, had this
been presented later in the pro-
gram, the entire choir may have
been ready to fill the auditorium
with the spirit it somehow failed T TT
to transmit,.In i-iii ii on r f

'o:

[ME PERENNIAL FEAR that federal aid to
education will mean federal control seems
miss the question at issue, for the simple
ict is that public education cannot exist with-
ut public support.
With the states of the Union finding it daily
lore difficult to dig enough funds from their
'easuries to meet the financial demands of
heir school systems, continued refusal to con-
der the federal government as a source of
evenue can only result in impairing the quality
nd quantity of education that can be offered
3 the public's youth.
Already, according to figures quoted at last
eekend's Haven Hill educational conference,
he nation lacks 140,000 classrooms and is
>rced to employ in its school systems 92,000
ibstandard teachers to fill those it has. In
ddition, state university entrance applica-
ons seems to be rapidly outpacing admissions
uiotas. Although this situation can justly be
lamed in part on the states' inability to keep
p with the mushrooming population growth,
here is no indication that this growth will
srel off or that the states will suddenly find
ew reservoirs of gold, for while few people
iese days question the value of public educa-
on, few are willing to increase their share of
s financial support.
PARTIAL SOLUTION to the dilemma may
lie in convincing the public that it must
pen its wallet if it wants its children to gain
n education. And the federal government may
ave a definite advantage in this battle, for it
eems that states are particularly leery of in-
reasing their tax demands, holding a kind of

pride in keeping taxes lower than the next state.
The federal government, on the other hand, can
present a coordinated argument for increasing
taxes and then proceed to assess everyone in
the nation equally, regardless of their home
state.
The state situation has been dramatically
emphasized in Michigan, where legislators are
still desperately trying to find the money to
keep its schools in operation, for one thing.
Despite the amount of politics slowing down
the search, it is hard to imagine anyone in the
state capital who would willingly watch the
public schools close their doors to students
because expenses were too great. The state's
only hope for solvency now seems to lie in a
new tax plan, but it can probably merely
alleviate the present crisis without taking into
account what the state will need in the way of
new schools and programs 20 years from now.
SUPPLEMENTARY federal aid is undoubtedly
no cure-all, but it could ease the tension if
applied with care. The problems in implement-
ing such a program are great-how much would
each state get, is it fair to assess everyone
equally and then parcel out the revenue with-
out regard to the state assessments, would aid
mean Congress could clamp controls on and
Investigate schools... .?
But Haven Hill participants said, "the bene-
ficiary of the educational system at every level
is not only the individual but society as -a
whole," and society, probably at every level in-
cluding the national, must assume responsibility
for supplying it.
-KATHLEEN MOORE

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AMEIH CAN PROPAGANDA:
Broadcasts-Need Appraisal

TODAY AND TOMORROW
Our Iranian Problem I.

THE REST of the first half was
quite entertaining. "Adoramus te
Christe" was completely captivat-
ing. The pianissimo achieved was
extraordinary, especially in view
of the fact that it was the entire
University Choir.
The young women of the chorus
did a good job with the Benjamin
Britton "Ceremony of Carols" al-
though here again the first so-
pranos were often obscure.A round
of applause to Anita Fecht whose
voice was beautiful in its simplic-
ity.
It was quite reminiscent to a
medieval maiden sitting in her
courtyard plucking a lute. (Ah!
Imagination!) Susan Bigby filled
in quite nicely as a lutist.
* '' *
CHARLES WALTON who sound-
ed a tiny bit throaty nevertheless
rendered the moving spiritual
"Mary Had a Baby" very beauti-
fully and - thank heavens- very
simply. The tenors and basses of
the choir backed him in excellent
proportion and what a joy indeed
to hear a perfectly balanced male
group!
The numbers performed by the
Tudor Singers were quite pleasant,
although at times, their singing
was so barely audible that the dic-
tion was faulty.
* * *
FOR THE most part the second
half of the program was less en-
lightening. The Bach motet,. al-
though a masterpiece in'its own
right, seemed to drag.
There were several bad spots in-
tonation-wise and the lower parts
again overshadowed the sopranos.
However, there was one pertinent,
feature - the aspirate H's in
"Spirit" especially were quite
nicely controlled.
The final "florid" was an ex-
cellent closing selection although
the orchestra was often faulty in
their intonation and behind in the
tempo (the solos particularly)'.
Muriel Greenspon, Janet Ast and
Judith Hauman were splendid as
is the custom. They have three of
the finest voices ever to grace the
School of Music halls.
* * *
THE CHORUS closed with a
rousing "Cum sancto Spiritu" a
fine ending for a fine performance.
Maynard Klein was at his best.
His choir was at its best. The or-
chestra was good with very few
exceptions. The music for this
Christmas concert was very nicely
selected and this season is the one
time of the year when it can be
performed and received as it
should be.
-Karen McCann

EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the fourth in a series
of. live special articles by Walter Lippmann on
India and the Middle East, from where he has
just returned)
IN IRAN, which we came to from India, an
American will find much to think about. For
here there is being put to the test the question
of how a country which borders on the Soviet
Union can be prevented from falling within its
orbit.
Our answer to this question, which was
evolved In the Acheson-Dulles period, is to
build up an Iranian army, to promote and un-
derwrite the military alliance with Turkey
and with Pakistan, and to give financial and
economic and moral support to the Shah's
government.
The figures about our aid to Iran are classi-
fied. But it is no secret that we have in Iran
a military mission of about 900 officers and
men. They are there to help train the Iranian
forces. In addition, we have an extensive pro-
gram of civilian aid under the Point Four Pro-
gram, and we make up a deficit in the Iranian
budget which may be as much as 20 per cent.
YET AN American visitor will be told, as we
were told by the Shah himself, that the
United States is not doing enough, and indeed
that, it 4is discriminating against Iran. The
Shah complains that whereas Iran is com-
pletely aligned with us and is not netralist in
the cold war, we nevertheless give aid to neu-
tralists like Nehru and Tito.
The Shah complains, moreover, about the
quality of the aid we do give him. Not only
would he like a bigger army, but he is particu-
larly aggrieved because we are supplying the
Iranian Air Force with F-86s, which our own
Air Force is discarding, whereas the Soviet
Union is supplying neighboring Afghanistan
with the superior MIG-17s
The Shah feels, moreover that Iran is en-
titled to receive much larger aid for capital
investments in order to develop a modern in-
dustrial complex based on the great rivers and
the oil reserves at the head of the Persian Gulf.
THE SHAH, who is a young and modern-
minded man, says frankly that the military
threat to Iran is not on the Soviet border. It
is on his two other frontiers - that with Traq
:n the West and with Afghanistan on the East.
We need not, I would guess, worry too much
about the few Russian planes in Afghanistan.
There are not many of them in the first place
and in the second place Afghanistan is a very
awkward country from which to get at Iran.
But there is a real and not an imaginary dan-
ger on the Iraqi side.
The danger is not that of an organized in-
vasion. It is that of infiltration and incursion.
The Tudeh Party, which is the Communist
Party of Iran, is outlawed and suppressed. But
t continues to opreate underground from
Baghdad. Moreover, the Kurds who live on
both sides of the Iraqi-Iranian frontier are
somewhat disaffected, and cannot be counted
n as certain and reliable supporters of the
:'Ihh.r crt .-rarl On

%LTER LIPPMANN I
the solidity of his government. But it is hard
to avoid the impression that the regime is vul-
nerable.
ALTHOUGH the Shah is making a brave ef=
fort, the Iranian nation has not yet been
consolidated behind the government. There are
many things to worry about at home. There
are the Communists. There are the disaffected
tribes. There are also an unknown but con-
siderable number of sympathizers with the
Mossadegh revolution, who are to be found in
the upper and middle classes, among the in-
tellectuals, and, although this cannot be veri-
fied, in the army as well.
In Iran, our military aid is really directed
not outward but inward. It is not strategic and
tactical but political and domestic. I am not
particularly squeamish about this. If that is
the best way to help Iran, well and good: The
question which this country will have to ex-
amine is whether it is going to be in the future
the best way, or indeed how long it can be
expected to work.
AGAINST this background we can under-
stand better, I think, the real nature of the
Soviet Union's Iranian policy. There are, as
usual, the carrot and the stick.
The biggest stick is the radio broadcasting
into Iran from the Soviet Union and from some
of its East European satellites. I did not hear
any of the broadcasts and, of course, could not
have understood them if I had. Nor did I see
any translations. But I talked with Iranians
whose sympathies are with Mossadegh, de-
scribed them to me.
The main substance of the propaganda is not
Marxism but muck raking. It resembles, if he"
will forgive me for saying so, a high-powered.
and greatly magnified campaign by Mr. Drew
Pearson. The main impact of these broadcasts
comes from the fact that they seem to ori-
ginate inside the Iranian government. They
contain a series of concrete charges of cor-
ruption and favoritism. They name names and
amounts and definite events. It is evident that
the information they contain is sufficiently
specific to make them plausible and that this
information must be supplied to the Soviet
broadcasters and processed for them by a wide
and highly-placed network of disaffected Iran-
ians. There is no doubt that they are under-
mining confidence and disturbing the morale
of the Iranian public life.
rTHIS IS the big stick. The carrot is offered
privately through diplomatic channels. The
Iranian Foreign Minister, told us that just
that morning he had had one of a series of
visits from the Soviet Ambassador. They had
talked informally, and the Ambassador had
once again argued that Iran would be much
better off if it followed the example of Egypt
and adopted a policy of non-alignment. Why
don't you, said the Ambassador take aid from
both sides? Let us give you arms and let us
help you as we are helping Egypt at Aswan,
to develop your resources. Go on taking aid
from the Americans, though you should send

By ARNOLD SAMEROFF
Daily Staff Writer
O NE OF AMERICA'S loudest
propaganda machines in Eu-
rope recently came under the at-
tack of the United States Am-
bassador to Poland, Jacob D.
Beam. Ambassador Beam reported
to the State Department that
Radio Free Europe lacks effective-,
ness in Poland because of broad-
casting misinformation and a too-
blatant propaganda line.
This is one of the few times that
Radio Free Europe has been criti-
cized by an official United States
representative. Since it is a private
organization, it is responsible to
no official body for its actions.
The only influence the State De-
partment can have on it is through
recommendations.
Previous to this time there have
been. many criticisms from private
sources of the reliability of Radio
Free Europe. In the Polish case,
information about internal de-
velopments was reported that
proved to be incorrect. As a re-
sult many Poles who were closely
associated with the events, stopped
listening to R.F.E.
S E *ep
NEWS USED on the programs

usually has passed through many
hands before reaching the air. The
sources are generally escaping re-
fugees or white Russians who tend
to tinge their stories with their
political views.
In these cases the station has
been almost unscrupulous in the
use of unconfirmed information,
which has finally led to this of-
ficial notice being taken.
One of the blackest periods in
Radio Free Europe's history was
its role in the Hungarian blood-
bath which helped to make it a
great deal bloodier.
The station made continual
pleas for 'the rebels to hold out
because help was coming. There
were many statements that the
West would not let them be de-
feated. As a result many, many
people died waiting for this help.
THE IRRESPONSIBILITY of an
independent organization like Ra-
dio Free Europe is resulting in
much more harm to American
propaganda than good. The only
positive function it seems to be
performing with its "Truth Dol-
lars" is to provide employment
for White Russians and refugees.
On the other hand, the British.

Broadcasting Corporation broad-
casts to Eastern Europe are
reported to have a much larger
audience because of their straight-
forward presentation in their pro-
graming.
* * *
THE VOICE of America, the of-
ficial United States radio station,
has also been involved in several
situations which might be inter-
preted as being mistakes, except
that they are intimately connected
with American foreign policy.
The recent Khrushchev visit is
a case in point. While he was here,
occupying the major portion of
newspaper front pages and radio
newscasts, the Voice of America
at the same time allowed his visit
only fifteen minutes a day.
The significance of this was
emphasized by the fact that the
Russians stopped jamming the
station's broadcasts during the
period of the visit. However, once
it became evident that there would
be no change in the Voice's policy,
the jamming immediately re-
sumed.
A reappraisal of the roles played
by these propaganda organs might
be in order along with the other
moves being made in the drive
toward peace.

By J. M. ROBERTS
Associated Press News Analyst
VIDENCE that Nikita Khrush-
chev opposed Russian military
intervention in the 1956 Hungarian
Revolution suggests that any sort
of a concerted allied move at the
moment would have changed his-
tory.
Khrushchev appears to have
anticipated the world reaction, and
the worldwide Communist confu-
sion, which would be caused by
using the Red Army, long heralded
as the hope of the world prole-
tariat, against that very prole-
tariat which was seeking liberty
In Hungary.
He is represented as having been
overpowered by the argument of
Zhukov, Molotov and Kaganovich,
among others, that the whole
Communist system was being
threatened, and that it was vital
that Hungary should not be per-
mitted to go the way of Yugo-
slavia.
* * *
IT WAS A TIME, you will re-
member, when a clash with the
West need not be feared. It was
the period of noncommunication
which had set in between Britain
and France, on the one hand, and
the United States on the other,
as the two Western European
powers planned and executed their
attack on the Suez Canal.
Observers who were close to the
behind-the-scenes negotiations in
Budapest at the time are con-
vinced that a show of Western
forcedsuch as flying in reinforce-
ments to Germany - would not
have been necessary.
They hold that when the Nagy
government proclaimed its with-
drawal from the Warsaw Pact and
its neutrality in the East-West
conflict, all that would have been
necessary to deter Soviet action
would have been for the British,
French and Americans to advise
the Kremlin that they accepted
the neutrality proclamation.
THIS, THESE observers hold,
would have given Khrushchev all
the support he needed to carry his
argument with his associates in
what was then a far more "col-
lective" government than it is now.
Incidentally, the reaction may
have given Khrushchev the lever
which enabled him to oust Molo-
tov, Zhukov and Kaganovich and
end the "collective government."
It is not quite clear whether the
Khrushchev attitude was reported
to the Western Allies while there
was still time to act. Later on,
when Western diplomats were
questioned about it, they were in-
clined to downgrade its impor-
tance.
Nagy government officials were
aware of it at the time, however,
and it has been confirmed by So-
viet officials visiting in the West
since then.
DAILY
OFFICIAL
BULLETIN
(Continued from Page 2)
Bridgeport, Inc., Conn., has need of a
Chief Clinical Psychologist with Ph.D.,
experience in a child guidance clinic or
in a psychiatric setting serving chil-
dren. Analytic orientation, personal
analysis preferred. '
The May Co., Cleveland, Ohio, is very
interested in i960graduates who may
be interested in retailing "a- career-
merchandising trainees.
New England Mutual Life Ins. Co.,
Detroit, Mich., is seeking men with
sales abilioyr who believe they can
be trained to sell. Having openings in
the Metropolitan Detroit area (includ-
ing Ann Arbor) for a limited number
of men.
Motorola, Inc., Chicago, ill. would like
to interview Feb. grads during Christ-
mas vacation for position of employ-
ment interviewer, and beginning spots

in personnel administration. Business
administration graduates, with prefer-
abl ya major in personnel admin. will
be considered. Military service veterans
desired, but not absolutely necessary.
Student Part-Time
Employment
The following part-time Jobs are
available to students. Applications for
these yobs can be made in' the Non-
Academic Personnel Office, Rm. 1020
Admin. Bldg., during the following
hours: Monday. through Friday, 1:30
p.m. to 4:45 p.m. Employers desirous o
hiring students for part-time work
should contact Jim 8tempson. Student

4

SEN. JOHN P. SMEEKENS:
Legislator Views Michigan Fiscal Crisis

(EDITOR'S NOTE: The following
letter was sent to Student Govern-
ment Council President John Feld-
kamp in response to the Council's
recent expression of concern about
the state financial crisis. Senator
John P. Smeekens (R-Coldwater)
forwarded a similar letter to a
number of his constituents, feeling
that it explains his view of Mich-
igan's fiscal problem.)
Good Morning:
WE SHALL soon do honor to the
boys who paid the last full
measure of devotion to their coun-
try. Orators refer to them as hav-
ing "so willingly and freely given
their lives for the cause." Not ev-
eryone subscribes to this termin-
ology. "Rather it may be said,"
they say, "that their lives were
sacrificed to the demon god of
war."
Along a similar strain, it may be
asked: Did the Galilean Prophet'
willingly give His life as ransom
for the many? Rather - did He
pray that the cup might pass Him
by and a little later did He not
feel that His Creator had forsaken
him?
Did Socrates willingly drink
from the hemlock cup? Not at all.
He argued long and diligently in
his "Apology" as reported by Pla-
to, pleading for mercy.
Did St. Stephen enjoy being
stoned to death? The record shows
that his spirit went out while he
was praying for mercy.
Did St. Joan of Orleans delight
in looking forward to inhaling the

Legislative observers - looking
closely, attest to witnessing a war
raging in Lansing this year - a
war which reaches the very roots
of the American system of govern-
ment.
The current deadlock is not the
result of inability by Michigan
lawmakers to find immediate-cash
-to meet payrolls - bills as due
and payaable - etc., etc. That's
really only a trifling problem.
The war is a test of whether
Michigan will continue the kind
of government that Republicans
call "free enterprise" or whether
our lawmaking processes shall be
surrendered to the philosophies of
a Democratic party who continue
to subscribe to goals such as pub-
lic ownership of all utilities, so-
cialized medicine, and a theory
that the worker should be prac-
tically exempt from taxation.
* * *
THIS YEAR voters sent 55
Democrats and' 55 Republicans to
the Michigan House of Represen-
tatives. Consequently, for the first
time, the clash of these two vio-
lently opposed theories of govern-
ment has come out in the open, in
a war where neither side can win
without the help of the other.
The present deadlock was inevi-
table.
There is no confusion on the
floor of either the House of Rep-
resentatives or the Senate in Lan-
sing. There is no turbulent dissen-
sion within either party.

dustrial communities in this state.
I persist in my conviction that no
matter what tax is ultimately im-
posed, no matter how much addi-
tional monies are provided our
State Treasury thereby the only
thing we will have accomplished
will be to "prolong the day of
reckoning."
Unless and until we as citizens

demand and . respect a fiscally
sound, sane, and responsible pro-
gram - so enacted by the Legis-
lature and carried out by the gov-
ernor - one whose appropriation
expenditures are confined within
the limits of revenues as received
-no tax imposition will ever solve
our continuing financial crisis in
Michigan.

STo--he Ed--or

Reviews
To the Editors:
IS THERE anything on this cam-
pus that you will concede to be
a good production? When a news-
paper, which undoubtedly must
have a fairly wide circulation con-
sistently rips apart and degrades
all student productions, it follows
that there must be a flaw some-
where. Does it lie in the student-
amateur productions or could it
possibly be the "highly esteemed,
world known for their fine ap-
praisals" critics you have chosen
to analyze a production?
Before any critic on an academ-
ic campus has the right to pan,
pull apart or generally slash at a

ANY PRODUCTION such as
MUSKET or the "Messiah" is a
challenging assignment for any
group. Can't we let them accept
this challenge and praise them for
a job well done? Michigan is not
Broadway, nor is it the New York
Philharmonic. How can anyone
then expect a student production
to live up to its professional pre-
decessors?
Must The Daily critics always
use past professional productions
as their rating system? '
While I am using the privilege
of freedom of the press, as you do
so loosely, I would also like to add
one further criticism. What right
do you have in criticizing the Bos-
ton Symphony Orchestra? A pro-
fessional group of men and wo-
men, led by one of the. world's
or,.a.a.c.+ nnr, ,etr' Tfair v pr.

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