Second Front Page
October 25, 1959 Page 3
ARTS AND LETTERS:
Act Like Candidates
Best Choral Music Is Sacred
By CAROL LEVENTEN
According to Prof. Maynard
Klein, director of University
Choirs, "the market for choral
music is greater today than at any
other time in history."
Yet the greatest choral music
was produced under the auspices
of the church, and choral produc-
tions today draw most heavily on
its fund of sacred music.
Contemporary choral 'composi-
tions "superimpose an instrumen-.
tal technique on choral groups,"
rathe than employing a vocal
technique itself; because of the
complexity of modern choral
works, written by avant-garde
composers, the average choir finds
them difficult or almost impossible
to perform, Prof. Klein explained.
Although the mass market for
contemporary works is limited,
there is, nevertheless; extensive
activity insthe singing of past.
Referring to this, Prof. Klein
noted the growth of the music ed-E
ucation movement as a contribut-
ing factor. "Thousands of fine
high school choirs rehearse every,
day," he said, and commented
that when he was in school, only.
one folio of music was available to
high school groups as contrasted
to the 100. publishers currently
furnishing folios of the same type.
Listening to a Schubert choral
work, he explained that "any
country with a real choral art al--
ways has a great number 6f people
singing it. In the early 19th cen-
tury male singers simply got to-
gether and sang, and Schubert
had to write music for them."
Also, the "Back to church"
movement is significantly related
to the renewed interest in choral
music, Prof. Klein said. Since the
majority of outstanding choral
works are sacred, the growing ac-
tivity of church choirs increases
the possibility of their being sung
and heard by. more people.
Furthermore, community choral
groups are on the upswing; for
example, the Rackham Symphony,
Choir in Detroit, which Prof. Klein
organized 10 years ago, is a "dra-
matic example of new interest,"
he said. Composed of 320 adults,
its plans for this year are ambi-
tious: it will perform Beethoven's
"Missa Solemnis" and Bizet's
"It doesn't matter what music
you sing," he decided. "The im-
portant and significant thing is
that people are doing something
artistic together, expressing them-
selves and making sounds in con-
junction with other people, with a'
very wholesome and therapeutic
"We believe in'togetherness', es-.
pecially at our concerts - we al-
ways hope the choir will decide to
stop and start together," he in-
MUSIC -- Prof. Maynard Klein, director of the University Choirs
believes that the demand for choral music is greater today than
ever before. Most of the greatest choral music was produced under
the auspices of the church, he said.
Associated Press writer
WASHINGTON (P) - The big
news in politics this week: Nelson
A. Rockefeller stuck a foot in the
door to the Republican midwest,
and Lyndon B. Johnson began to
look like a real presidential con-
Johnson's all-but-official entry
into the Democratic race won,
among. other things, some warm
reaction from former President
Harry S. Truman.
Rockefeller's best friends would
probably concede the New York
Governor didn't get far in his
sounding-out visit to Chicago.
There wasn't any organized poli-
tical support, for example, there
were no cheering crowds.
Still, some influential midwest
politicians and editors put it this
way afterwards: we weren't what
you'd call sold on him, but we were
Rockefeller himself said hisChi-
cago visit had done nothing to
speed; up hs decision on whether
he'll go after the Republican presi-
dential nomination next year.
Chicago and the whole midwest
are counted on strongly by Repub-
licans who want to see Vice-Presi-
dent Richard M. Nixon move into
the White House.
Nixon rested this week in Flor-
ida, no doubt putting together
additional strategy for his drive
to nail down 1960. convention votes
all over the country.
In Texas, Speaker of the House
Sam Rayburn had most to do with
getting the Democratic nomination
campaign for Johnson off and roll-
ing-to a good beginning, anyhow.
A Washington check of John-
son's Senate pals provided grounds
to believe he can depend on con-
siderable support from western
states-Washington, New Mexico,
Montana, Wyoming, Nevada, Idaho
Separately, these states wouldn't
count for much in a national
convention but together they
would, especially when added to
the southern 'states which might
be expected to favor Johnson.
Sen. Gale McGee of Wyoming
'carried on the Johnson camp
'technique in identifying the Sen-
ate Democratic leader with the
'West, rather than the south.
* Johnson, McGee said, is held in
'great admiration "not just in the
'west, even though he belongs to
'us in the west, but all over."
Fomer President Truman, be-
'loved by the Democrats for his
'come-from-behind victory in 1948,
spoke warmly of Johnson.
P "I'd come out for him too if I
come out for him too if I were a
4 Truman is expected to give his
'first allegiance to his fellow Mis-
'sourian, Sen. Stuart Symington.
I Symington, who makes a spe-
'cialty of offending nobody but Re-
'publicans, spent the week talking
'to voters from New England to
'Ohio, and welcoming their good
"Nobody is ever hurt by good
words from his friends," Syming-
ton remarked at Danbury, Conn.
STAY OF INJUNCTION-Federal Judges Herbert F. Goodrich, John Biggs and William iHastie
granted an indefinite stay of an injunction against the striking steel workers. The steel workers union
is contesting the constitutionality of the Taft-Hartley injunction.
PLAN IN ACTION:
Will Blame U.S. if Disarming Fails'
And there is still more activityl
on the community- level; mostc
communities have choirs, some1
have small groups; which "get to;
gether to sing madrigals."
The great amount. of choral.
music written in the 16th century
reflects, naturally, the character
of Renaissance music: it is linear,f
predominately polyphonic, with
each voice enjoying equal import-l
ance in the composition. This
epitomizes choral singing and op-
poses a strictly harmonic treat-
ment in which the melody is car-i
ried by one voice.
Therefore, Prof. Klein ex-
plained, with the advent of secu-,
larism and the rise in importance
of the individual, we see the rise;
of virtuosity and the ide-emphasis
of polyphonic choral presentation.
This, too, coincides with the birth
of opera which originally em-
ployed the homophonic line to
present individual characters in
the plot, something that-early op-
eratic composers found awkward
with polyphonic treatment.
And even before this, non-
sacred choral music was so influ-
fluenced by the church that]
it couldn't avoid a liturgical sound.
Later, however, with the, defi-
nite establishment of secularism,
the pendulum took the opposite
turn. Prof. Klein cited Haydn
who wrote for a prince who had a
chapel. "The prince liked secular1
music, and Haydn's masses which
were performed in the chapelo
have a sound which is much more
operatic than liturgical," he ex-
Today, however, the pattern of
music is completely different
"20th century compositions are
characterized by the use of aton-
ality,. highly complex dissonant
chords, melodies defying vocal
production, and overcomplex
rhythmic patterns." This repre-
sents the modern mood of "un-
rest, the present feeling of grop-
ing, trying to do something dif-
ferent and of being avant-garde,"
"A great respect should be
shown for artists who grope to ex-
press themselves and their times,
although their job is often thank-
less in the eyes of their contem-
poraries," Prof. Klein commented.
The technical problems of per-
formance will relegate their ch6r-
al worksto a very few specialized
groups, however. But the "hi-fi
craze and the availability of re-
cordings of music from all periods
will bring the highly specialized
masterpieces of both the past and
present into more general con-
sumption, he suggested.
Interest to Scholars
Pre-Renaissance music is, how-
ever, stil mainly of interest to
scholars. "We pick up at the 16th
century and let the 14th century
boys go," Prof. Klein offered, "be-
cause we are interested in pre-
senting music for the public."
By WILLIAM L. RYAN
Associated Press News Analyst
Communist propaganda seems
to be preparing Soviet public
opinion to receive a shattering
disappointment for which the
United States can be blamed.
By party order, propagandists
paint the rosiest of pictures con-
cerning prospects for Premier
Nikita Khrushchev's total world
If this proposal is accepted, the
public is told; then nations can
compete "to see who will build
more houses, who will produce'
more grain, milk, meat, clothing
and other consumer goods, instead
of competing in hydrogen bombs
But there is an accompanying
minor key obligation.
Newspaper cartoons are pictur-
ing United States capitalists as
trying desperately to hide preda-
tory natures under new labels, as
preoccupied with miiltary alli-
ances and atomic bases, as delib-
erately stirring international trou-
ble for fear of losing war industry
The campaign goes to great
lengths to picture Khrushchev as
a peace hero. Party organizations
have been instructed specifically
to conduct a systematic agitation
on the theme that his visit to the
United States was, as Pravda sad,
"one more important victory for
Soviet foreign policy."
On party instructions, meetings
are staged all over the country in
farms and.factories, "devoted to
the historic visit." The official
party newspaper tells party mem-
bers to stress that the visit was a
"most important event which'
further raised the international
prestige of the Union of Soviet So-,
cialist Republics and made an im-
portant contribution to the cause
of lessening international ten-.
. Party organizations are told to
conduct "broad discussions of the
results of Khrushchev's trip to the
United States. As a 'mighty vic-
tory for the consistent peace-lov-
ing policy of the Communist Party
and Soviet Government."'
In the background, Pravda fre-
quently sounds this note:
"The peace-loving people can-
not disregard the fact that oppo-
nents of disarmament are step-
ping up their activities . . . people'
are still found in the West who,
contrary to the will of the people,
are putting forward the outdated
slogan: Let us arm! As would be
expected, the arms manufacturers
are anxious about their profits
from war orders and are fanning
a campaign to hinder realization
of the idea of general disarma-
The Khrushchev proposal for
total world disarmament by stages
within four years probably sound-
ed' attractive to the Russians.
Without the enormous investment
now made in the military, there
would be a prospect of a rapid
rise in Soviet living standards.
But actually there was nothing
new about the Khrushchev pro-
posal. In various forms it was
made a number of times in the
past under Lenin and Stalin.
Khrushchev calls himself Lenin-
ist. One Leninist principle is that
disarmament "is impossible under.
conditions of capitalism."
When the first- total disarma-
ment proposal was made at Genoa
in 1922, Lenin told his party this
did not contradidt his professed
convictions. On the contrary, he
said, the proposal "served as plop-
aganda for this principle, with the
world's .toiling masses." That is,
rejection of the proposal by the
West was supposed to help con-
vince workers that while capital-
ism existed' disarmament was im-
Concerning the possibility of dis-
armament, Lenin said, "Only after
it has disarmed the Bourgeoisie
(Capitalists) can the Proletariat,
without betraying its tasks in
world history, scrap all its weap-
ons. This the proletariat will do,
but only then, and in no case.
No New Proposals
Released to Public
bowed to a court edict and re
sumed contract talks yesterday Ii
the costly 102-day steel strike.
If they made any progress ther'
wasn't a sign of it. If any ne
proposals were laid on the tabli
no one was saying.
President Dwight D. Eisenhowe
urged the negotiators to kee
hammering away to get a settle
ment. The negotiators made n
comment on the President's re
quest-but they agreed to mee
here at 2 pan. today.
David J. McDonald, president al
the 'United Steelworkers, led hi
four-man bargaining team in th
talks at a suite on the 16th floo
of a, midtown hotel. R. Coiraid
Cooper, the chief industry spokes
man,, was on the opposite side o
the table with three companion
who have met periodically wit
the union since last May.
The meeting, lasted About
The industry representative
spoke for the "big 12"-the 1
major steel. companies in the na
When the negotiating sesslo
broke up a joint' statement wa
given to waiting newsmenb
Cooper.He said merely the negoti
ators did not care to answer n
questions. Then h announced th
negotiations will resume today,
The negotiations yesterday cam
as a direct result of orders b
the United States Third Circi
Court of Appeals at Philadelphi2
The Court, which has stayed a
80-day Taft-Hartley rinjunctiox
directed that negotiations be re
'Before the meeting McDonal
told newsmen his team was "goin
into collective bargaining-that
"We're always hopeful,- alwa
striving," Cooper declared.
But at the end of the meeti
no one expressed hope. No one ha
ik d ,
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