THE MICRIGAN DAILY TjE
Professors Lead SGC Discussions
Open for Application
By STEPHANIE ROUMELL
" 'The Image' is an attempt at a:
general theory of behavior," Prof.
Kenneth Boulding of the econom-
ics department said of his book
at the Student Government Coun-
cil reading and discussion seminar
Prof. Boulding is currently on
leave from the University and is a
visiting professor at the University
of West Indies College, Jamaica.
His recent stay here has been
primarily for the conflict resolu-
tion center conference.
"Each organism has some sort
of knowledge structure built up by
the messages from the environ-
ment. Prof. Boulding maintained,
"and this abstract *structure, the
image, is its view of things, or
what it thinks it knows."
The fundamental theory of the
book, he continued, is that be-
havior is a function of the image;
rather than of stimulus. The or-
ganism puts its possible behaviors
for each moment in an order de-
pending on their value as deter-
mined by its knowledge structure
or image. It moves into the field of
choice that the image deems most
This theory of behavior can be
applied to all sciences, the pro-
fessor maintained. In biology, the
amoeba can be thought of as hav-
ing some view of the universe; it
knows the choice of having or not
having food. Since it puts more
value on eating than on starving,
it, too, orders the universe.
"But the closer you get to the
human sciences, the better the
theory is," Prof. Boulding contin-
ued; "because we are more able to
explore the human image than
those of the lower animals. And
as we approach the social sciences,
the investigation of the image be-
comes increasingly important."
In fact, Prof. Boulding said, he
considers the study of the image
important enough to become a new
science in itself-eiconics.
"Images are formed by a growth
process of ,some kind, with genetic
When birds build nests, they fol-
low image Instincts, not just be-
PROF. KENNETH BOULDING
... discusses behavior
factors involved," the professor
maintained."The instinct of lower
animals is almost wholly genetic.
instinct doing a particular thing,
not only a particular act. Thus it
is not a learned image; rather it
is created by genes."
Human images are genetic to an
extent, he continued, especially
the sexual image. But on the
whole, they are learned-they are
built up by messages received from
"Human images differ from
those of lower animals in that
they are mostly symbollic due to
our language facility. Most of our
images are derived by hearsay-
not through direct experience.
"We believe a fantastic amount
without experiencing it. A large
part of human images are built on
evidence that wouldn't stand up
in court, and values are thus built
in this way.'
Assistant carillonneur of the
University Sidney F. Giles will give
a concert from Burton Tower at
7:30 p.m. tonight.
The concert will be presented in
memory of Dr. Maurice Gara-
brant, organist, choirmaster and
carillonneur of Christ Church,
Cranbrook, in Bloomfield Hills. Dr.
By MIKE BURNS
"What do you want to talk
about?" asked Prof. Marston Bates
of the zoology department in be-
ginning his discussion on "Dar-
win's Influence on Culture."
Speaking in the Honors Study
Room of the Undergraduate Li-
brary as part of the Summer
Reading and Discussion Seminars
program, Bates began by express-
ing his concern over people who
attempt to base ethics upon evolu-
tion by rationalization rather than
reason. There are several basic
codes of ethics which are based
upon evolution and those who
form such a code are not deriving
it from Darwin but are using the
theory to justify their beliefs,
,Bates pointed out.
The influence of his grand-
father, Lamarck and Chambers
upon his theories was rejected by
Darwin and 'this ability to forget
where he obtained his ideas was
characteristic of the scientist. Like
these other evolutionists, Darwin
was scornful of religion, particu-
larly Christianity, Bates explained.
Darwin, however, was originally
the bulwark of the conservatives,
contrary to the belief of many.
Bates said this was due to the
Victorian attitude of Darwin's age.
He was supported by them because
outwardly he conformed by sweep-
ing into the Victorian pattern.
The role of Chambers in popu-
larizing the theory of evolution
was related by Bates, His book,
published before "Origin of the
Species," actually sold more copies
in the last century than Darwin's
book. It was anonymously pub-
lished and there was much guess-
ing as to who wrote the book. Soon
clerics and other writers were
criticizing the work as a false
From Lamarck, Erasmus Dar-
win and Chambers, Darwin fur-
ther developed the theory of evo-
lution, making it more plausible
by the inclusion of his own theory
of natural selection. Bates said
that Darwin's genius, however, was
the fact that he admitted that he
did not know how life began but
only that it began many years ago
and that it was an evolving scale,
not a static one,
Using Darwin as a basis,'despite
the various moral systems in ex-,
istence, some participants felt that
self-preservation was the basis for
them all. Others felt that self-
preservation was only a basic be-
havior and not the foundation for
PROF. MARSTON BATES
... discusses Darwin
all ethical codes. Bates said that
he agreed with Dr. Albert Schweit-
zer that the difficulty with ethics
is that it considers only man's
relation to man and not to the
entire natural system.
The need for an absolute basis
for ethics was questioned because
of the relativity of the world. A
participant said that even such
disparate beliefs as that of Marx's
moral code and the Christian ethi-
cal code must have some basis in
common and that it was helpful
in understanding the various be-
liefs to have a common point from
which to interpret them.
Each person argued strongly for
his own conception of ethical bases
although, there appeared to be
wide divergencies in these ideas.
Despite this varying and relative,
nature of ethical codes it was
agreed that instinctive morality is
a rigid code inherent in most
humans. This is an individual be-
lief but the different codes of
morals are surprisingly similar in
Petitioning for staff positions
and related boards of Student
Government Council began yes-
terday, Phil Zook, '60, announced.
Petitions may be obtained at
the first floor desk in the Student.
Activities Building and must be
returned by Oct. 12.
Two positions on the Cinema
Guild Board and the Student Re-
lations Committee of the Develop-
ment Council, plus posts on. the
Early Registration Pass Commit-
tee, Human Relations Board and
the job of Personnel Director are
By NORMA SUE WOLFE
A search for the University's
most well-rounded men who are
interested in becoming Rhodes
Scholars will begin at 4:10 p.m.
today in Rm. 2013 of Angell Hall.
To be eligible, a candidate must
be an unmarried male citizen of
the United States with at least
five years' domicile. Scholars must
be between the ages of 18 and 24
and at least have attained the
status of junior standing at the
Cecil Rhodes established re-
quirements for the selection of
scholars with one basic philos-
ophy: they "shall not be merely
bookworms." Instead,, selection is
based on scholastic achievement,
plus athletic ability, character and
Since his death, in 1902, Rhodes
has provided for 17 University
students to attend Oxford Uni-
"However, in recent years there
have not been enough candidates
from the University," Prof. Clark
Hopkins of the classical studies
department, who was a Rhodes
Scholar from 1919-21, asserted.
"We want the person who will
not. only get most out of the
program, but will contribute the
most," he said.
Local, state, and district meet-
ings for selection are completed by
Scholars from the United States
who have been selected note great
differences between the educa-
tional system of Oxford University
and American institutions.
Final Determines Standing
Prof. Horace Davenport, chair-
man of the physiology department,
a Rhodes Scholar in 1935, attested,
"After two or three years of study,
there is a long final, often last-
ing two weeks, on which your
whole standing depends."
Also, there are no "courses" at
Oxford in the American sense of
the word. The scholar has no rec-
ord cards in the registrar's ofice,
dose not sign up for the lectures
he plans to attend and is not
required to take a certain number
of hours per week.
Must Call Tutor
In fact,'the only assignment an
Oxford student has is to call on
his tutor once a week at a speci-
fled hour. The tutor advises what
subjects to study and assigns, lis-
tens to, and comments on essays,
Prof. Davenport explained.
For the first time' since the
establishment ofthe scholarships,
candidates from both Alaska and
Hawaii will also compete.
Applications are due Friday,;
Oct. 16, in 2026 Angell hall.
Application blanks and further
information may be obtained from
Prof. Hopkins, 2011 Angell Hall.
PROF. HORACE DAVENPORT
...comments on Oxford
The Bureau of Appointments
will hold senior registration today
at 4 p.m. in Aud. A, Angell Hall.
At the meeting, application
forms will be distributed and any
questions concerning the work of
the Bureau will be answered, ac-
cording to Mildred Webber, ad-
' he Bureau is divided into two
groups. The first handling all,
work in the field of education is in
Rm. 3528 Administration Bldg. All
other work is handled in the Bu-
reau's office, 4001 Administration
Miss Webber also announced
that thedeadline for applications
for the State Department examin-
ation for the foreign service is
Oct. 19,. The examination will be
given only once.
The date for the examination
is Dec. 5
havior instincts; for they are by Garabrant died Sept. 29.
Montoya To Perform
come to meeting
Wednesday at 8 P.M.
New members were chosen for
the Men's Glee Club last week,
Gary Pence, publicity director,
The new members were .selected
after interviews and auditions with
the club director, Prof. Philip Duey
of the music school, in preparing
for the club's combined concert
with the Ohio State Glee Club on
The new members are: first ten-
ors Randall Lowe, '63; Henry
Naasko, '63SM; James Sprow,
'63E; Brook Stanford, '63SM;
James Wilkins, '63.
Second tenors: Robert Kirsam-
mer, Grad.; Richard Knudson, '62;
Frank Kratky, '64A&D: Robert
Lewis, '63E; John Maxwell, '63;
William Pohnert, '63.
Baritones Karlis Druve, '61E;
(James Nicholas, '63E; Leonard
Riccinto, '63SM; Kirk Slator, '63
and David Smith, '63.
Bass: Michael Baad, '63; Stephen
Blanding, '63; Samuel Carter,,
'63E; David Dunstone, '63; Keith
Johnson, '62; Donald Lagi, '63;
Robert Pierce, '63E and Hal Ran-
Musket needs male singers,
Phyllis Kaplan, '61SM, has an-
Miss Kaplan, assistant music
chairman of the production, said
that tryouts will be held from 3-4
p.m. today and tomorrow in the
Musket office, the second floor of
CARLOS MONTOYA-Famed flamenco guitarist will perform his
repertoire of Spanish gypsy music at the Ann Arbor High School
Auiditorium at 8:30 p.m.' this Saturday. Armed only with his
guitar, Montoya is able to project the illustration of singers and
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