Mass Education in Californiai
K e-n edy,
By P. D. ELDRED
Associated Press Writer
California's exploding popula-
tion has produced a crisis in high-
er education which not only calls
for fantastic expenditures but is.
regarded by some worried educa-
tors as a massive threat to student
Tin a proud and expansive state
where "the more the better" has
often been taken as a measure of
success, the "how and where" of
providing college education for a
teeming multitude of students has
become an unbelievably compli-
Directly under the gun in this
paradoxical situation is the huge
University of California. Its 45,000
students already are jamming
classrooms on its seven campuses
and enrollment applications are
Smounting by the thousands every
There is every indication that
the tremendous university, ex-
panding more rapidly perhaps than
any similar institution in the
United States, will have to build
facilities and find competent fac-
ulty to teach as many as 105,000
Fundamental in the California
concept of higher education is the
theory that every youth should be
able to get an education up to the
limits of his ability, with the door
left open to all.
"California is facing the great-
est crisis in higher education in
the history of this nation," de-
clares President Clark Kerr.
"Our university is daily becom-
ing more crowded, and this trend
is a source of grave concern.
"The specter of an oppressive
mass society is one of the fears of
our age .. . we must not lose sight
of the greatness and power and
courage of the individual human
"We must dedicate ourselves to
making our university seem small-
er .. . more personalized and de-
centralized ... as it grows bigger.
It must be more intimate. This is
one of the overriding challenges
of the years ahead... .
"Otherwise, a host of baffled
students are going to get lost in
the 'lonely crowd' and many of
the things we love about our uni-
versity are going to get lost along
with the students."
UC already has very stiff en-
trance requirements, so high that
only the top 15 per cent of all high
school graduates in the state are
eligible to enroll. They have to
make at least a B averagehin cer-
tain subjects to get in.
And it has been recommended
in a new master plan outlining
problems and goals that eligibility
be cut to 12.5 per cent-the top
eighth. For the 13 state colleges
in California, freshmen would be
selected from the upper one-third
of high school grads.
Educators, however, are con-
vinced that merely tightening en-
trance requirements is in itself no
solution; that university enroll-
ment must be held down by other
This is why the state of Cali-
fornia has embarked on what Elmo
Morgan, UC Vice-President for
business, calls a "fantastically ex-
pensive and complicated" three-
way expansion program - in the
university, the state colleges and
the many junior colleges.
It will divert thousands of stu-
dents to junior colleges for their
first two years, and to improved
state colleges for full, four-year
Ask Sharp Increase
To keep pace with soaring en-
rollments on the seven UC cam-
puses, the UC's regents have ap-
proved a 1960-61 capital improve-
ments program asking a legisla-
tive appropriation next year of
$82 million more than three times
the figure of 1957-58.
Currently, the biggest outlays
center on the main UC campuses
at Los Angeles and Berkeley.
UCLA, with enrollment now of
16,600, could be flooded with as
many as 33,000 by 1975 if allowed
to grow unchecked. But UC plan-
ners say they intend to hold the
line at around 27,500 and stabilize
enrollment at that level.
The same goes for Berkeley,
with almost 20,000 students on the
campus now. The line there, too,
has been drawn at 27,500.
Expansion plans call for en-
larging the university branchesat
Davis, Santa Barbara, Riverside
and La Jolla so that each of them
can accommodate as many as 10,-
000 students in the next decade.
The four now enroll only 7,000 all
Two new branches will be es-
tablished, one in the San Jose-
Santa Cruz area and the other in
The seventh present campus is
the medical centern San Fran-
cisco with 1,00 students. It will
not become a general campus but
will continue as a specialized medi-
The inflation bogey hangs heavy
over all projected cost estimates
for capital expenditures in the
years to come.
The cheapest atomic reactor for
student laboratory use costs
around $100,000 and, as one of-
ficial pointed out, "you used to be
able to put up a whole building
for little more than that."
Several things are happening all
at once which, Morgan explains,
are making all estimating exceed-
Foremost, of course, is the fact
that California's population is
literally exploding, with approxi-
mately 450,000 persons moving in-
to the state every year.
Then there are the "war babies,"
the wave of youngsters born in
1941-42, who are just coming of
college age. The peak of this stu-
dent crop is expected around 1961.
A third factor is the percentage
of students who go on to college
from high school. Years ago, only
17 per cent enrolled in college; to-
day the figure is up to 32 per cent.
Education for All
"We go on the assumption that
we are going to provide the same
educational opportunity in the fu-
ture as in the past." In California
that means making it possible for
every youth to get an education
up to the limits of his ability, with
the door left open to all.
"Put together the increase in
students eligible for college due
to the population growth and the
increase in students going to col-
lege and you have a terrific force,"
However, he adds, the coordi-
nated effort to solve the problem
is also of impressive dimensions.
Everybody connected with higher
education has entered wholeheart-
edly into the job of finding the
"It is going to take the best
effort of all concerned to solve it,"
WASHINGTON W-A $4,086,-
200,000 foreign aid bill - just
$88,800,000 shy of what President
Dwight D. Eisenhower wanted-
was tied together Saturday for
final passage next week.
Senate and House conferees
hammered out a compromise
measure after a two-day meeting.
With the authorized ceiling
close to his request, Eisenhower
already has launched a drive to
forestall a threatened billion dol-
lar cut in a later bill providing the
CHARLESTON, W. Va. (9) -
West Virginia's Democratic presi-
dential campaign churned into its
final hours yesterday with Senator
John F. Kennedy (D-Mass) and
Hubert H. Humphrey (D-Minn)
blazing away at each other as
"can't win" candidates.
With fair skies and cool weath-
er predicted, 'a little more than
half of the state's 670,000 regis-
tered Democrats are expected to
turn out today for a primary that
might have a decisive effect on
Kennedy's chances of getting his
party's presidential nomination.
In the last stage of their battle,
Humphrey, a Congregationalist,
was generally credited with hold-
ing an edge over Kennedy, a
Catholic, in a state where only 4.9
per cent of the population is of
the latter's faith.
Humphrey has been stung by
Kennedy's contention that almost
nobody gives the Minnesota sen-
ator a chance to win the nomina-
tion-that if he wins here other
candidates who are not on the
ballot will be the beneficiaries.
Humphrey blasted back with an
assertion at Nitro, where he was
campaigning on this cold bleak:
day, that Kennedy couldn't win in,
November if he got the Demo-
"If people will look at the voting
record, instead of clever advertis-
ing propaganda, they will see if
it is Kennedy, not I, who can't win
for the Democrats in November,"
he said in a statement.
Humphrey said Kennedy "turn-
ed his back on President Harry S.
Truman . . . favors special priv-
liges and tax policies against the
average taxpayer ... played "foot-
tie" with the big money interests
joined the Republicans to,
slow down housing construction
refused to provide jobs by
needed public works programs."
Humphrey contended only an,
all-out liberal nominee can win
for the Democrats in the general
Kennedy fired back with the
statement in a Huntington news
conference that he is the only
Democrat who can defeat Vice-
President Richard M. Nixon, the'
prospective GOP nominee. He said'
it doesn't make sense for persons
to vote for Humphrey "when they
really favor something else."
Rhee Stops Speculation
On Political Comeback
SEOUL WA')- Syngman Rhee
yesterday squelched speculation
yesterday that he might try a
comeback, declaring he intends to
spend the rest of his days as a
private citizen of the republic he
helped to create.
The 83 - year - old ex - president
issued a statement in making
public a personal letter from
President Dwight D. Eisenhower
praising South Korea as "a monu-
ment to your lifelong work."
"Speaking from my retirement
and having renounced all political
considerations for the rest of my
life," Rhee said, "my own role in
Korea will be judged by history,
and all the facts are on the rec-
In the first 12 years of the
young republic's life, Rhee had
tary withdrawal from public life"
represented' "yet another example
of wisdom as well as selfless serv-
Eisenhower said the United
States "will continue to feel it-
self bound by strong ties of sym-
pathy to Korea under your suc-
cessor. My best wishes for many
years of health and happiness in
the honored retirement which you
have done so much to earn."
Rhee predicted "one of history's
great welcomes" awaits Eisenhow-
er on his scheduled June 22 visit
to Korea. He called on Koreans
to "express their respect and ad-
miration for President Eisenhower
and the great American nation."
The new constitutional amend-
ment, drafted by a committeeof
both Rhee's liberals and opposi-
tion democrats, was made public
as Rhee issued his statement.
The president, restricted largely
to ceremonial duty, would be
elected by both houses of parlia-
ment-the Assembly, and upper
house still to be created. The Pre-
mier, named by the president,
would have to enjoy the support
of a majority of the Assembly.
Opposition to the new setup cen-
tered on refusal of the Assembly to
dissolve itself first and over lack
of a bill: of rights, making freedom
absolute. There were fears that
reservations placed on the freedom
of political parties might be used
against non-Communist anti-con-
servatives as well as against the
Communists, for whom they were
1 S 0 I
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b i V IW 3 0 S13NO H
State Street . . . South University . . . or if you
drive, the Packard-Brockman office.
All these nearby offices serve our campus com-
munity .. . serve you and your neighbors, too, with
special student banking service.
Special checking accounts . . . money orders .. .
travelers checks are all available here.
Won't you look in on your nearest Ann Arbor
Bank office to serve your own needs?
... praises Rhee
ruled with a stern hand until his
government was toppled by a pop-
ular revolt two weeks ago.
At his retirement, Rhee issued
a terse statement saying only that
he wished "to devote the rest of
my life to the nation and people
as a citizen."
The National Assembly is study-
ing a consitiutional amendment
to turn the presidency Rhee had
occupied into a figurehead post
and to transfer executive powers
to a prime minister who would be
checked by the Assembly. Some
thought Rhee might seek the new
Eisenhower said Rhee's "volun-
I~e SfrI0i au Daily
Second Front Page
Tuesday, May 10, 1960
1. What one does
7. This lack is
13. This carrier
is no pigeon
14. N. Y. State
college for gals
15. Scott chick
16. Grid quorum
17. Fish found
in the tide
21. Get a model
and shape it
28. Dated without
24. Lore rearranged
25. What politicians
27. Flattened at
29. Near (dial.)
31. They're off
84. Goad, pointedly
39. You'll feeL..._
coolness in Kool
40. Dig it, man
43. The music goes
round and round
45. A Guinness,
46. A square's
47. Keep it under
3. fie wrote
4. What it takes
to know dne
5. Baby sit
on dashes a
7. Where you feel
8. House additions
9. The soul of
11. The French
12. Kind of bar;
19. Id eat's
24. what you're
26. --a keg
28. Honey child
31. Flying delivery
32. When your_...
tells you it's
make it Kool
33. Wagner opera
35. Get a carton
of Kool from
86. Le dernier cr1
37. Is choosy
41. Clean, cool,
44. Half a dollar
1 2 3 4 5 46
No. 1 4
7 8 9 1 1 12
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46j [ I
48 1 1
- I ~ I L I U I - I - I. -
Wheh your throat tells
you ifs time for a Chang,
a rea l Changae...
SIZES 8 to 14