EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Ten Opinions Are Free
Truth wil prevail"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
DAY MAY 1, 1960 NIGHT EDITOR: KATHLEEN MOORE
Fidel Castro Causes
American Sentiment to Shift,
WJHERE DO little planes (that burn Cuban
sugarcane fields) come from?"
"The United States," shouted the children.
"Where are war criminals refuged?" Castro
"The United States," the children repeated.
And so Prime Minister Fidel Castro and the
ttle school children warmed up for the Cuban
ay festival. The exchange, reported by the
ssociated Press, took place at a dedication
f an old fortress converted into a school. It's
ood to see that the Cubans are switching from
volution to education, but the sincerity of
astro must be doubted.
When he took over from the tyrannical dic-
torship of Batista, world sentiment immedi-
ely shifted to Castro's side. But in the follow-
g year and a half doubts have begun to arise
i the United States. Somehow the wide prem-
es of properity and peace have failed to ma-
THE MONTHS have passed, Castro has
discovered friend after friend deserting him
become neutral or to actively work against
dICHIGAN is going modern.
Critics who before have damned the Michi-
an government and constitution for being
rchaic must now be silent-changes are being
Henceforth, sheriffs prohibited from jail-
ig fugitive slaves, and physicians will no long-
r be paid 10 cents for every communicable
isease they report.
It's good to learn that the modern Republi-
ans and the New Deal Democrats are teaming
p to pull Michigan out of the mid-19th cen-
Who knows, maybe they will revise the con-
him. His war trials conducted in a circus-like
atmosphere raised doubts but were justified by
many as necessary to crush the remaining seeds
of the defunct Batista regime. But-instead of
the trials being the end of the revolution with
normalcy following, they were only the start.
Eventually with the seizing of Cuban and
foreign estates, the public favor changed. While
the killing of supposed traitors can be justified,
the seizure without sufficient payment of pro-
perty cannot be. Promises of land reform, and
higher standards of living are excellent goals
at which to aim, but if obtained through vio-
lence and depriving others of their property, it
becomes not reform but robbery.
MERE MURDERS and virtual stealing of
property aren't of as much concern as the
opinions of the United States being formed in
Cuba. Turning its back on the aid it has re-
ceived in the past and the sugar that is bought
each year, the Cuban government continues to
preach its outrageous lies of American burning
of sugar fields and twisting facts to make it
appear that the United States harbors all
enemies of Cuba.
By such twisting and outright lying, Castro
has through the year been able to turn the
minds of many Cubans against the United
States. The chanting of anti-United States
songs and slogans by the school children is a
bad sign for the future. The low level of edu-
cation and economic standing of the Cuban
nation makes the people susceptible to wild
promises afid damnings of the Cuban leaders.
Unfortunately instead of being content with
the small state of Cuba, Castro seems to have
set his eyes on other countries "to free from
dictatorship and save for democracy."
The chants between him and the students
"Is the revolution going to last many years?"
"Yes," roared the children.
"Who is going to complete the revolution?"
"We are," answered the children.
Ghandi and Sitdowns
By The Associated Press
PARADES, rallies and an almost
endless flood of speeches domi-
nate much of the world scene to-
day as nations on both sides of
the Iron Curtain celebrate May
Wtih the holiday falling on a
Sunday, a religious note was added
to observances in many Western
Designated by the International
Socialist Congress in 1899 as a
workers' holiday, May Day is cele-
brated with particular enthusiasm
in the Communist sphere, along
with parts of western Europe,
Latin America and the Orient.
The United States and Canada
ignore the occasion. They observe
Labor Day the first Monday in
Moscow again will put on a
mighty political and military show,
this time playing up the Com-
munist teachings of Lenin and the
travels of Soviet Premier Nikita
The parade through Red Square
will feature four 50-foot-long mys-
Thousands of miles away in
Cuba, Prime Minister Fidel Castro
hopes a May Day rally will bring
out one and one-half million sup-
porters as he seeks to show the
world his controversial regime is
Against a background of press-
ing economic and political prob-
lems, the Cuban revolutionary
leader planned to parade his
armed strength - regular troops
and thousands of students and
East and West Berlin scheduled
separate celebrations about a mile
apart on opposite sides of their
border. ThepCommunist observ-
ance features a short military
parade followed by a long proces-
sion of delegates from Iron Cur-
tain countries. In West Berlin,
the highlight is a big rally and
an address by Mayor Willy Brandt.
A four-hour parade with hun-
dreds of thousands of workers
through downtown Budapest
headlines Communist Hungary's
in Warsaw, the Communists will
stage a giant rally on the broad
square fronting the 30-story,
Moscow-styled Palace of Culture
In Brazil, along with the usual
parades, labor unions in all-major
cities will open a drive to increase
the nation's minimum wage from
$30 to $45 monthly.
Extra security regulations put a
damper on Argentina's celebra-
tions. Extra police were on duty
to prevent any Communist dem-
onstrations and many workers
were expected to stay home out of
fear of incidents.
May Day took on another aspect
in England, where Britons cele-
brate the occasion with maypole
dances and ceremonies as old as
the island itself.
The origins of many of the rites,
particularly popular in the vil-
lages, are lost in antiquity. But
they usually signify one thing-
the flush new growth brought by
the return of sumner.
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no ed-
torial responsibility. Notices should
be sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3519 Administration Build-
ing, before 2 p.m. the day preceding
publication. Notices for Sunday
Daily due at 2:00 p.m. Friday.
SUNDAY, MAY 1, 1960
VOL. LXX, No. 156
Ushering: Sign-up sheets for people
who wish to usher for the next Depart-
ment of Speech Playbill production are
on the bulletin board outside room 1502
Fri. and Sat., May 13 and 14, the De-
partment of Speech will present a stu-
dent-written full length play, Norman
Foster's "Journey To A Distant Point."
at 8:r00 p.m. In the Trueblood Aud.,
Frieze Building. Tickets are currently
available by mail order only, at 75c,
generaleadmission unreserved seating.
Orders may be sent to: Playbill, Lydia
M e n d el1 sao h n Theatre, Ann Arbor.
Checks payable to Play Production. En-
close self-addressed stamped envelope.
The box office at the Auditorium will
be open thecevenings of the perform-
ences at 7:00.
Information concerning and requests
for assignments to Northwood Apart-
ments, University Terrace, Jefferson
Apartments, and other University Op-
erated Apartments will be handled at
the new University Apartments Office
at 2364 Bishop St., North Campus, NO
2-3169, This office has been moved
from 1056 Ad. Building to the new lo-
cation effective immediately,"
Science Research Club Meeting Tues.,
May 3, 7:30 p.m. Rackham Amphi-
theater. "Infrared Radiation and Ways
By DREW PEARSON
AMERICANS IN HAVANA are quietly bracing themselves for today
when Fidel Castro will address a mass rally of more than 500,000
workers and militiamen. Bad as American-Cuban relations have be-
come, they expect the worst at this time.
That "worst" could be anything from a virtual declaration of siege
against the big United States naval base at Guantanamo Bay to the
announcement that Cuba will sever relations with the United States.
Nobody is sure yet what bombshells-or how many-Castro may ex-
plode on this occasion, but partial reports leaking out of Cuban govern-
CVBAN CAPITOL-Havana, Cuba's capital city, will turn out for a
mass rally today to hear Premier Fidel Castro deliver an address on
the worldwide workers holiday. Castro is expected to try to drum up
lagging nationalism in the crowds that will gather on the steps of
the capitol, What he would say remained a matter of conjecture,
but many Americans were fearing the worst.
LETTER TO THE EDITOR:
On Student Protest
Letters to the Editor must be signed and limited to 300 words. The Daly
reserves the right to edit or withhold any letter.
ment circles all indicate that the
stage is being set for something
s w '
FIDEL admitted the other day
that he still hadn't decided just
what he was going to say to the
May Day crowd.
"There's time before then, so
I'm letting my thoughts mature,"
he said in answer to a question
from a United States newsman
during a recorded interview.
That reporter, Richard Bates of
Columbia Broadcasting System,
was arrested and summarily de-
ported 48 hours after his talk with
Castro. The charge against Bates
was that he had "deliberately de-
formed" the interview by editing
the taped version.
The same day Bates was hustled
out of the country a UPI staffer
from the Havana Bureau was
stopped on a highway en route to
Guantanamo by Cuban army se-
curity agents who 'held him for an
hour and i half at a command
post. The newsman, Martin House-
man, was then released without
WHAT knowledgeable Ameri-
cans consider likely to come out
of Castro's May Day harangue in-
cludes the following:
1) A flat ban on travel to the
United States by all private citi-
zens, and a warning that Ameri-
can residents in Cuba who make
such trips will lose their resident
status-which would force them to
return as tourists, with no right
to work or to operate businesses.
2) A proclamation of Cuban
government jurisdiction over na-
tive workers at the Guantanamo
base. Some 3,700 Cubans are
regularly employed there. Adm.
F. W. Fenno, Base Commandant,
is under orders from the Navy de-
partment not to surrender juris-
diction over this labor force.
3) The first public announce-
ment of the purchase of Russian-
built MIG fighter planes from
ON SEVERAL recent occasions,
the Federal Supreme Court has
substantially raised bargain-base-
ment assessments made by INRA.
Lower courts consistently go along'
with the INRA estimates.
There is also speculation --
though from less responsible
sources - that Castro may go a
great deal further and either
break relations with Washington,
or evei declare Cuba a socialist
state and invite Moscow to protect
him from attack.
Kicking Uncle Sam in the seat
of the pants and making the
American eagle scream is one of
the most popular ways of divert-
ing attention from trouble at
(copyright 1960, by the Bell Syndicate)
By WILLIAM L. RYAN
Associated Press News Analyst
AN ANTIrCASTRO organization
says it has learned the Cuban
Prime Minister plans, to use May '
Day to touch off violent demon-
strations against the United States
and its citizens all over , tin
The organization, "Cuba Demo-
cratica," says its intelligence men
have learned Fidel Castro's agents
already have enlisted fanatical
students and Communist elements
to stone embassies -'and attack
United States citizens during and
after leftist parades celebrating
today as International Workers'
Day. The organization says the
outbreaks in Panama should be
the wildest of all, with the object
of creating an atmosphere of crisis
The hand of world Communism
is plain in the preparations. In
fact, in many respects, the cele-
bration of May Day in Castro's
Cuba today will remind one force-
fully of the way these things are
handled in countries already un-
der the rule of Communism.
This year, as for many years
before this, Russia's principal
Communist newspaper, Pravda,
and 'the newspapers of all Com-
munist states came out with the
usual long, dreary lists of "slo-
gans" which are supposed to in-
spire the workers on what the
Communists choose to call the
And the revolutionary press in
Cuba also came out with a list of
slogans, in the name of the Cuban
Federation of Workers, in which
;the Communists are making a bid
for controlling influence.
The significant thing about
these slogans, apart from the fact
that they are the Communists of
the East, is that they were hat-
ched in the offices of Hoy, the
Communist newspaper in Havana.
They seethe with hatred for the
United States, and have words of
praise only for Castro's regime
and the Soviet Union. In typical
Communist jargon, the call for
There could be a considerable
amount of trouble kicked up by
the Cubans today. And, with Cas-
tro now deeply worried about open
armed rebellion against his re-
gime, it is not by any means im-
possible that Americans in Cuba,
too, may be subject to indignities,
and even to personal danger.
THE NEWS REPORTS from the United States
say that the techniques of the current Negro
sitdowns in the South had their origin with
Mohandas Gandhi. They are of course quite
right. The historian can trace their arc of
transit from the time in 1937 when Channing
Tobias and Benjamin Mays had their conver-
sation with Gandhi about applying his methods
and vision to the Negro struggle to the time in
1956 when Rev. Martin Luther King used the
Gandhi method in the bus sitdown at Mont-
gomery and to the new wave of Negro militant
non-violence in the South.
The nub of the present outbreaks is the shift
of the arena of Negro struggle from the court-
room to the store and restaurant-counter and
from legal action to non-violent direct action.
When Gandhi set out to march to the sea and
violate the British salt tax laws he set in mo-
tion his great campaign of satyagraha, or truth-
force. His underlying idea was that faith can
move oppressors as well as mountains and that
fearless action without violence based on a
belief in one's cause is ultimately irresistible.
Impatient at British slowness in responding to
demands for Indian freedom, he openly violated
the salt tax law and was arrested along with
hundreds of thousands of others.
SOME SUCH VIEW is in the minds of the
young Negroes who are impatient at the
slowdown of desegregation in the South and
have picked for direct action the violation of
Southern mores against serving Negroes at food
counters, just as Gandhi picked the salt laws.
Gandhi knew how close salt was to the daily
lives of India's masses just as the Negroes know
how close the public food counter is to the daily
lives of their people.
Gandhi dramatically chose the long march
to the sea while they dramatically choose the
sitdown. Gandhi was the leader of a great na-,
tional movement while they are obscure young
Negroes. Yet the goals and means in both cases
have much in common.
WHAT THE young people do is simple. They
may make a purchase in a department or
retail store, pay for it and even sit down at
the food or soda counter offering their money
THOMAS TURNER, Editor
PHILIP POWER ROBERT JUNKER
Editorial Director City Editor
JIM BENAGH......................Sports Editor
PETER DAWSON ........ Associate City Editor
CHARLES KOZOLL ............. t rsonnel Director
JOAN KAATZ, ... ,.........Magazine Editor
BARTON HUTHWAITE .. Associate Editorial Director
FRED KATZ................ Associate Sports Editor
DAVE LYON ..........Associate Sports Editor
JO HARDEE .................... Contributing Editor
RBuines Sta f
deadpan as at the other counters. When re-
fused service they simply sit and wait until
the shop closes or they are forced out. In the
latter case they do not fight or offer resistance
but walk away despite taunts and provocations.
Their action is direct action because it is not
limited to legal complaints or test cases but
presents the store owner and the community
with a decision. The minority members make
a move and the next move is up to the ma-
jority. It is action without words, symbolic
action as so much of Gandhi's was..
THE QUESTION for whites and Negroes alike
is whether this kind of non-violent direct
action is likely to evoke or be met with violence.
In the 1930s Gandhi recommended his method
for other subject peoples and nations. ie told
the Abyssinians to let the Italians, if they
dared, walk over the dead body of every Abys-
sinian and occupy the country without the peo-
ple. This demanded an impossible heroism of
people. It would have failed against totalitarian
Hitler as it would fail today if the Tibetans
adopted it against the Chinese. Gandhi was
dealing with a humanist British tradition,
whatever its sins in India. That is why the
Gandhi method has until now never been used
outside India. Even now there is a question
about how effective it will be.f
Gandhi was leading a vast population against
a foreign government which formed a tiny
fraction of the people. In the South there are
two populations, white and Negro, the latter
usually in a minority. Where there are two
populations you cannot make disciplined deci-
sions on both sides. Where there are spon-
taneous sitdowns by young Negroes on one
hand, and the taunts and passions of an excited
street crowd of whites on the other, anything
can happen. The non-violence of the minority
may easily provoke the violence of the majority.
IT IS A BAFFLING technique to meet and a
difficult one to carry out. Gandhi was always
there to plead for the purity of his method.
Sometimes he called the core of it love, some-
times charity. There were, he said, only two
ways to meet the injustices of the powerful. One
was awe, the other compassion. He chose com-
passion. Middleton Murry described his method
as involving a vast consuming flame of Chris-
tian love. The American Negroes are almost the
last Christians in America in the sense of
taking their religion with serious simplicity. If
anyone should be able to make the method
work, they should. But remember also that they
live in an era when all through Africa, the
continent of their origin, young leaders are
learning how to use another method for re-
dressing wrongs--not non-violence but violence.
That is the inner conflict in the hearts of these
young people as they sit waiting at the counters
in a country yhich has given them freedom but
from which they now demand equality,
To the Editor:
IN THIS generation when the
average University student is
charged with increasing apathy, it
is too bad that two who dared be
different on Wednesday evening
are quickly and stiffly suspended.
While at the 'U' the student is
slowly losing all his personal
rights that are being so strongly
fought for in our own country and
the world over. More than one
student activity has been stopped
due to "unfavorable publicity"
that might result. The University
holds the key to our rights and
very often makes sure that they
are kept the way they want them
to be. The entering freshman must
sign a contract that allows for a
rate increase any time during the.
contract period of dorm or quad
The ticket-happy Ann Arbor
police are also present to hand
out one of their presents to the
jay-walking student or the visitor
without an "E" sticker. The s.tu-
dent that is of age also is kept in
place where he is unable to vote.
He can vote at home, but how
many students are willing to take
a day's absence from classes to go
home and vote. This all depends
on the locality of the student's
WE HAVE been given our own
dicsciplinary group of students to
make us all feel that we are up
before one of our kind, but as Fri-
day's actions show the Judic is
little better than a mouthpiece
for the all powerful deans.
It seems funny that SGC re-
cently endorsed the picketing of
local stores, and now when a group
of students rebel against a regu-
lation that calls for pressed (not
stretcher) creasesin the trousers
of the students who desire to eat
supper, the University is very
quick to set precedence. The fact
that the suspended students were
not trying to hide their identity
seems to me that they were sure
that they were within their rights
which they mistakenly thought
IN RECENT YEARS, the stu-
dents have come up with acts of
much greater consequence and
most of them are still among us
on campus. It is interesting to
know that the demonstration was
already in progress when the so-
called leaders entered the dining
room. There had also been a
demonstration the night before.
It again seems funny that the
students should pay for the in-
competence of the staff who were
not only unable to stop the action,
but were in a large part one of
the causes for the ill feeling. The
south end of East Quad has had
the housemothers on the hill. The
two leaders mentioned to the
group, more than once that the
march to the hill was not a panty-
raid. There was never an attempt
to enter any of the women's resi-
dence halls. The group also dis-
persed quickly when they were
told to by the University officials
that were so quickly rushed to the
The precedenct has been set
now, much to Dean Rea's ap-
proval. The student again has lost
another right and now according
to Rea must take "far better
means of communication" which
will involve the usual tremendous
amount of red tape and the usual
lack of action.
I question seriously if student
demonstrations will be stopped by
this stiff action to the freshman,
one of which is a Navy contract
student on a scholarship. I'm sure
the demonstrations will go on, but
without leaders, and then will the
big 'U' suspend 300-or more tuition
-Downs Herold, '63
"You Just Don't Seem To Fit in Here"
4. V AS
Sy ' ,Sr C
J' V ,-tT r i\