Minister Says Towns
Not Lost to Exiles
ASUNCION, Paraguay (WP)-In-
terior Minister Edgar Insfran told
a news conference last night an
invasion of Paraguay by armed
rebels had been "c o mple t ely
Insfran, former Asuncion police
chief, said an invading band of
about 150 men had been scattered
and disorganized with the help of
the air force, and presumably had
fled back to Argentine territory.
He said Puerto Carlos Antonio
Lopez and Colonia Otano, two
small towns along the Parana
River, were not captured by the-
invaders as previously reported.
Insfjan said three invaders were
wounded and government forces
had no casualties.
The Paraguayan government
previously had announced that a
rebel force of between 500 and
r 1,000 men crossed the Parana
River from Argentina's Misiones
province Friday and attacked the
A government communique had
announced the fall of Colonia
Otano, but had not mentioned any
rebel takeover of Puerto Carlos
Antonio Lopez. r
Earlier government statements
claimed the rebels were armed
with Argentine weapons, and said
civilian militia as well as troops
and police resisted them.
Colonia Otano was said to have'
been defended by only five police-
Map Guerrilla Strategy
Informed border sources in Ar-
gentina said yesterday that well-
armed rebels seeking to over-
throw Paraguayan President Gen.
Alfredo Stroessner, South Ameri-
ca's last remaining dictator, ap-
parently were mapping a guer-
rilla - type campaign patterned
after that of Fidel Castro of Cuba.
Paraguayan exiles, of whom
there are several thousand in Ar-
gentina, said several columns had
crossed the Parana River from
both Brazil and Argentina.
Official sources in Brazil said
they had no knowledge of an in-
vasion from Brazilian territory,
Informed sources in Argentina
said the rebels launched their in-
vasion into southeast Paraguay
from Posada, Argentine border
point, and other places and were
in greater strength than last De-
cember when an invasion force of
about 1,000 was crushed.
The Posada informants said
most of the insurgents are mem-
bers of a Fourteenth of May
movement which launched the
unsuccessful December invasion.
May 14 is Paraguay's independ-
Stroessner, 47-years-old, charg-
ed that the earlier invaders were
political delinquents supported and
financed by Castro's government.
During his strongman rule of
the land-locked country of 1,600,-
000 people, the Paraguayan presi-
dent has put down at least a
dozen attempted coups.
Moreno Gonzales, the Paraguay-
an ambassador to Uruguay said
his government expects more rebel
attacks from across the Argentine
boarded. This would be in accord-
ance with plans for the revolu-
tion which he said were learned
previously by his government.
ARTS AND LETTERS:
Sees Change in Composers.
By BEATRICE TEODORO
"The types of people who now
become musicians have changed
since the 18th century," Roberto
He was sitting in the small Bur-
ton Tower office of Prof. Ross Lee
Finney, the University's composer-
in-residence. Gerhard is taking
over his duties while Finney
studies in Rome.
"Usually musicians came from a
long line of musicians," he con-
tinued. "Or in some countries,
future composers were recruited
from street waifs." He cited the
case in Italy, where "ospedales"
were institutions which took care
of abandoned children and gave
them musical training.
One of the names he likes to
remember is "Ospedale degli En-
curabilli," or "Home of the In-
curables." All composers, accord-
ing to Gerhard, must suffer from
something "incurable," to dedicate
themselves to music, so perhaps
the name isn't so incongruous.
Today the kind of people who
enter the field of music have often
been trained in other professions.
Music has been "method-
starved" for a long time and must
sometimes look to other fields to
develop techniques. This trend is
reflected in contemporary com-
position which shows strict mu-
Gerhard's home is in Cambridge,
England, where he is a free-lance
composer and teaches private
He has given occasional lectures
at Cambridge, but refused offers
of a permanent teaching posiiton
because he could not devote all
his time to composition.
When he came to the Univer-
sity, Gerhard had had no experi-
ence in group teaching. Fortu-
nately, he has been vrey pleased
with the .students here. "Music
can be a treadmill, concentrating
years on the technical problems."
But the students he found here
were eager and well informed, with
a breadth of interests outside of
the musical field.
Gerhard is in a quandry when
asked about his nationality. He
likes to classify himself as an
"Early European," because, in his
opinion, Europe is not yet a com-
In more concrete terms, he is
of Swiss and French parentage,
and was born and bred in Spain.
After the defeat of the republican
government in the Spanish Civil
War, he moved to England where
he received a fellowship to Kings
College, Cambridge. He has lived
Because of his cosmopolitan
background, critics have often
spoken of the "English influence"
and the "Spanish influence" in his
compositions. Gerhard believes
that these effects are not the re-
sult of his conscious planning.
He has developed rigorous tech-
niques and become detached from
coloristic and picturesque com-
position. However, according to
other musicians, a Catalan flavor
is definable in certain of his
Gerhard still maintains that
this national spirit has been in-
jected unconsciously, but he is
glad that it appears.
Gerhard studied under Schoen-
berg in Vienna and Berlin. He
never completely accepted Schoen-
berg's method using the 12-note
scale based on the pitches of the
octave as opposed to the 7 note
tonality scale, but he has adapted
the scale to his own needs.
This is one of his basic theories:
the composer must never adopt
methods directly from anyone else,
but he must adapt and choose to
fit his personal requirements. It
is this practice of basic choices,
engaging his own responsibilities,
which makes him a. composer.
CAIRO (MP-Egyptian port work-
ers launched a boycott of Ameri-
can shipping yesterday in reprisal
for the picketing that blocks un-
loading of the Egyptian freighter
Cleopatra in New York.
President Abdul Gamal Nasser
approved their vow that they will
neither repair nor unload United
States vessels at Alexandria, Port
Said or Suez. Alexandria, on the
Mediterranean, is Egypt's chief
port. Port Said and Suez are ter-
minals of the Suez Canal.
The chief executive of the
United Arab Republic told a 30-
nation African-Asian conference
in Cairo the boycott will continue
until New York dock workers and
seamen abandon their picket line
against the Cleopatra.
A single picket carried on the
blockade in New York yesterday.
Promoters of the action, which has
prevented the Cleopatra from un-
loading for more than two weeks,
describe it as a protest against
Arab blacklisting of American
ships which deal with Israel. They
say the Arab blacklist has cost
The boycott of American ships
was called by the confederation of
Arab trade unions, which hopes
the movement will spread to all
Arab ports. Jordan announced it
will boycott all American ships
calling in Aqaba, its only port. The
boycott already is in effect in the
Syrian region of the U.A.R.
The confederation called on all
Arab workers "from the Persian
Gulf to the Atlantic Ocean to
tighten their boycott in order to
foil the aims of Zionism, which is:
behind the American picketing of
Sympathy with these aims was
manifest by 3,000 Lebanese stu-
dents with a march through the:
streets of Beirut. Protesting the
picketing of the Cleopatra, they
shouted anti - American slogans
and paraded with placards read-,
"Arab peoples support dock-
workers in boycotting American
The Isbrandtsen line freighter
Sir John Franklin was the first
American vessel to reach Port
Said after the declaration of the
Capt. J. Hudson, skipper of that
6,735-ton vessel, told authorities
he had nothing to load or unload
and planned to go on through the
Suez Canal with general cargo and
a few passengers for the Far East.
Dock workers in motor launches
circled the ship waving posters
reading: "Arab workers can
strongly counter American picket-
ing of Arab ships. No canal for
Israel. Long live Nasser."
Rhee's Appointees Resign
As Korean Purge Continues
SEOUL (A') - South Korea
purged police and provincial gov-1
ernors yesterday in the drive to
tear down the totalitarian regime
that grew up under ousted Presi-
dent Syngman Rhee.
Acting President Huh Chung's
caretaker government accepted
resignations from all the nine
governors, who are appointed, and1
from 21 high officers of Rhee's
discredited national police force.
The latter included National'
Police Director Cho In-Koo and
Kwak Yung-Joo, head of Rhee's
With the prospect of all new
governors, post-Rhee reforms were
expected for the entire countryside
as well as the big cities, where
the student - led insurrection
against Rhee's government was
"New persons whose position
and status are politically indepen-
dent and socially unbiased" will
be named to the governorships,
the new home minister, Lee Ho,
Police state methods and rig-
ging of the March 15 presidential
election were the main complaints
setting off the insurrection. The
new government has promised new
laws guaranteeing free speech,
press, assembly and elections and
a return to more local autonomy,!
as well as a new cabinet-prime
minister system of government to
prevent any future regime from
becoming as entrenched as that of
One of the insurrection's most
tragic chapters closed with the
burial of vice-president elect Lee
Ki-Poong, his wife and two sons,
one of them adopted by Rhee.
The Lee Ki-Poong family was
found shot dead in a cottage near
Rhee's palace last Thursday.
Rhee, trembling and dazed, per-
sonally attended the funeral,
touching off a chorus of wailing,!
sobs and cheers which drowned
out the Methodist services.
Accolades for the 85-year-oldj
ex-president wherever he goes
have prompted speculation that
Rhee could still make a comeback:
in promised new elections, partic-
ularly if the presidency is changed
ot a ceremonial post and major
power transferred to the office of
However, most observers feel
the cheers are to honor Rhee as
a patriot and are inclined to doubtf
he has a political future.
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Second Front Page
Sunday, May 1, 1960
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