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March 12, 1960 - Image 1

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See Page 4


Seventieth Year of Editorial Freedom


Possibilty of snow flurries
this afternoon.


VOL. LXX, No. 113




____________________________________________________________ S i i

U.S. Launching Succeeds:
Pioneer Shot Circeles Sun







Satellite Measures Space Distances

The new satellite imay help as-
tronomers to solve an important
and pressing problem: exactly
how far from the earth are the
other planets of the solar system?
Present figures are only esti-
mates, and may be off by as much
as tens of thousands of miles. In
the past, these disparities were
not as important as they are to-
day, when man should be able in
the not too distant future to send
explorers to the other planets.
If a rocket were aimed at a dis-
tant planet and the planet was
not exactly at that distance the
results would be critical.
Astronomers do know how far'
the distance is in terms of as-
tronomical units, equivalent to
the distance between the earth
and the sun, but no one knows
exactly how far an astronomical
unit is in miles."
Aceurately Measured
The Pioneer V rocket is equipped
so that its speed and distance can
be accurately measured and thus
can make the astronomical yard-
stick more precise in terms of
Other results of the new satel-
lite's trip may answer questions
which scientists have about the
radiation in outer space, which
Prof. Lawrence H. Aller of the as-
tronomy department suggests are

the basic problem which the satel-
lite could answer.
He said the two types of radia-
tion problems were those of x-ray
and gamma rays and of, the im-
portant high energy particles.
Not Notified
He explained observatories and
astronomers are not notified in
advance of the mechanisms and
the tests of the satellites until
West's Plan
sets Arms
PARIS P)-The Western pack-
age plan for disarmament, agreed
on Thursday by experts of five
free world countries, provides for
three separate phases in reducing
world military forces, informed
sources said yesterday.
The new proposals, in line with
French reservations regarding
earlier plans worked up by Brit-
ain and the United States, make
provisions for the quicker elim-
ination of nuclear weapons stock-
piles, the informants said. They
gave this outline:
In the first phase of the plan,
an internatlonal disarmament
agency would be created to cen-
tralize all records on armaments
and troops maintained by all na-
Limits Foreseen
Limits are envisioned for Soviet
and American armed forces only.
But all states would contribute
prescribed quantities of arms to
an international munitions depot.
All plans for launching satel-
lites into space would be required
to be filed in advance with the
In the second phase, all the
contracting nations would stop
producing materials for nuclear
weapons. They also would con-
vert such materials already on
hand for use in "Atoms for Peace"
Controls Established
Controls would be established
to guarantee observance of those
measures. United States and So-
viet manpower would be reduced
to 2.1 million men each. Firing of
space vehicles able to carry mass
destruction weapons would be
Eventually, in the third phase,
any production of any nuclear
weapon or ballistic missile with
a military use would be ended and
armies of all countries would be,
cut to the lowest levels that would
still guarantee internal security.
Yield To French
Western experts were reported
to have yielded to French de-
mands claiming top priority for
nuclear disarmament.
Representatives of the United
States, France, Britain, Canada
and Italy meet again today for
talks on a common position that
the West will put before the Com-
munist bloc Tuesday at Geneva

after the satellites have been suc-
cessfully launched, and thus he
could not say definitely what ex-
periments were being made with
the artificial planet.
Previous experimentation by
means of rockets has measured
the particle density and magnet-
ic fields in the space between the
earth and the moon. The tests
will concentrate on this measure-
ment farther out in space, he
"This is fundamental," Prof.
Aller said and the equipment is
certain to contain particle radia-
tion counters for this purpose.
Although the total weight of
satellites launched by the United
States has been considerably less
than those of the Soviet Union,
the bulk of the scientific data has
been gathered by the United
States, he said.
The United States has been
very successful with the smaller
satellites and has obtained "the
most results per pound," Prof. Al-
ler emphasized.
He admitted that the Russians
were ahead of the United States
in photography' of the moon and
exploration of that type but that
the latter' was not significantly
behind in other fields of satellite-
gathered information.
Before Friday's launching of the
United States' satellite, both the
Americans and the Russians had
each previously sent one similar
sphere into orbit about the Sun.
However, the Soviets held a 240-
to-one advantage in poundage.
Russia's man-made planetoid,
Lunik I or "Mechta," was also the
first to go into orbit, its launching
date being January 2, 1959. In-
cluding the 795 pounds of instru-
ments, Mechta's weight totals
3,238 pounds. Once every 15
months it completes one trip of its
solar orbit.
March 3, 1959, was the launch-
ing date of America's Pioneer IV, a
13.4 pound miniature size satellite.
Launched aboard a Juno II rocket,
it came within 37,300 mles of the
moon on its way to a solar orbit
which passes between the earth
and Mars.
Until Friday's successful ven-
ture, all other attempts by the
United States to put another
satellite into orbit about the Sun
had failed.
Experts See
Radio Contact
With Planet
WASHINGTON (P) - American
space scientists said they expect to
be able to maintain radio contact
with the new space probe for four
or five months and possibly re-
establish contact some time in
The 1963 date is the time when
the probe might again approach
within 46 to 50 million miles of
the earth, the planned range of
the transmitter.

Rocket Fires
Solar Sphere
New 'Planet' Reports
On Radioactive Areas
In Solar System
States-scoring a big point in the
space contest with Russia-yester-
day shot a beachball-size sphere-
load of instruments into an orbit
calculated to carry it closer to
the sun than man ever has probed
The 94.8-pound space probe,
given the name Pioneer V. sped
aloft just after 8 a.m. from Cape
Canaveral, Fla., in the nose of a
powerful Thor-Able rocket whose
three stages fired, one after an-
other, with clocklike precision.
The scientists said they expect
to be able to keep radio contact
with Pioneer V for four or five
months, and possibly make new
contact some time in 1963.
According to calculations in the
first hours of what may be a
never-ending voyage, Pioneer is

Rights Act
Just Fails
In House
LANSING M) - The civil rights
issue, hottest of the 1960 session,
erupted inconclusively again yes-
terday in the Legislature.
Another session was set for
Tuesday just before the House ad-
journed for the weekend.
Backers of broadened coverage
of civil rights statutes, particularly
as to housing, narrowly failed to
carry off an unusual parliamen-
tary procedure that last suc-
ceeded in 1955.
With Rep. George W. Sallade
(R-Ann Arbor) taking the lead,
they moved to take the so-called
"Whinery rights bill" away from
the State Affairs Committee that
has blocked it for weeks.
Receives 53 Votes
The motion received 53 votes,
three short of the 56 needed. Four
Republcans joined 49 Democrats
in supporting it. One absent Demo-
crat didn't vote, and three voted,
against the issue.
Just before the roll call started,.
Michigan's only Negro senator as-
sailed police chief Paul Taylor of
Lansing for actions in connection
with a demonstration staged by
supporters of the controversial
legislation on the Capitol steps
last Wednesday.
Meanwhile, Rep. Lloyd Gibbs
(R-Portland), State Affairs Com-
mittee chairman, mysteriously dis-
appeared for 24 hours, all but
dooming the Whinery bills and
two stronger Democratic meas-
Police Assemble
Sen. Basil W. Brown (D-De-
troit) said that at Taylor's re-
quest state police assembled eight
squad cars, equipped with riot
equipment, in the basement of the
city building across from the Capi-
tol grounds.
Brown called Taylor's move "il.
advised, ill-conceived and with-
out proper foundation in law or
moral principle,"
Brown said Taylor's enlistment
of state troopers attempted to at-
tach a stigma to the demonstrators
and their desires.
Pivotal Bill
The pivotal bill, authored by
Rep. Thomas J. Whinery (R-
Grand Rapids), would replace the
existing state Fair Employment
Practices Commission with a hu-
man rights commission.
Its authority would extend, not
alone to hiring as now, but to
prevention of discrimination for;
reasons" of race, color or religion
in the areas of education and
public accommodations.
Especially, it would be author-
ized to act in transactions involv-
ing "publicly assisted" housing,
that is slum clearance and urban
renewal projects-but not private
To Canvass
Rep. Joseph J. Kowalski of De-
troit, Democratic floor leader, said
defecters within Democratic ranks
would be canvassed over the week-
end to see if their support could
be enlisted in a second attempt to
pry the Whinery bill loose and
get it to the floor for debate.
If enough would pledge sup-
port for the move, notice will be
filed tomorrow night and a second
fight on the issue will be staged
Tuesday, Kowalski said.
Even if it succeeded then, House
rules would have to be suspended
-with two-thirds favorable vote-
before the bill could be pushed to
a passage roll call in advance of
Wednesday's deadline for passage
of bills in the house of introduc-

SIZE DOES'T MATTER-The learning situation for these stu-
dents in a class of 30 is no better than if the classroom contained
300, according to the Trump educational theory, 'which bases its
evidence upon achievement test scores alone.
Lehmnann Calls Trump Plan
For Education Iadequate

Senate Cuts
Section One

Southern Member~s
Strip Civil Rights
blasted a whole section out of the
Eisenhower Administration's civil
rights program yesterday after
Southern members helped set it
up for the kill.
By a 49-35 vote the Senate
stripped the 7-point Administra-
tion bill of its first section, an
outgrowth of the Little Rock dis=
orders of 1957. It "then recessed
until tomorrow, when the battle
will be resumed.
Section I of the bill sponsored
by Republican leader Everett M.
Dirksen of Illinois would have
made,.it a federal crime to inter-
fere with feleral court orders in
school desegregation cases.
It was knocked out of motion
by Sen. Wayne Morse (D-Ore.)
after it had been broadened to
include labor case injunctions and
all other federal court orders,
Climax Debate
The voting climaxed a day-
long debate on the move by Sen.
Frank s J. Lausche (D-Ohio) tc
widen the proivision over the
strenuous objections of Dirksen.
Southern opponents of civil
rights legislation, who protested
'that Section I was aimed solely
at their section of the country
supported the Lausche amendment
and it carried on a 65-19 roll cal
Sen. Joseph S. Clark (D-Pa.)
denounced the amendment off the
floor as an "anti-labor move.'
He told a reporter it was an at-
tempt to "clutter up" the schoo
integration section.
Lausche contended the first part
of the Administration, bill tended
to divide the country.
Indefensible Weakness
"It has the indefensible weak-
ness of speaking to the people in
one section of the country, of
telling,them we are going to make
special laws for them,' he said.
A supporter o ,t edminist
tion program, Sen. Kenneth B
Keating (R-N.Y.), said that "i1
the same one-two punch can be
applied to the rest of the pro-
visions of the Administration bill
we will end up with nothing' at
Peek Foresees



The Trump system of secondary education cannot adequately
solve the problems of modern high school teaching by simply includ-
ing a program of independent study, Prof. Charles F. Lehmann of
the education school said recently.t
This system of education, which bases its program on a college-
type class set-up, was the subject of a confererxce for educators and
architects held at the architec-

. will not run
Rep. Griff in1*1
Declines Bid
WASHINGTON (/')-Rep. Rob-
ert P. Griffin (R-Mich.) said yes-
terday he has decided against run-
ning for the Senate.
Griffin said he made a formal
announcement of his intention to
run for reelection to the House at
a testimonial. dinner in Traverse
City. last night.
Griffin said in a statement he
was gratified that many persons
had urged him to run for the seat
of Sen. Patrick McNamara (D-
Mich) and added:
"After giving the matter care-
ful consideration, I',have decided
against entering a primary con-]
test that could seriously divide
the Republican Party at a time
when unity is so essential."
Rep. Alvin M. Bentley (R-Mich.)
announced his candidacy for the
Senate earlier this year.
Arthur S. Flemming, secretary
of health, education and welfare,
was principal speaker at last
night's dinner in Traverse City,
Griffin's hometown.
At Grand Rapids, Bentley said
he thought Griffin's decision wise.
"I appreciate Bob's motives in his
withdrawal and I am happy to see
he plans to continue what I feel
is developing into an outstanding
political career," Bentley com-
Reese Enters
Election Race

... orbits satellite
traveling in a somewhat elliptical
orbit that would bring it within
74,700,000 miles of the sun, about
five months from now.
That would be about 17 million
miles closer to the sun than either
Russia's 1%-ton Mechta or this
country's 13-pound Pioneer IV
were able to achieve after their
launching early in 1959. The new
Pioneer's farthest distance from
the sun is expected to reach 93
million miles. That is the same as
the Earth's distance.
After the launch NASA officials
said it never was intended to come
closer than four million miles from
Venus' orbit. Even then, Pioneer's
path was about three million miles
off the mark.
It will take 311 days-about 10
months-for Pioneer V to com-
plete one circuit about the sun,
the scientists said. Their advance
thinking had been in terms of a
somewhat narrower orbit taking
295 days. It is moving counter-
clockwise to the sun-in the same
direction as ,the Earth.

ture and design college during the
past semester.
According to Trump, who is a
professor of education at the Uni-
versity of Illinois, this system was
developed to give the high school
student more educational self-re-
liance through the maintenance
of three separate, but integrated
learning environments. These are:
the large lecture, taking up 40 per
cent of* the students' time; the
small class discussion, 20 per cent
of the students' time; and inde-
pendent research, done by the in-
dividual student,. also 40 per cent
of the time.
Stresses Independent Study
"The thing that makes me most
uncomfortable about the Trump
system," Prof. Lehmann said, "is
that it presumes that all kids in
high school can spend time profit-
ably in independent study. The
most capable could, perhaps, but
certainly not all of them.'"
The high school today has be-
come the common school, he sug-'
gested. Over 60 per cent of the
pupils graduate at present, and;
the number is rising. "Only a rel-
atively small proportion go on to
college. A generous estimate
would be 30 per cent of those who
Because it serves a majority of
the population, the good high
school has to suit the needs of all
its pupils, not just the select few
who willgo on to college.
Conant Favors Comprehensive
"I think this is why Conant
came to the conclusion that the
comprehensive high school, offer-
ing different programs, is the
"The Trump system does not
cover all students, it doesn't even
apply to all the able students.
Many kids need stimulation of
teachers and fellows to produce."
Prof. Lehmann thought that
the architects at the conference
tended to be more sympathetic
to the system than the educators.
"The architecture school is run
on a lecture-independent study
basis, and they feel that it is ade-
quate for them. They don't con-
sider the inappropriateness of the
plan for all students."
:Based on Achievement Tests
Although the Trump report was
written under circumstances of
'limited research and question-
able sources," Prof. Lehmann
thought that it was probably
based on achievement test evi-
The problem with achievement
tests is that they do not cover all
aspects of learning. "What
achievement tests tend to show
is equivalence. That is, the bright
kid will do just as well in a class
of 300 as in a class of 30.
"The tests are inadequate, of
course; they also prove that a
bright kid w'ill do as well with a
poor teacher as with a good one.
They can't measure the intan-

Dorm food
GotoJOY ,
Complaints about dorm food?
See the environmental health de-
partment of Health Service,
"Part of our job is routine in-
spections of the food served in
residence halls, the hospital, the
League and the Union," depart-
ment director William Joy said.
"We also hold yearly meetings for
the dieticians, to discuss differ-
ent aspects of food handling and
EFor this year's meeting, Joy
and a fellow amateur photog-
rapher collaborated in a film
which tells the story of food
handling. It starts at food service
and shows the various operations
which the foodstuffs undergo un-
til they are finally prepared and
Oversee Food
In addition to overseeing food
service work, the department also
checks the concessions at the
football stadium and refresh-
ments at such events as Michi-
Another major concern of the
environmental health department
is safety. Checking the floats in
the Michigras parade "to make
sure no one gets cut with whirling
knives," and running flame tests
on the booths are only part of the
job. The department is a member
of the new University-Safety
Committee, and is vitally con-
cerned with lab safety.
Run Tests
By now, the Safety Committee
has established about 50 depart-
mental safety committees. The
environmental health department
is running tests for mercury va-
por, and it is conducting a sur-
vey on the safety of such build-
ings as West Physics Bldg.
Some of the scientific interests
of the department include setting
up standardized chemical labels,
storage and disposal of chemical
wastes, and educating Univer-
sity employees in general safety
procedure. However, Joy said, "We
do not want to get Into safety on
an academic level, such as a part
of a course."
The department also checks the
University swimming pools once
a week and experiments with dif-
ferent types of chlorination, 'so
"the girls won't have to complain
about the effects of. the chlorine
on their skin," Joy added.

Referee Bill
By Next We



Mass Culture Called Threat to Humanity

Congress will ,pass "some sor
of a - bill providing for federa
referees appointed by distric
courts," by the end of next 'week
Prof. George Peek of the politica
science department predicted las
The House will act Monday o
Tuesday, and the Senate shout
follow suit by the end of th
week. There could be difficultle
however, Prof. Peek added, if th
Senate does Lot accept the Hous
bill, since a House-Senate confer
ence proposal would have to g
through the House Rules Con
The Southerners are- makir
their fight for their constituent
Prof. Peek continued. They do ni
want the clauses .endorsing t
Supreme Court school segregatic
decision as "law of the land," no
use of federal funds for scho
aid in districts where de-segrega
tion is taking place.
Oppose Parts
Opposing these "obnoxious
parts, the Southerners realize th
referee plan will take a long tin
to implemhent, so they will consent
However, as Negroes graduall
gain the vote, they may fort
urban Southern Congressmen
become more liberal; the Negroe
will be at the bottom of th
economic scale and demand mo:
liberal legislation.
Politically, the dispute Will hel
Vice-President Richard M. Nixo:
though- it will not be as helpf
to GOP members of the House.
Appears Sincere
Nixon appears to be sincer
Prof. Peek said, and he has a goo
political issue; however, the GC
alliance with Southern conservi
tives in the House has cause
them to soft-pedal rights issue
and voters may remember this.
Democratic leader Sen. Lyndo

"Mass culture which is created by mass communication, is a direct
and serious danger to humanity and threatens to extinguish our sensi-
bility," Prof. Bernard Rosenberg of the City College' of New York said
last night.
"It induces the belief that effortlessness is the best way of life,"
he said. Prof. Rosenberg continued, it is impossible to have esthetic
appreciation, love, religious experience, or experiences of any kind
without effort.
Speaking to the Democratic Socialist's Club, he said, "By culture,
I do not mean the anthropological definition but the common defini-
tion. I mean the fine arts and the realm of formal knowledge."
Criticizing mass communication, Prof. Rosenberg said, "Next to
the atomic bomb, television is the most serious danger to mankind
because it produces radio-active poison and cultural fallout,"
"No other form of communication has penetrated more levels of

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