De Gaulle Adamant
On National Identity
For French Battalion
PARIS (P)-Gen. Lauris Norstad
yesterday announced plans to
create an international striking
force within the North Atlantic
The American ' commander of
the allied powers in Europe said
the force would be built around a
small nucleus of men provided by
the United States, Britain and
France-the Alliance's three nu-
clear powers. The project would
start with each nation contribut-
ing one battalion, making the
force the equivalent of a regi-
mental combat team.
Armed with conventional as well
as nuclear weapons, the new force
may eventually include as many
as eight of the Alliance's 15 mem-
bers, Norstad said.
In Washington, the U.S. State
Department indorsed the project.
Some observers saw creation of
the force as a first step toward
NATOr becoming the West's
"fourth atomic power" British
government sources in London
said NATO defense ministers will
debate this at a meeting later this
The fourth power idea has been
put forth in some Western circles
as the answer to the high costs in
the process of individual nations
making their own atomic weapons.
Discussion of this idea has in-
creased since France tested her
first atomic device in the Sahara
Feb. 13. Norstad, himself has
spoken of the fourth power con-
cept and repeated it today.
Norstad said the new force will
be integrated and under one com-
mand. This indicates a shift in
Collapse of Farm Program Seen
WASHINGTON (A')-Six years
ago a tall, bespectacled man
named Ezra Taft Benson tossed
Congress a barbed question.
"At what point," he asked, "will
the 140 million Americans who
do not live on farms rise up and
demand outright elimination of
all aid to agriculture?"
Mindful of a long and costly
failure to solve the nation's farm
problem, Benson didn't expect an
answer. Nor did he get one.
If he seemed hopeful then of
prodding Congress to stem the
multi-billion-dollar flow of farm
subsidies - and curb the huge
crop surpluses stimulated by fed-
eral aid - Benson today has few
Steeled to political realities by
seven years in office, the 60-year-
old Secretary of Agriculture can
only shake his head, ruefully, at
the never-ending paradox of U. S.
taxpayers staggering under the
burden of mountainous farm sur-
pluses in a hungry world.
President Eisenhower, in a spe-
cial message to Congress on Feb.
9, urged the lawmakers to "act
swiftly' 'to halt snowballing sur-
Eisenhower said it is now cost-
ing the nation's taxpayers $1,000
a minute to support wheat prices
alone, and he warned Congress:
"If our government does not
act quickly, the danger is very
real that this entire program will
collapse under pressure of public
Could AdJust Production
Benson believes that if farmers
were left alone, without federal
interference, they would quickly
adjust their crop production to
conform with the law of supply
"We must get the government
off the backs of farmers and elim-
inate ineffective acreage controls
and artificial price-fixing carried
over from days of war and de-
pression," the secretary said.
But some farm leaders contend
that if price supports were
scrapped it would drive food
prices sky high and cost the Amer-
ican housewife far more than the
tax bite of federal price supports.
"Mr. Benson's only solution is
to let farm prices go down until
enough farmers are starved off
the farm so that production will
adjust itself to demand," says
Rep. Harold D. Cooley ()-N.C.),
chairman of the House Agricul-
When Benson, testifying on
Capitol Hill ,insisted that 80 per
cent of the nation's farmers want
more freedom and less federal
"regimentation," Cooley replied:
"The farmers were free in 1932
and we had starvation prices."
To Benson, the overriding con-
cern is the apparent futility of
spending billions of dollars on
what he regards as a hopeless
"Agriculture is undergoing a
technological revolution and it is
irreversible," he said. "It cannot
be controlled by government man-
But farm-belt l a w m a k e r s,
spurred on by farm pressure
groups, seem as determined as
ever to keep the federal aid pot
Ilusory or not, many politicians
still regard the farm vote as pow-
erful enough to tip the scales in
a close election. This is true de-
spite the farm population decline
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from 32 million in 1920 to 16 mil-
On the other hand, some poli-
tical bigwigs are beginning to
think the importance of the farm
vote may be exaggerated. They
see the voice of the city becom-
ing ever more potent and city
dwellers taking a dim view of
paying tax dollars to provide
whopping farm subsidies.
The government, said Benson,
has lost more than 20 billion dol-
lars since 1933 in attempting to
stabilize farm prices and income.
Cost Four Billion
This year alone it will cost
nearly four billion dollars for
various farm subsidy programs.
Yet farm prices at the end of
1959 sagged to the lowest level in
nearly two decades.
Through the years, under Dem-
ocratic and Republican adminis-
trations alike, critics have as-
sailed the federal farm program
as 'cockeyed . . . bankrupt . . . a
colossal failure ... outlandish ...
crazy . . .ruinous. . . this terrible
SALEM, Ore. W-)-Seven Demo-
crats were named to the free-for-
all Oregon presidential primary
Sens. Hubert Humphrey of Min-
nesota, Lyndon Johnson of Texas,
Estes Kefauver of Tennessee, John
Kennedy of Massachusetts, Wayne
L. Morse of Oregon, Stuart Sym-
ington of Missouri and Adlai Stev-
Morse and Humphrey were en-
tered by petition, the necessary
1,000 signatures for Humphrey Le-
ing filed yesterday. Candidates so
entered cannot withdraw.
The other five were nominated
for the ballot today by Oregon
Secretary of State Howell Appling,
Jr., under a new law requiring all
nationally recognized candidates
to be named. They can withdraw
only by filing a statement dis-
avowing candidacy by March 14.
EZRA TAFT BENSON
Benson himself calls it "the
mdst costly, irrational, hodge-
podge program ever patched to-
gether .. . a serious threat to the
solvency of our country."
But when Sen. Homer Cape-
hart (R-Ind.) last year offered a
Senate bill to wipe out all farm
supports and controls after 1960,
he was snowed under by a 69-5
Baffles Average Intelligence
In some of its apsects, the farm
dilemma baffles the average intel-
Item : the government pays
farmers, via artificially high price
supports, to grow more food than
we can eat and then adds to the
taxpayers' expense by putting
theexces s food in storage with
little chance that it will ever be
(The government now has 235,-
000 huge storage bins scattered
in 23 states. In addition, it uses
225 idle merchant ships to store 43
million bushels of surplus wheat.
Storage fees run more than a
billion dollars a year.)
Item: Livestock growers, who
have consistently refused federal
price supports, are the most pros-,
perous segment of American ag-
riculture today. Wheat and cotton
farmers, with the biggest price
supports, are in the worst trouble.
By BEATRICE TEODORO
Recently the Shah of Iran ap-
pointed his son-in-law, Ardeshir
Zahedi, as Iran's new ambassador
to the United States.
This appointment follows Za-
hedi's excellent work as the Super-
visor of Iranian Students, a post
he will continue to hold while in
the U.S., said Manoochehr Vara-
steh, visiting professor from the
University of Tehran.
Varasteh, librarian to the Shah,
is a personal friend and colleague
of the new ambassador.
One of Zahedi's chief programs
as supervisor has been the re-
organization of the system under
which Iranians studied abroad. He
was faced with the problem of in-
creasing numbers of students who
wanted to remain in their country
of study because they could more
easily find jobs.
Important for Iran
This problem is a very im-
portant for Iran, Varasteh said.
The country has a population of
22 million, and there are 15,000
If the majority of these students
should decide to remain outside of
Iran it would mean a tremendous
depletion of the human resources,
Under the reorganized system,
Zahedi plans to have a job avail-
able for each student as soon as
his term of study abroad is fin-
He has records of each student
outside of the country, including
the specialized field of study, and
provides a job for the student
immediately after he returns. An-
other of the features of 'the pro-
gram is increased government
housing for the students.
The internal problem that forces
students to leave the country is
also important, Varasteh contin-
Iran needs engineers in all
fields, particularly in petroleum.
However, it does not have enough
universities to train such people.
If this need can be fulfilled in-
side the country, he concluded,
fewer students will be forced to go
abroad for their education.
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WASHINGTON (M)-Sen. Rus-
sell B. Long (D-La.), whose father
Huey P. Long was a mighty fili-
busterer, helped yesterday to
carry along the southern fight
against civil rights legislation in
The present-day senator, while
a less flamboyant man than the
fabulbus Huey, went into action
twice. Heavily outvoted on the
first effort, he was ready again
with a formal speech when the
voice of Sen. Allen J. Ellender (D-
La.) surprisingly faltered.
This was the third day of
around-the-clock sessions aimed
at smashing the Dixie filibuster.
The Senate took a 15-minute re-
cess ' this morning for the first
actual break since continuous
sessions began at noon Monday.
No Sign of Weakening
With no sign of weakening on
either side, it appeared the dead-
lock and the continuous sessions
would run well into next week
and maybe longer-probably with
a break over Sunday.
Republican senators set a par-
ty meeting for this afternoon, and
the likelihood was that they
would discuss civil rights strate-
Ellender's voice, after hours of
strong speaking, grew weak to-
ward noon, when the time ar-
rived for the daily prayer by the
He did not resume the floor
after the prayer and other daily,
routine had been attended to, but
gave it up to Long.
Long keyed his speech to a fa-
miliar southern charge - that
the senators pressing for a new
civil rights law are interested
more in Negro votes for them-
selves than in protecting Negroes'
Handles Laws Like Gambler
"Patriotic Americans in the
South," Long said, "are sick and
tired of a Supreme Court which
handles the Constitution and laws
of the nation like a professional
gambler working with loaded dice.
"They will have an equally poor
opinion of this Congress if it
should make the mistake of yiel
ing to the pleas of those who suE
gest that, for the benefit of gair
ing votes in certain of the larj
populous states of the north an
east at the next election, the
should pass legislation to crea
ill will and hatred among ti
people of this nation."
Long had made only a sms
part of the speech when he yiek
ed the floor to a non-filibustere
Sen. Stuart Symington (D-Mo.
who wanted to make a lor
speech on national defense.
The arrangement was the
Long could resume the floor whe
Defeated on Proposal
Early yesterday morning Lor
was overwhelmingly defeated C
a proposal that the Senate upho
the right to advocate legal resis
ance to forcible integration c
On motion of Sen. Lyndon 1
Johnson of Texas, the Sena
Democratic leader, the Senat
voted to kill that 64-8.
Long Fights Civil Rights Legislation
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Second Front Page
Thursday, March 3, 1960 Page 3
49 w4 4eftd myij 4Ct4and 4/tiirt4 to
... announces NATO plans
position by President Charles de
Gaulle, who has balked at inte-
grating France's air forces and
Mediterranean naval squadron.
De Gaulle Insists
De Gaulle has insisted that his
forcse committed to NATO should
retain their national identity while
still cooperating within the alli-
ance. This has posed serious prob-
lems for Norstad, who argues that
integration is particularly vital in
the area of aerial attack and de-
Norstad said today he is very
optimistic about arriving at a
solution to the air integration
The Supreme Commander gave
these details of his plans for the
nuclear task force:
Each of the Western big three
nations will be asked to contribute
a battalion, to make a force total-
ing between 2,500 and 3,000 men.
Later two more nations will be
asked to add a battalion each.
Eventually the force could be
built to divisional strength, with
up to eight nations contributing.
Norstad did not name the addi-
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