THE MICHIGAN DAILY
Hits British Obsolescence
Investigation of Congress
cation is all but closed to 80 out
of every 160 children. The remain-
ing 20 are selected for specialized,
privileged schooling which brings
them to the gates of colleges and
universities, but only 8 of the 20
London announced last month
that it would drop a test known
as the 11-plus, which determined
at the age of 11 whether pupils
would receive academic prepara-
tion. Most other school districts,
however, retained the test.
Critics have pointed to instanc-
es in which pupils channeled into
vocational schools later demon-
strated academic skills and even
He said British selection meth-
ods for higher education assumed
that "out intellectual resources
are limited by genetic factors."
He added, "We have abundant
evidence that it is not genetics
but inequalities in our society and
inadequacies in our educational
system which at present limit our
investment in man. And this is
true even in the most affluent
Turning to the techniques of
education, Ashby charged that
Britain had "scarcely been touch-
ed by the scientific revolution."
"This is especially true," he
said, "of universities which, al-
though dedicated to pursue knowl-
edge, are reluctant to pursue
knowledge about themselves."
Spending on studies of British
university teaching and learning
is "negligible," Ashby commented.
Research on education accounts
for less than one-twentieth of
penny on the pound (less than one
cent in $2.80) in British education
school budgets, he said.
"Any industry which devoted so
little to research and development
Copyright, 1963, The New York Times
To Hurt Spies,
ABERDEEN (P)-A British psy-
chologist thinks it's useless to jail
spies because lengthy sentences
won't prevent anyone else from
selling secrets to a potential en-
Prof. W. J. H. Sprott said in
Aberdeen, Scotland, yesterday that
"such persons as are favorably
disposed to the regime of a foreign
power may think they are doing
a public service by furthering its
interest, and they are not likely
to be deterred.
"And a person who is in des-
perate financial straits and is of-
fered large sums of money is likely
to take the risk."
Prof. Sprott, who is head of the
Nottingham University psychology
department, said loss of his job
handling secret information is
punishment enough for an expos-
He was talking to the annual
meeting of the British Association
for the Advancement of Science.
WASHINGTON - A congres-
sional "streamlining" study has
been recommended unanimously
by a three-man Senate Rules sub-
committee, the Washington Post
The modernization study model-
ed after the Monroney-LaFollette
investigation of 1946, would be
handled by a joint Senate-House
committee. The subcommittee rul-
ed out any action in the Senate's
so-called"anti-filibuster rule, as
well as would be consideration of
certain other touchy "parliamen-
tary procedures and precedents."
The subcommittee, headed by
Senate President Pro Tenipore
Carl Hayden (D-Ariz), in a sur-
prise action approved the "reor-
ganization" study along with two
other resolutions designed to speed
up congressional business.
Other subcommittee resolutions
provide for a rule listing Senate
debate, shorter committee meet-
ings while the Senate is meeting
and extending former *presidents
the privilege of speaking on the
Senate floor, after advance con-
sultation with the vice-president.
The subcommittee's actions are
subject to approval by the full Sen-
ate Rules Committee and the Sen-
The surprise was that the sub-
committee, mainly reflecting con-
servative views, acted at all in
this delicate area. The final res-
olutions did not go so far as steps
recommended by liberals as Sena-
tors Joseph S. Clark (D-Pa) and
Clifford P. Chase (R-NJ).
Clark's proposal dealt mainly
with the anti-filibuster rule and
like the subcommittee he proposed
that a House-Senate committee do
the modernizing task.
Case also suggested a close look
at "congressional rules and floor
procedures" be made by outside
experts as well as House and Sen-
Case is reported as being "pleas-
ed that some action was taken,"
but wanted to examine the sub-
A. S. MIKE MONRONEY
... congressional reform
May Use Bacteria in Space Ships
committee report more fully before
commenting further. Clark was not
available for comment.
Hayden said the subcommittee
"gave weight to the argument and
experience" of Sen. A. S. Monron-
ey (D-Okla) in eliminating par-
liamentary and floor proedures
from the study.
Monroney, co-author of the 1946
act, served as chairman of an "ad
hoc" committee recently set up to
look into the matter of speeding
up congressional business.
He claimed the sweeping reforms
approved 17 years ago never would
have been possible had the 1946
study tampered with basic pro-
Hayden said, "Most (members)
have fixed positions of long stand-
ing which would not measurably
be affected by any recommenda-
tions forthcoming from this com-
The limiting debate resolution,
called the "germaneness-in-de-
bate" rule, was originally recom-
mended by Sen. John 0. Pastore
(D-RI) and 31 other senators.
By FRANK CAREY
Associated Press Science Writer
AMHERST-A team of space
scientists yesterday foresaw possi-
bilities of using certain bacteria-
which thrive on a diet of hydro-
gen-to prevent possible explosions
aboard spaceships of the future.
These same microbes, they told
the annual meeting of the Ameri-
can Institute of Biological Scien-
tists (AIRS), might double in brass
as helpmates in the onboard dis-
posal of urine and other human
waste products. .
Researcher Max D. Lechtman
presented the report authored by
himself and two colleagues.
He said one possible means of
supplying oxygen for future space
voyagers on long interplanetary
hauls would be by the electrolysis
of water-that is, breaking down
water into its oxygen and hydro-
gen constituents by running an
electric current through it.
But, he said, in such a system
there would remain the problem of
safe handling of the hydrogen
which could be explosive ifit later
came in contact with oxygen in the
presence of an accidentally releas-
ed spark or a lighted match.
Lechtman therefore predicted
that the ultimate system would
consist of one in which certain
bacteria would be made to grow in
association with the hydrogen
prodding electrode-so they would
tap off the hydrogen as it was
In the microbe world, he indi-
cated, there are a number of these
hydrogen-lovers whose technical
family name is "hydrogenomonas."
Two in particular were selected
for study, "H. Eutropha" and "H.
He declared the studies were
concerned primarily with other
nutritional and environmental fac-
tors that would be required to
have such microbes grow well in
a space ship so as to put them in
shape to gobble up the hydrogen.
Grow in Urea
"It was learned," he said, "that
these organisms would grow with
urea-a constituent of urine--as
a source of nitrogen.
"This observation has led to a
consideration of the atmosphere
control system for urine disposal,
and possibly a disposal of other
human waste material."
He added that several studies
have shown that one of the mi-
crobes, H. Eutropha, when cultured
in urine, and in urine supplement-
ed with a water extract of human
fecal matter "will grow and utilize
hydrogen and carbon dioxide."
By utilizing carbon dioxide as
well as hydrogen, such microbes
would therefore help clear the
space ship's atmosphere of un-
wanted carbon dioxide-perhaps
helping convert it to other prod-
ucts-the scientist indicated.
In another report to the meet-
ing at the University of Massa-
chusetts, Prof. Donald J. Nash of
Rutgers University reports evi-
dence indicating that the life span
of female mice exposed to X-rays
while still in the embryo state in
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their mother's wombs, are short-
ened to a greater extent than those
of male mice exposed to similar
He declared there is a possibility
--although as yet unproved-that
unborn human females also may be
more sensitive to radiation than
If this were proved, he said, it
would have particular significance
since a mother, during her preg-
nancy, might take drugs, for medi-
cal treatment, having effects sim-
ilar to radiation.
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