SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 24,1963
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SUNDAY, 1~OVEMBE 24,1983 ,,u.~.unEU, m WAl if AN- .DAILY--
Early Change in Government Policies
Foreign Affairs . .
By JOHN M. HIGHTOWER
Diplomatic Affairs Writer
WASHINGTON- The Kennedy
administration foreign p o1i c y
seems certain to be continued
without change by the new Presi-
dent in the weeks immediately
ahead; but eventually some modi-
fication appears inevitable.
Kennedy's assassination seems
certain also to shake foreign con-
fidence temporarily in United
States leadership of the free world
alliance, since even a peaceful and
legal change of Presidents always
has the effect of rendering the fu-
ture uncertain for the Allies.
How quickly a firm lead is re-
stored will depend on the speed
and decision with which the new
chief executive makes clear his
major policy line.
All the Way
As Vice-President, Lyndon B.
Johnson has been a down-the-
line supporter of President Ken-
n y's policies and the specific
rograms developed to carry them
Johnson has been a member of
administration policy - m a k i n g
groups on various occasions, par-
ticularly the National Security
Council which has responsibility
for handling all major questions
involving the cold war and Unit-
ed States security. He has thus
been in position to be thorough-
ly informed about the state of
world affairs, United States-So-
viet relations, and Kennedy's
plans for dealing with those mat-
Authorities here consider it un-
likely that Johnson will make any
quick change in any of the top
people dealing with such prob-
lems. The position of Secretary of
State Dean Rusk, the President's
chief foreign-policy adviser and
r' the director of diplomatic opera-
tions, appears as secure with John-
son as it was with Kennedy.
If Johnson does effect any grad-
ual change in policy, only he will
be able to define its direction;
but speculatively it could be to-
ward a more conservative diplo-
macy in dealing with Soviet Pre-
mier Nikita S. Khrushchev and the
whole range of United States-So-
On two controversial issues this
year, Kennedy has insisted on a
flexible and outgoing approach to
s Thus he made repeated attempts
to get an agreement on a nuclear
- test-ban treaty and finally suc-
ceeded in mid-summer in arriv-
ing at an accord with Khrush-
chev. The Moscow negotiations
were handled by Undersecretary
of State W. Averell Harriman.
Wheat Sales Soar
Subsequently, Kennedy decided
that the United States as well as
other countries could sell wheat
to the Soviet Union to meet the
requirements caused by crop fail-
There is no obvious reason to
1 think that Johnson would have
handled those issues differently.
But Kennedy's determined drive,
begun actually in his inaugura-
tion speech, to find some way to
ease the tensions and make an
agreement with the Russians may
not command the same energy
and support from the new Presi-
As a veteran member of Con-
gress and a much older politician
than Kennedy, Johnson must be
sensitively aware of the great sus-
picion of the Soviet behavior in
congressional circles and the
strong belief there that the Unit-
ed States should proceed with ex-
treme caution toward any kind of
an agreement with the Soviet Un-
It's Up toKhrushchev
Whether the sudden change of
leadership in Washington will
make any quick difference in cold
war tensions probably depends
more on Khrushchev than on
the new United States President.,
It is up to the Soviet leader to
decide whether he wants to avoid
a crisis atmosphere or whether, as
an alternative, he wants to make
a test of nerves or see whether he
can score some quick gain at
United States expense while the
government in Washington is par-
tially hobbled by sorrow and un-
When Kennedy succeeded Pres-
ident Dwight D. Eisenhower in
January of 1961, Khrushchev's ini-
tial approach to the new Ameri-
can leader was friendly and struck
a peaceful note. Such a reaction
to the present United States poli-
tical crisis would seem to be more
in line - with the recent aims
Khrushchev has sought than
would a hostile performancehona
However, the Soviet premier is
in a position to make his own
choice on the advice of a small in-
ner group, and the normal un-
certainty of a period immediately
after the advent of a new Presi-
dent must be magnified in this
case by concern about what
Khrushchev's actual choice will be.,
Congress .. .
President Lyndon B. Johnson's
tmethods of dealing with Congress
will certainly differ from those
John F. Kennedy used, and many
think that Johnson's will be much
surer than Kennedy's were.
Johnson is expected to use the
art of cajolery and compromise
which he developed as Democrat-
ic Senate leader from 1953-1960.
The foreign aid bill, presently
being gone over in Congress, is
just one of many major issues
faced by congressional action.
Civil Rights Possibilities
Among other as-yet-unsettled
issues is the administration's civ-
il rights bill, which was introduc-
ed June 19 and has just managed
to work its way out of the House
Judiciary Committee. Its passage
this year is a very unlikely possi-
Johnson is credited by many for
pushing the 1957 and 1960 civil
rights bills through Congress. The
consensus is that he will do it
again before the 1964 presidential
A question being raised, how-'
ever, is just how far he is willing
to let the bill be compromised.
Federal aid to primary educa-
tion is dead for this session, but
large money bills for higher and
vocational education appear likely
to pass if conflicting interests in
Congress can be straightened out.
Johnson is expected to work
hard at some sort of agreement if
the Democrats expect some kind
of education bill to pass by next
The administration has been
pushing for a tax cut of around
$11 billion, on the grounds that
it would help the economy by giv-
ing more money to the people and
thus stimulating consumer de-
Tax Bill Maneuvers
Passage of the cut seems to have
been delayed until next year, al-
though Johnson is expected to seek
ways to get the tax bills out of
committee before next November.
Politics .. .
By JACK BELL
Associated Press Political Writer
WASHINGTON - Plunged into
the spotlight by the sudden death
of his predecessor, President Lyn-
don B. Johnson faces a monumen-
tal political task in trying to im-
print a favorable image on the
For the months are short before
the Democratic National Conven-
tion meets next August. Johnson,
the first Texan to become Presi-
dent, is the logical choice for the
nomination. Only if he stumbles
badly could he be confronted with
any serious challenge.
Beyond the Democratic conven-
tion, however, lies the critical No-
vember verdict of a people who-
if popularity polls mean anything
-- were well satisfied with the
operations of a personal young
Whatever success the new Presi-
dent has in this endeavor, there
will remain what politicians regard
as the necessity of balancing the
Supported 'New Frontier'
In the more than three years he
has spent as Vice-President, John-
son has built up a record of ad-
vocacy of civil rights and of sup-
port for Kennedy's "New Fron-
tier" program. He has gone so
far in this direction that many
conservatives and most segrega-
tionists of the South have turned
their backs on him.
But Johnson retains strongly'
placed Dixie friends such as Sena-
tors Richard B. Russell (D-Ga)
and Harry F. Byrd (D-Va). The
South plainly is not as averse to
the new chief executive as it was
In a brief interview in a hotel
lobby in Fort Worth, a few hours
before anyone could guess he was
about to become President, John-
son expressed the opinion that
Texas was beginning to look "all.
right" for the Democrats. This
was after Kennedy's triumphal
Texas, with 25 electoral votes,
has been regarded as a Democrat-
ic "must." If Texans vote a major-
ity against a Texan running for
President, it will surprise not only
Johnson but also most political
Johnson's major troubles seem
to lie where Kennedy had none,
in the northern big city states with
heavy electoral votes. Organized
labor and the Negroes remain at
arms length with the new Presi-
dent. It is his job to leave them
little chance to oppose him.-
As a part of this, Johnson ob-
viously will be looking around for,
a vice-presidential running mate
with appeal in the heavily populat-
If he induced Attorney General
Robert F. Kennedy to run with
him, he could present a ticket ap-
pealing to the dead President's
followers and to the minorities
who look upon his brother as their
champion. If elected, this would
put Kennedy in a favored spot for
the nomination later.
This would add to the opposition
in the South, where the oppon-
ents of civil rights action have
made Robert Kennedy their prin-
LEADERS--President Lyndon B. Johnson (right) confers with
Senate Minority Leader Everett M. Dirksen (left) and Senate
foreign relations committee chairman William Fulbright while
still Senate majority leader in 1960. He will now have to work
with these men to pass his legislative program.
Many capital observers tend to
think that in order to get Congress
moving on anything, he'll have to
make some changes in legislative
One man suggested as likely to
go is Senate Majority Leader Mike
On Second Thought
Kennedy said that the Russians
were ahead in the "space race"
during one of his last news con-
ferences. There has been talk
from' responsible sources, however,
about second looks at the space
It is not known how well-devel-
oped Kennedy's views were on the
subject, but it is known that John-
son is outspoken in favor of a full
and complete outer space program.
In support of such a program,
he said, "If we are not success-
ful in our efforts in space, we will
not be first on the moon, we will
not be first in space, and one day
soon we will not be first on earth."
When Johnson was in the Sen-
ate, he had not been very out-
spoken on foreign affairs, whereas'
Kennedy had. However, Johnson
has toured about 20 countries in
the past three years and has a
traditional interest in Latin Amer-
In the delicate tariff-cutting
that is expected to take place next
year and had been known as the
Kennedy "round," Johnson might
well bring to bear specialized
knowledge in basic commodities
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NEW STATE CONSTITUTION:
Pierce Warns of 'Conflict of Interests'
By EDWARD HERSTEIN
"The Legislature has to come to
grips with some aspects of the
conflict of interest problem," Prof.
William J. Pierce of the Law
ficers" to avoid "conflict of
ounces of pure beauty!
School said yesterday.
The problem arises from a
clause in the new state constitu-
tion, to take effect Jan. 1, which
orders lawmakers and "state of-
Because "the new constitution
says 'the Legislature shall further
implement' this provision (rather
than just 'implement,' as other
provisions are worded, the consti-
tution is self-operating," Prof.
Laws Are Needed
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The proposal would have creat-
ed a three-member ethics com-
mittee to advise lawmakers, public
officers or public employes wheth-
er any governmental contract in
which they were interested might
It defined prima facie conflict
of interest as one where the pub-
lic officer or employe would re-
ceive 10 per cent or more of the
contract income, a nd sought to
define other questionable relation-
ships with a contract
It also included a provision in
which a company could get back
its cost - but not its profit - if
the courts voided a contract be-
cause of the provision.
Rep. Joseph A. Gillis, Jr. (D-
Detroit) warned that lawmakers
must face the ethical problems in-
volved sooner or later. "We've got
to wrestle with this problem." he
said. "I'd rather have us do it
than have it done for us after
there is some scandal."
"I'll introduce the bill myself
next month, if Gov. George Rom-
ney's call for the special session
is broad enough. If I can t' in-
troduce the bill myself, I'm sure
it will be introduced by someone
in next year's regular session."
It's Up To Romney
Romney's official call for the
special session stated that it would
start at 8 p.m. Dec. 3 and would
consider "certain subjects to be
submitted by special messages."
This left the question of whether
any message will cover the conflict
of interest problem up to Romney.
Brown told the committee this
is "totally new legislation" which
it might want to study further.
However, Prof. Pierce said that
while such legislation is "foreign
to Michigan," it is "like New
York's," and the ethics commis-
sion provision has been "batted
around in California."
The committee is expected to
submit 82 bills requiring imme-
diate action to the special session.
It was learned that and revision
of the state Aid to Dependent
Children of the Unemployed act
to make Michigan eligible for fed-
eral funds will not be considered
at the session, although two House
Democrats ,argue that the state is
losing $50,000 a day until the state
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