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November 13, 1963 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1963-11-13

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Semrrty-Third Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAW
- UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD m CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
"Where Opinions Are Free STUDENT PUTBLICATIONS BLDG., ANN ARBOR, MICH., PHONE NO 2-3241
Truth Will Prevail"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in al, reprints.

CONTROVERSY IN EDUCATION:
The Struggle of Authortity and Autonomy

)NESDAY, NOVEMBER 13, 1963

NIGHT EDITOR: MARILYN KORAL

Beating the Budget Squeeze:
Some Possibilities

IT'S A RATHER unbalanced equation.
On one side are the tasks the Univer-
sity faces: more students to educate and
an unprecedentedly large body of knowl-
edge to impart to them. On the other side
are the resources it has to accomplish
these tasks: inadequate amounts of time,
faculty and facilities.
Somehow, the equation must be balanc-
ed; however, the stark facts of the "baby
boom" and Lansing's frugality make it
unlikely that any of the above factors
can be manipulated to do the trick.
Something within the University will
have to give. If we stick to all the current
assumptions about what the University
must be, the only thing that can give is
quality.
But let's question some of the assump-
tions.
A MAJOR ASSUMPTION made by those
who paint the financial squeeze as a
disaster is that the bigger the class, the
poorer the education. This seems reason-
able, but in fact there is no real evidence
to prove it.
Abandon this assumption and the fi-
nancial squeeze loses some-of its sting. If"
classes can be expanded painlessly, the
cost of adding each new student to the
University drops tremendously.
* There are two ways to do this. First,
class size can be allowed to increase
wherever possible. This is what probably
will have to be done, but it banks rather
heavily on the equally shaky assumption
that class size and learning have no rela-
tion.
The alternative involves a more selec-
tive process: reorganizing courses, jug-
gling class-size to make some classes
smaller while making others much larger.
For example: many courses are labeled
"recitations," and divided into small sec-
tions. In fact, however, some of these are
nothing but little lectures, because the
classroom discussion which justifies a
small class is virtually absent. Turning
them into lectures would free faculty
time for personal consultation and for
manageable-size discussion and seminar
groups.
A MORE COMPLEX assumption is that
University education is exclusively a
process of transmitting knowledge from
faculty member to student.
This assumption ignores the existence
of a huge reservoir of virtually free edu-
cational energy: the University's stu-
dents. The problem, of course, is how to
harness this energy.;
Ideally, this ;would be done on the stu-

dents' own initiative. Suppose, for exam-
ple, a student is taking a psychology
course. Why couldn't he, on a day-by-day
basis/as he takes the course, teach it to
his roommate? Not only would the "stu-
dent" roommate learn a subject he might
otherwise never meet, but the "teacher"
roommate would be led by the questions
of his "student" to a clearer and more en-
thusiastic understanding of the course.
CLEARLY, such practices cannot be leg-
islated. But the University does have
a few motivational tools at its disposal.
By far the most potent of these is the
tremendous influence of students upon
one another. To turn this influence, pres-
ently rather detrimental to academic
aims, into more educational channels is
the primary aim of experiments such as
the proposed residential college.
Other tools open to the University are
grades and credits. If curricula are struc-
tured so as to require or at least reward
more independence and aggressiveness,
students will learn these tricks as well as
they have learned the present passive,
soak-it-up attitude. For instance, in many
courses students should be able to receive
credit for, or at least place out of, a
course by doing nothing but taking a final
to demonstrate that they've learned it.
THERE ARE OTHER assumptions which,
if abandoned, lead to really radical
changes in the University: 1) that Uni-
versity research makes a positive contri-
bution to undergraduate education; 2)
that the University has an obligation,
despite the state's stinginess, to do re-
search and graduate education; and 3)
that having top-rank faculty members in
the classroom improves education.
Denying these, the University could
turn itself into a true undergraduate edu-
cational institution, abandoning its pres-
ent ambiguity of purpose and devoting it-
self to becoming the top teaching center
in the country-which it could be. In
each department, a handful of top-notch
teaching-oriented professors, lured here
by generous salaries, would plan the cur-
riculum and possibly give the large lec-
tures. Instructors-who could ble paid
about as much as assistant professors are
today-would do the actual teaching.
THE POSSIBILITIES mentioned here are
not intended as definite proposals; I
doubt that I would want to abandon some
of the assumptions that are pointed out.
But they are assumptions, and in the face
of the budget crisis they must all be ques-
tioned. KENNETH WINTER

By LAURENCE KIRSHBAUM
INTERPRETING the education
provisions in the state's new
constitution can be an explosive
task.
This has become apparent as
legislators and state administra-
tors have found themselves grap-
pling with what threatens to be-
come a. serious controversy, one
that could bear importantly on a
proposal to hike tuitions.
The confusion and controversy
have arisen in trying to define the
immediate future role of the State
Board of Education under the new
constitution, which takes effect
Jan. 1.
Indeed, the current disagree-
ment, made crucial by the im-
minence of Jan. 1, has even man-
aged to cloak the more long-range
problem of state-wide coordina-
tion of higher education.
SPECIFICALLY, the feature is-
sues in the immediate controversy
are three fold:,
-What will be the authority
and role of the current State
Board of Education which con-
tinues until January 1965?
-What will be the power of the
new, constitutionally-established
governing bodies of state-support-,
ed colleges and universities, par-
ticularly the four institutions
which are now under the direct
supervision of the State Board?
-What role will the new State
Board of Education assume when
it takes effect one year after the
new constitution, in January,
1965?
There are also a series of ac-
companying issues, including the
need to specify the role of the
state superintendent of public in-
struction, who is secretary of the
State Board, and whose term runs,
until June, 1965.
ENTANGLED in the three major
issues are Gov. George Romney's
chief educational aide, Charles
Orlebeke, and Sen. Garry Brown

'R-Schoolcraft), the chairman of
a legislative subcommittee work-
ing to implement the new consti-
tution through specific legislative
measures.
Attorney General Frank Kelley
will also enter the arena of con-
troversy when he releases his long-
awaited opinion weighing the pow-

Michigan, Michigan Institute of
Mining and Technology, Ferris
and Grand Valley State.
Under the current constitution,
Eastern Michigan, Central Michi-
gan, Northern Michigan and West-
ern Michigan Universities are un-
der the "general supervision" of
the State Board.

INTERPRETING CONSTITUTION-Gov. George Romney (left)
and Attorney General Frank Kelley (right) will be key figures in
deciding the outcome of the current controversy over the present
and future State Board of Educations. The controversy centers
around the possible clash of autonomous governing bodies, newly
created for some state-supported institutions, with the State Board.

er of the State Board in relation
to the seemingly autonomous sta-
tus of the seven new school gov-
erning bodies.
These school bodies will all be-
come separate constitutional en-
tities--called "body corporates"--
such as the "big three" universities
are now.
The seven universities and col-
leges which will get "body cor-
porate" governing bodies are:
Eastern Michigan, Central Michi-
gan, Northern Michigan, Western

The other three colleges have
their own governing boards, but
these are not given constitutional
status.
KELLEY IS THUS considering
the question of the autonomous
power of the seven new boards for
the one-year period the current
State Board will continue in oper-
ation. His ruling will have to take
into account the untidy situation
in which the same board will be
called upon to function under a

new constitution, which gives it
different vested powers.
Brown favors the immediate
granting of autonomous status to
the seven new governing bodies
(which the "big three" already
have). Claiming that "it is their
inalienable constitutional right,"
he and his subcommittee are fin-
ishing off legislation that will for
all practical purposes put the
seven state-supported institutions
on their own administratively and
financially.
Orlebeke is striving-with the
governor's backing-to extend be-
yond Jan. 1 certain advantages
of centralization which have exist-
ed under the old constitution.
* * *
THESE ADVANTAGES particu-
larly revolve around the central
administration of finances through
the comptroller's office, he ex-
plains.
Under current state practice,
the comptroller keeps the privilege
of dispersing funds as they are
requested to the seven colleges and
universities currently not consti-
tutionally overlorded.
Orlebeke contends that despite
the "autonomy which the consti-
tution grants these schools in Jan-
uary," their financial staffing and
equipment would be unable to
handle self financing.
He also tries to refute Brown's
contention that the autonomy is
the institutions' "inalienable right"
by noting that the attorney gen-
eral has previously indicated that
current officials will continue to
maintain their posts until their
terms expire.
In Orlebeke's terms, this means
the State Board should continue
to hold a role stronger than the
advisory capacity it will even-
tually hold.
Orlebeke thus favors some kind
of interim arrangement with the
autonomous bodies that will pro-
vide for financinghand related
budget questions to remain partly
centrally administered. And at the
same time, he wants to see the
State Board left in partial con-
trol of school supervision for the
four schools currently under its
domain.
HOWEVER, such an agreement
would leave unanswered the cru-
cial question of which body-the
governing boards or the State
Board-would level tuition in-
creases if the Legislature recom-
mended them.
This question is vital relating
to the current legislative efforts
to force tuition hikes. If the State
Board were left in control of the
tuition question, it is expected
that it would veto any hike recom-
mendation by the Legislature.
The Legislature cannot force by
legal measures any college or uni-
versity to raise its tuition fees.
The Lansing body can, however,
appropriate a sum which so fails
to satisfy the institutions' requests
that they would be forced to raise
tuitions in order to maintain their
levels of education.
Should the Legislature "recom-
mend" the tuition increases, a
key State Board member has come
out unequivocably against approv-
ing them.
State Superintendent of Public
Instruction Lynn M. Bartlett, sec-
retary and a voting member of
the Board, has vowed his efforts
to defeat any tuition boost plan.
He has repeatedly given his ob-
jections to higher student fees
which are "pricing competent,
able students out of the market."
Whether Bartlett will have a
chance to veto tuition hikes,
should they be asked, will depend
fundamentally on the amount of
autonomy which the four schools

currently under the Board will
want.
It can be assumed that the gov-
erning boards-to be appointed by
the governor-may not be so an-
xious to take their complete con-
stitutional autonomy in their first
year of operation if the governor
asks them not to.
But if he is forced to recom-
mend tuition increases as a neces-
sary supplement to the state high-
er education appropriation, then
the governing bodies will be asked
to go along.
Romney will have, of course, no
no control over these governing
bodies after their appointment. He
may thus see them take more of
the immediate autonomy which
Brown wants them to have.
The governor will be further
caught in a' squeeze if he wants
the bodies to refrain from becom-
ing completely autonomous in
budgetary administration-as Or-
lebeke has hoped-while making
an autonomous vote for tuition
hikes.
* * *
WHAT MOST LIKELY will oc-
cur is compromise, a compromise
that would partially wait out the
autonomy question for a year.
When the new State Board
takes control in 1965, it will
change the focus of, but not re-
solve, the State Board-autonomy
dispute. For the new State Board
in 1965 will have the constitution-
al power "to serve as the general
planning and coordinating body"
of higher education and will be
particularly charged with advis-
ing the Legislature on financial
requirements of the institutions.
Educational officials, including
University President Harlan
Hatcher, have expressed the dan-
ger of this nebulous power.
They are afraid that while all
10 colleges and universities will
then have "constitutional auton-
omy," the influence, of the State
Board will come through the purse
strings. This influence will come
through the board's authority to
receive and issue recommenda-
tions on the individual appropria-
tion requests of each of the 10
schools.
While these institutions will still
be able to lobby for their own ap-
propriations in Lansing, the
board's recommendations to legis-
lators ,and the governor could be
crucial.
STATE EDUCATORS includ-
ing President Hatcher, are wor-
ried that the board will be trying
to dictate the schools' financing,
and this will bring ramifications
in other areas.
There is an acute danger, offi-
cials w a r n, that universities
throughout the state will be asked
to tighten up their facility "waste"
and make greater demands on
administrators, students and fac-
ulty to avail themselves of eve-
ning classes or year-round opera-
tions while maintaining current
budget levels.
Romney aides and state budget
officials have not yet commented
on the new board's authority since
it will not go into effect for a
year.
But it is an issue to bear in
mind over the next year as the
State Board and Romney's ad-
ministration struggle to maintain
some kind of central authority
over seven news and constitution-
ally autonomous governing bodies.
The autonomy struggle with the
current State Board may carry
important implications for the
future. The power that the Board
maintains for the next year will
be very easily transformed into
greater budgetary authority for
new State Board in 1965.

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR:
Adams-Jordan, Place Third

CITYSCOPE:
Partial Accomplishment,

IT IS EVIDENT, in light of recent state-
ments, from City Hall, that Ann Arbor's
fair, housing bill takes effect Jan. 1. This
action will directly conflict with Attor-
ney General Frank Kelley's recent ruling
pre-empting all similar local ordinances.
City Attorney Jacob Fahrner will an-
nounce an official statement on this mat-
ter some time this week.
With its implementation imminent, a
look at the ordinance itself and the en-
vironment in which it was adopted is re-
quired.
It is important that the ordinance re-
veals a stand taken in this state by only
one city, and in the nation by only eight
cities.
THEREFORE, looking at the ordinance
from a relative viewpoint, it is truly
the first step taken by a conservative
city toward solving the problem of dis-
crimination in housing. Thus, some credit
is due to those in City Hall who actually
passed an ordinance which may be too
much for their constituency to swallow;
only the next election will testify to this.
Looking at the ordinance from a sub-
jective viewpoint, there are several faults.
Local civil rights groups are quick to point
them out. It is obvious the ordinance was
a compromise.
,It is also obvious that "freedom, equal-
ity and justice" have been torn from their
ideal positions in a democracy and
brought into the real world by means of
compromise. '

nation complaints, a person can file a
complaint with the Human Relations
Commission. The HRC then determines
whether the charge has any basis. If it
finds the complaint justified, then-it em-
barks on a conciliatory course of action,
trying to bring the complainant and the
"defendant" together for mediation. This
is done on an "invitation" basis only; the
HRC cannot subpoena those charged with
discrimination.
IF THIS METHOD FAILS, the the HRC
must turn over the complaint and all
records and findings, as well as a recom-
mendation, to the city attorney "for ap-
propriate action to secure the enforce-
ment" of the ordinance.
The city attorney may also seek injunc-
tive relief in appropriate cases. This may
include orders restraining the sale or
rental of housing accommodations with-
respect to which the complaint was filed.
DEFINITE POWER is realized in this or-
dinance. The power of the city attor-
ney to seek, injunctive relief and initiate
proceedings in Municipal Court is the
backbone of the whole ordinance.
However, the ordinance in no way ex-
pands the powers of the HRC which was,
at any rate, not organized to initiate legal
proceedings. In cases involving discrimi-
nation, the methods employed by the
HRC- conciliation and education - are
the only tools necessary.

To the Editor:
IT SEEMS that The Michigan
Daily has built quite a reputa-
tion for misquoting individuals,
correlating pictures with the
wrong article and, in general, not
seeing that the information print-
ed was absolutely correct.
It may seem that the negli-
gence displayed has no negative
or distasteful affects on the reader
or on the person or group men-
tioned in the article. But the op-
posite is correct.
* * *
I MAKE REFERENCE to the
subline of text under the picture
of the Interquadrangle Council-
Assembly Association Sing win-
ners. The Daily related that the
third place winnersawere Huber-
Thronson. The actual third-place
winners were Adams-Jordan.
To the people in the Adams-
Jordon choir, winning third place,
though not the top position, meant
something. It did represent hours
of hard work and concentration.
To them, an injustice has been
done. Their efforts and reward
has gone completely unnoticed.
It is just this small, seemingly
insignificant mistake that creates
ill feeling towards The Daily. Re-
porters have the responsibility to
get all the information as ac-
curately as possible. Such a simple
task as listing the winners of a
contest should have posed no
problem whatsoever.
Examples such as this have low-
ered the standards of The Daily
from an excellent college news-
paper to a poor form of slipshod
reporting.
-Leonard L. Riccinto, '64M
Director,
Adans-Jordan Choir
Music...
To the Editor:
IT IS EXCELLENT to see The
Daily with a knowledgable mu-
sic critic. The John Farrer review
of the Cleveland Symphony per-
formance last Thursday was as
honest and in my opinion as cor-
rect as his review of last month's
New York Philharmonic concert.
I hope for more Bruckner and
continued authoritative criticism.
-B. J. Benoliel, '65
Right-Wing . .
To the Editor:
IN ANSWER to a letter from Lee
E. Hornberger, Jr., I would like
to correct a few misconceptions
on his part about the nature of
cartoons and the right-wing in
America.
He is concerned that a Her-
block cartoon criticizes Sen. Gold-
water without mentioning that
the President has "appointed more
than 50 persons from the socialis-
tic A.D.A." Mr. Hornberger has

At a national meeting last
month in Chicago of We the
People, Welch said that although
the society would not endorse can-
didates, members were encourag-
ed support them. He himself ex-
pressed a preference for Sen.
Goldwater at that time.
Mr. Hornberger points with
pride to Sen. Goldwater's endorse-
ment of "regular Republican"
candidates over rightwing can-
didates and mentions the recent
case in North Dakota. Having
spoken with the right-wing can-
didate in that instance, I can say
there was good reason for not
endorsing him. Less than four
weeks before the election he did
not yet know in what district he
was running nor if there were
other candidates and what their
platforms were. And the regular
Republican candidate was cer-
tainly conservative enough to mer-
it Sen. Goldwater's approval.
Mr. Hornberger should use more
facts in proving his points.
-Tom DeVries
Plagiarism .. .
To the Editor:
AM NOT AWARE of The Daily's
attitude or policy concerning
plagiarism-or of how severely
this act is dealt with here. Web-
ster's "New Collegiate Dictionary"
defines "plagiarize": "To steal or
Economics
T IS CLEARLY visible that,
from the commercial stand-
point, the European Community
is the most powerful economic
unit in the world. One fears that
if this community would practice
a policy egoistically' protectionist,
traditional currents of exchange
could be upset and even broken.
I understand perfectly well that
this question at present may cause
some anxiety but it, seems to me
that these worries are absolutely
without foundation. If it is true
that trade among the countries of
the Common Market has develop-
ed in a sensational manner-as
I already said it increased by
more than 90 per cent since 1958
while the average increase of
world trade was but 30 per cent-
it is also true that thisincrease
did not happen to the detriment
of the relations with other coun-
tries. Nearly all the countries of
the world without exception, have
increased their exports to the
Common Market and that hap-
pened to such an extent that the
commercial balance of the com-
munity has become more and
more a deficit balance to a de-
gree that iticreates a problem.
* * *
I MUST confess however that
a cloud hangs over this sunny
landscape. What will the agricul-
tural policy of the community be
in the future? As in the rest of
the world, the agricultural prob-

purloin and pass off as one's own
(ideas, writings, etc. of another)."
With this in mind, it would be
instructive to compare the Asso-
ciated Press article, "Coup to Af-
fect U.S. Prestige" on page three
of Tuesday's Daily with Robert
Shlifer's editorial, "Results Justify
Viet Nam Intervention" on page
four of the same issue. The edi-
torial, I might add, appears right
next to the one prominently en-
titled, "Responsibility."
* * *
THE TWO WRITINGS sounded
so similar on reading, that I re-
read both, and concluded that
either there had been some plag-
iarism or a distinctly unlikely co-
incidence had occurred. Shlifer's
editorial contains at least eight
passages which are identical to
passages in the AP article.
Some might not classify this as
plagiarism. Perhaps The Daily is
in the habit of permitting a cer-
tain degree of unacknowledged
copying on the part of staff mem-
bers to pass unnoticed. But this
is certainly not responsible jour-
nalism-whether it be on an ama-
teur or professional level. I be-
lieve your readers have a right to
expect this kind of journalistic re-
sponsibility and should be able to
take it for granted.
-Bruce Burns, Grad

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