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October 01, 1963 - Image 8

Resource type:
Text
Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1963-10-01

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THE MICHIGAN DAILY

THE MTCJTIAN WAtTY W'rruIa X Ia uuwq .

DBZU. 31, 1963

I

RTEENTH BIRTHDAY:
ed China Claims Advance in Agriculture
CO OP)--On the eve of its
thday, Red China assert-
rday it has overcome three{
calamity on the farm and n
duction is rising.
bry was also pictured as ex- 'g

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i official statement by Radio
ng seemed to be saying that
China is doing all right des-
ts quarrel with Moscow, which
cost important Soviet aid
ed for the tattered Chinese
Homy.
Moves Vindicated
e official New China News
cy anniversary statement said
Tse-Tung's much criticized
at leap forward" and the farm
nunes had been vindicated.
vier Nikita S. Khrushchev as-
di the ,communes as a futile
npt to accomplish Commu-
i at one bound.
.11 round improvement in Chi-
national economy is now tak-
place," Peking said. "The dif-
ties arising out of serious nat-
calamities in three successive
s (1959-1961) have been over-
a agriculture, the foundation
e national economy, the out-
of grain, cotton and many
industrial crops this year is
er than last year in varying
ees. Industrial production has
nued to expand. Market sup-
have improved greatly. The

GOING WELL-Mao Tse-Tung's farm communes, once assailed by Russian Premier Nikita S.
Khrushchev as a futile attempt, have overcome three years of poor production and are now firmly-
established, according to the official New China News. Travelers through Red China have estab-
lished that production has indeed risen in recent months.

state financial and foreign trade
plans have been successfully ful-
filled."
Claims Confirmed
These claims appear to be con-
firmed in part by reports of tray-

Peking May Call Talks
On Rift, Economic is

HONG KONG -- Communist
China is believed to be preparing a
conference of the Communist par-
ty leadership to consider the set-
backs. in the ideological rift with
the Soviet Union and the deepen-
ing economic and political chal-
lenges at home, the New York
Times reported yesterday.
There are reports that Peking's
domestic problems have been in-
tensified by another disappointing
harvest.
Observers have noted an un-
usual concentrationnof high-level.
party figures in Peking over the
last three months. In the past,
such gatherings have culminated
in formal meetings to consider
some crisis.
Previous Crises
For examplea move against
"rightist opportunists" and the
dismissal of Marshal Peng Teh-
huai as minister of defense fol-
lowed the eighth party plenum
in 1959; the shift to agriculture
from industry came after the ninth
plenum in January, 1961; and the
campaign against "modern revi-
sionism" which has culminated in
the bitter dispute with Moscow,
began in the 10th plenum in 1962.
Communist China's economic
and political difficulties today are
believed to be atIeast as severe
on those occasions.
Among the guests listed at a re-
cent banquet in Peking for Dipa
Nusantara Aidit, head of the In-
donesian Conmunist party, experts
in Hong Kong identified five of
the six regional chiefs of the
Communist party and they believe
that the sixth also may have
been present. Such a gathering of
Chinese leaders had not occurred
since just before the 1962 plenary
session was held to define a strug-
gle against "capitalist tendencies"
in the Chinese society.

to deteriorate and has attributed
the present serious plight of the
Chinese Communist economy to
Soviet "betrayals."
Agitation
Supported against Moscow only
by the Albanian and North Ko-
rean governments, Peking has
turned to anti-white racist agita-
tion in an attempt to strengthen
its position in former colonial ter-
ritories.
The Chinese are emphasizing
that the Russians are white and
portray them as among the op-
pressors of the colored peoples in
Asia.
Many anti-Russian stories arex
being circulated in China. One
such story describes a Russian
walking the streets of Shanghai
in the rain with two Chinese serv-
ants holding umbrellas "in the fin-
est colonial tradition."
The anti-Russian propaganda is
reported to have led many Chinese
to question the asserted infalli-
bility of their leaders who before
had unanimously p r o c l a i m e d
friendly solidarity with the Soviet
Union.
Trade Overtures
Peking's overtures for trade with
Western nations and pro-Western
Japan are being compared with its
dictum in 1958 that "trade and
politics are inseparable"-a policy
that led to the severance of all
commercial relations with Japan.
The Chinese retreat from strict
adherence to political considera-
tions in signing foreign trade con-
tracts has become obvious in deal-
ings with Japan. Peking's recent
purchases there have been from
large, conservative Japanese con-
cerns, to the distress of small, left-
ist oriented companies that had
formerly enjoyed a monopoly in
trade with the Chinese Commu-
nists.
These developments have con-
fronted millions of minor offi-
cials, managers and other func-
tionaries, who are the link be-
tween the Communist party and
the masses, with questions they
have found difficult to answer.
According to reports reaching here,
the officials have been receiving
intensive instructions in how to
explain such apparent contradic-
tions in the evolution of Peking's
policies.
Anna Louise Strong, the Ameri-
can writer who has been close to
the Communists in Peking for
many years, has written in the lat-
est issue of the English-language
journal Peking Review that "learn-
ing from mistakes is a universal
practice now" in China.

elers from the mainland. Though
no figures have get been released,
the 1963 grain harvest is expected
to total about 185 million tons, a
good, though not a bumper year.
This would equal the 1957 harvest
as reported by Peking. Red China
reported a bumper crop of 270 mil-
lion tons of grain in 1959 but
Western farm specialists discount-
ed the figure because Red China
then was admitting flood. and
drought were causing grave crop
losses.
"The areas sown to grain, cot-
ton and other industrial crops
were all larger this year than last,"
Peking said. "Although some areas
were affected by serious floods
and drought, the total national
grain output this year is expected
to be bigger than last."
The national cotton output is,
likely to be 20 per cent higher
than last year, Peking reported.
Cotton has lagged behind other
industrial crops.
Modify Communes
Peking indicated that the rural
communes, the ambitious attempt
to bring China's 500 million peas-
ants into big farm units under rig-
id state control, still are under-
going changes since they were de-
centralized three years ago.
"Under the leadership of the
Chinese Communist party, the sys-
tem of the people's communes,
after improvements and strength-
ening in past years, has been fur-
ther improved, while at the same
time their production had been
rising constantly and the advan-
tages of communes have increas-
ingly made themselves felt," the
statement said.
If the report is true, the hand of
Mao may be strengthened in his
clash with Khrushchev over the

road communism should take to
world dominion.
Had China continued to experi-
ence the bad times of the 1959-61
period, it is likely that he would
have been more eager for com-
promise. The present signs of eco-
nomic recovery, though modest,
could well spur him to new excess-
es.:
Remarkable Increases
"The supply of commodities has
increased remarkably," Peking
said. "There is an ample supply
of consumer goods, pork, poultry,
eggs, fruit and vegetables on the
market."
Thereport saidpersonal bank
savings in Chinese cities have
shown an upward trend this year.
Mao launched his great leap for-
ward program for industrialization
largely on the strength of savings.
The report made no mention of
the virtual disappearance of So-
viet aid and trade since 1960, in-
cluding help in building new in-
dustrial plants. But it said that
hundreds of big and medium-sized
capital construction projects are
under way this year for coal min-
ing, metal mining, lumbering,
chemical fertilizer and oil indus-
tries.
Pro-Soviet local regimes ruled
in Sinkiang until the start of
World War II and the new Chinese
Communist regime was forced to
recognize "special interests" of
the Russians in the uranium-rich
province when it came to power
in 1949.
These interests included joint
Soviet-Chinese oil and mineral
exploitation companies in Sink-
iang. These companies, which the
Russians had the majority voice,
were dissolved in 1955.

nation could drive Negroes and
whites farther apart and leave a
legacy of hate, fear and mistrust."
In Birmingham, two white men
were held in jail without charge
in connection with unspecified
bombings in the city where a
church blast two weeks ago killed'
four Negro girls.
Whether charges would be plac-
ed against the men, State Safety
Director Col. Albert J. Lingo would
not say. His agents made the ar-
rests Sunday night to the surprise
of local authorities.
"We're not through yet," said
Lingo, personally directing a state
investigation independent of local
and federal officers who launched#
an intensive probe after the Sept.
15 bombing.
The men were identified by Lin-
go as R. E. Chambliss and Charles.
Cagle. Both men have been active
in anti-integration activities.
Meanwhile, in Cambridge, Md., a
tense campaign ended in surface
quiet on the eve of Cambridge's
referendum on a public accommo-I
dations amendment to the cityI
charter.-
Vote
Voters will decide today wheth-
er racial discrimination will be
banned in the restaurants, inns
and hotels of the city.
National Guard and state police
officials held last-minute huddles
on their strategy for keeping the
peace in the racially scarred com-
munity. Except for four days in
July, guardsmen have occupied
Cambridge since June 14.
Record Turnout'
City officials, predicting a rec-
ord turnout of the 5,282 registered
voters, expressed confid'ence that
the amendment will pass.
"The only question is by what
margin," declared City Attorney
C. Awdry Thompson. "We need a
big one to improve our national
image."
Mayor Calvin W. Mowbray, in
late television appearances, em-
phasized this and the economic
issue. He said defeat of the
amendment would mean continued
loss of new industry for the city
and kill its chances of becoming
the site of a new University of
Maryland branch.

Optimism also flowed from the
camp of opponents of the amend-
ments. William L. Wise, an oil
distributor heading the Dorchest-
er Businessmen's and Citizens'
Association, predicted a 2-1 re-
jection.
The issue, as he described it in
a letter to registered voters, is
whether public officials can de-
prive residents of the right totuse
their business property as they
see fit.
Pointing an accusing finger at
the Kennedy administration, Wise
said not other community had
been called upon to make such a
decision.
In New York, National Associa-
tion for the Advancement of Col-
ored People Executive Secretary
Roy Wilkins challenged Governors
Ross Barnett of Mississippi and
George Wallace of Alabama to
open their respective state univer-
sities to advocates of integration.
In a telegram sent to both men,
Wilkins pointed out that the
NAACP had no objection to Wal-
lace and Barnett speaking at
Northern campuses.

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