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September 08, 1963 - Image 3

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Text
Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1963-09-08

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THE MICHIGAN DAILY

PAGE THREE

THE ICHIAN DILYMOG N HRE

Chinese

Economic

Upturn

Strengthens

Mao

By JOHN RODERICK
Associated Press News Analyst
TOKYO-In the face of bitter
criticism from fellow Communists
abroad, Mao Tze-Tung appears
more secure as China's No. 1 man
than ever before.
He is engaged in a savage debate
with Soviet Premier Nikita S.
Khrushchev over how. best to de-
molish the Western way of life.
He scorns Khrushchev's strategy
of peaceful co-existence and de-
clares that the only way for Com-
munism to triumph is through re-
peated and shattering blows. But
in spite of, or because of the an-
tagonism he has caused, Mao's po-
sition as leader of China's 800
million people is firm.
And the Chinese giant, which
stumbled and fell into an economic
morass six years ago, has begun
gingerly to use his wobbly legs.
Next year he may walk.
Bad News
This is bad news for the West,
and for Khrushchev. It means that
a strengthened Mao, presiding over
a recovering China, is in no mood
for compromise. Unless more rea-
sonable men take his place-and
this seems unlikely-he will play
his troublemaker's role with in-
creasing zest and single-minded-
ness.
Mao's continued pre-eminence
and the Chinese economic recovery
are confirmed by travelers, trained
observers, experts on the mainland
and by the Chinese propaganda
machine.
These picture Mao's China as a
land with fever spots of dissen-
sion, hunger and hard times, but
in better general political and eco-
nomic health than anyone had
suspected.
Better Days
There is an underlying malaise
among students, intellectuals and
some elements of the 2.5 million-
man army. But after years of ter-
rible hardship, the peasants and
the proletariat are experiencing
better days and their resentments
have been curbed at least tem-
porarily.
China remains desperately poor.
Malnutrition is a nagging problem,
but the food supply has improved,
rationing of many. Items has been
lifted, and the nation's agriculture
has climbed back to production
levels of seven years ago.
Severe measures have been taken
to choke off unrest in the armed
forces. Mao has placed one of his
party men beside, and in effect
above, each professional officer
down to the lowest ranks.
Reds Rally
The 17-million-member Commu-
nist party has rallied around Mao
in the face of outside criticism,
hailing him as the infallible sage
of Marxism.
The, muted propaganda claims
of Peking have, for the first time,
the ring of truth. Last year showed
some small but encouraging pro-
gress, said Premier Chou En-Lai.
This year will be slightly better.
But it will be 15 to 20 years, he
adds, before China can become a
modern industrial nation with an
advanced agriculture, up-to-date
science and nuclear capability.
Cut Off
Deprived of Soviet aid since
1960, Mao has cut the Chinese
suit t6 'fit its shrunken and poorer-
quality cloth. The failure of his
ambitious 1958 plan for an indus-
trial "great leap forward" belated-
ly convinced him of the wisdom of
the old Chinese proverb: "A long
Journey begins with but a single
step.,"
De-centralizing the 27,000-rural
communes which had dragooned
the country's 500 million peasants
into man's greatest collective
. movement, he gave the hard-
pressed peasants new incentives

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S. KOREAFORMOSA IIS.IETNAM-LAOSI [INDIA
Guerrilla attacks Renewed threats Increasing Threat
attacks through of attacks on Chinese-supported of
demilitarized Chirns Kal-Shek' guerrilla renewed
zone stronghold attacks AP Newsteattjres hostilities

>

attracted to China's ideas and ex-
perience which they see as repli-
cas of their own situation. But at
the same time they are torn be-
tween Mao's calls for struggle and
Khrushchev's counsels of modera-
tion, backed by the Soviet eco-
nomic aid and military hardware
they need.
Mao can extend economic help
to some pilot nations, but his chief
weapon is anti-imperialism which
stirs responsive echoes among
those whose memories of repres-
sive colonialism are still vivid.
In this essentially ideological
war, Mao makes the fullest use of
fears that the United States may
be, through subtle trade- and in-
vestment policies, seeking to sup-
plant the old colonialists. "Hate
America, the No.1 neo-colonialist,"
is the rallying cry from Peking,
and it has an undoubted effect.
Yankee No
In China, Mao seeks to consoli-
date his position and stimulate the
laggard with an even more frenetic
hate-America campaign, combined
with hatred of counter-revolution-
aries, capitalists, rich landlords
and now, of Nikita Khrushchev
himself.
If Mao is inhibited economically
from ranging as far and as wide
as he would wish, he does have
some fields of action open to him
in Asia. South Viet Nam seems to-
day to be his special project,
whose Communist-created chaos
he hails as clear evidence of the
correctness of his policy of anti-
American struggle. Perhaps sig-
nificantly, Chinese arms and mu-
nitions have appeared recently in
the hands of the Communist Viet
Cong.
Mao would like to extend his
campaign to divided Laos, where
his influence appears to have over-
shadowed that of Russia, but he
is inhibited by world opinion, the
restraining hand of Moscow and
an international armistice com-
mission on the spot.
Power Struggle?
Will a power struggle erupt
when Mao passes from the scene?
The prospects are that it will not,
that heir-apparent President Liu.
Shao-Chi, or whomever the pow-
erful central committee elects, will
succeed to the ruling party chair-
manship.
Mao, poet, statesman, scholar,
historian, soldier, theoretician and
hard-headed son of a Hunan pea-
sant, has made his mistakes. But
he has built Chinese Communism
well. No, 42 years after its found-
ing on a Shanghai river boat, it is
strong and well-knit, in contrast
to some other Communist parties.
Its top echelon is test-fired in the
kiln of common hardships, struggle
and revolution.
Mao's old foe, aging Chiang Kai-
Shek, sits alone and icily remote

on Formosa, persuading h.anself
that his day will come, through
subversion or invasion. But if the
omens coming out of China are
correct, the conditions he needs
no longer exist. They are massive.
hunger combined with unbearable

oppression, the touchstones of re-
volt in other days.
Chiang's.hour might have struck
if he had ,acted three years ago
at the height of China's sorrow.
Now, the clock tolls for another
time, another China.

i

ump

Peaceful Desegregation
Proceeds inMost States

(Continued from Page 1)

school desegregation in Baton
Rouge and the first on a high
school level in Louisiana. There
were only minor incidents.
Public schools at New, Orleans
entered their fourth year of inte-
gration with about 300 Negroes in
26 previously white schools, an in-
World News
Roundup1
By The Associated Press
NEW YORK - Civil rights
groups are planning a march-
similar to the recent march on
Washington-on New York's city
hall for Sunday, Sept. 29, it was
announced last night. The Con-
gress of Racial Equality said "tens
of thousands" are expected to
march in protest of "significant"
discrimination against Negroes in
the New York construction in-
dustry.
* * *
ALGIERS-Algerians vote today
on whether to accept or reject
their nation's first constitution
since independence from France.
The nation-beset by post-inde-
pendence difficulties - seemed
apathetic toward the referendum.
A handful of long-time revolu-
tionary fighters, now in opposi-
tion to Premier Ahmed Ben Bella,
has denounced the constitution as
an instrument to pave his way to
total power.
HYANNIS PORT - President
John F. Kennedy signed yester-
day a bill authorizing a $5,350,-
820,400 civilian space program for,
the current fiscal year. The meas-
ure, passed by Congress 11 days
ago, totals about $362 million less'
than the President requested.

crease fromx107 in 20 schools last
year.
No Violence
Integration spread quietly in
Virginia. A white man and his son
were charged with trespassing in
one incident, but there was no
violence.
In Florida, eight counties joined
11 that had previously desegre-
gated their schools. Schools in-
tegrated this year include some in
northern Florida where racial
sentiment is similar to that in the
deep South.
Negroes are threatening to boy-
cott some schools in New Jersey
tomorrow. The Negroes charge
there is a racial imbalance in the
schools.
Sit-Ins
School openings in Boston were
accompanied by two-day sit-in
demonstrations by members of the
National Association for the Ad-
vancement of Colored People, pro-
testing what they called de facto
segregation. Police stood by, but
there was no violence.
Pickets showed up at Chicago
schools where they protested trail-
er-type mobile classrooms. They
claim such classrooms keep pupils
in crowded Negro. schools and
maintain de facto segregation.
A Negro boy was refused per-
mission to transfer to a white
school in Frederick, Okla. But
there were no incidents elsewhere
in Oklahoma, including Oklahoma
City where schools are under fed-
eral court orders to carry out in-
tegration.
A threatened boycott of schools
in St. Louis was called off by
Negro leaders. No reason was
given, but one source said the
boycott was delayed, to see if
schools become more fully inte-
grated.
Schools in Cincinnati opened
quietly except for acontinuing
protest by the NAACP concerning
the transfer of four classes from
a n overcrowded predominantly
Negro school to predominantly
white schools.

lump,
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in the form of privately-owned
strips of land whose produce they
could eat or sell. It would be years,
he conceded, before the communes
would ever again be what they had
been for a brief time in 1958.
Blood, Sweat, Tears
Then, turning to heavy industry,
whose development had been
halted by the withdrawal of Soviet,
plants and technicians, Mao de-
creed a giant human and industrial
effort to rescue agriculture from
three years of disastrous harvests
and Communist mismanagement.
Light industry got orders to
turn out machinery, fertilizers and
consumer goods for the human sea
of city-dwellers turned farmers
flooding the countryside.
The results of Mao's drastic re-
trenchments and concentration on
agriculture first became evident
last year when thousands of refu-
gees fled to Hong Kong from South
China. It was noted than that,
far from being thin and starving,
they were healthy-looking. It later
devolved that they had escaped
not from lack of food but because
they feared what the future might
bring.
In the months that followed
there were increasing indications
that the food shortages of South
China had begun to ease in the

wake of good harvests and that
this situation was general, with
some exceptions, everywhere. E
Mao realized that his ill-con-;
sidered scheme to push China into
industrialization overnight had
been damaging economically and
politically. It had aroused the op-
opposition and resentment of
Khrushchev, who tried to dissuade
Mao from achieving self-suffi-
ciency at the expense of his own
plan for a cooperative economic
blueprint for all Communist coun-
tries. In defying Khrushchev, Mao
sowed the seeds of the Communist
bloc conflict and split the Com-
munist camp into opposing blocs.
Mao, who fancies himself as the
spiritual successor of Marx, Lenin
and Stalin, disagrees sharply with
Khrushchev's 1956 de-Stalinization
program which struck down indi-
vidual dictatorship, called for bloc
cooperation, and turned its back
on the hard intransigence of the
old Soviet dictator's day.

Mao's wings have been clipped
economically but they are wide
enough to permit him to soar over
selected areas of the earth, namely
in Africa, Asia and South America.,
More Aggressive
If anything, he has stepped up
his campaign to sell revolution,
rebellion and turmoil in the
emerging and newly-independent
nations, many of them powerfully

I.

a

HILLEL CHOIR

1 st Rehearsal, Monday, Sept. 9, 7 to 8 p.m.
in
Preparation for KOL NI1DRE Service

INQUIRIES:
DanI

at Hillel Office; or of Choir Director,
Eichenbaum, Tel. 663-6224.

B'noi B'rith Hillel Foundation

663-4129

1429 Hill St.

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,aL 11

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.........

MICHIGAN MEN
and COEDS
Take a break or a date
MICHIGAN UNION GRILL (MUG)
7:00 A.M.-11 :30 P.M. Sunday thru Thursday
7:00 A.M.- 1:00 A.M. Friday and Saturday
Fountain, Snacks, Short orders, Sandwiches
CAFETERIA (CENTER ROOM)
11 :30 A.M.- 1:15 P.M. Lunch
5:00 P.M.- 7:00 P.M. Dinner (Covered tables
and candle light)
"Special" each meal for students only.
Featured items each night.
MAIN DINING ROOM (M.D.R.)

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7:15 A.M.- 9:30 A.M. Breakfast
11:45 A.M.- 1 :30 P.M. Lunch
5:45 P.M.- 7:45 P.M. Dinner

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PERFUME $2.
Cnr VOMN7F

75

i (y

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