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January 05, 1963 - Image 4

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WIWg Jir4tdat aig
Seventy-Third Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MRCHiGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
"Where Opinions Are Free STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BDo., ANN ARBOR, MICH., PHONE NO 2-3241
Truth Will Prevail"'
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. Thai must be noted in all reprints.
SATURDAY, JANUARY 5, 1963 NIGHT EDITOR: MALINDA BERRY

"You See -First Women, Then Negroes,
Now Congressmen And Senators"

DESIRE INVASION:
Cuban Refugees Pose
Problems for Miami
By BARBARA LAZARUS
THE SUNNY CITY of Miami is groaning heavily under the press of
the many Cubans who have poured into the United States, escaping
from Fidel Castro and Cuban Communism. Local schools are over-
crowded, and special teachers and classes taught in Spanish have been
added to accommodate the newcomers. Housing is also an acute prob-
lem, as more and more refugees attempt to find living quarters in the
many small hotels and apartments scattered throughout the city. As
the situation becomes more strained, the hospitality of the natives
is on the wane.
The job situation adds to the weakness of the local economy.

The Taylor-Donaldson Case:
MississiPPI Battles Reality

"PEOPLE HERE don't know what's happen-
ing in the South. It's another world down
there."
So spoke a University student who had just
come back from Nashville some weeks ago.
The latest evidence of Southern hospitality
comes from Clarksdale, Mississippi where two
students from Michigan State University, Ben-
jamin Taylor and Ivanhoe Donaldson (the lat-
ter is not currently enrolled at MSU), have
been in jail since Dec. 27.
THE CHARGE: unlawful possession of bar-
biturates.
Translation: Taylor . and Donaldson were
guilty of bringing food, clothing and medicine
collected in Ann Arbor and Louisville, Ken-
tucky for out-of-work Negroes who are lit-
erally starving in the Mississippi Delta area.
Mississippi doesn't have a written law against
helping Negroes-at least, not yet--but the
state has no problem trumping up extraordin-
ary charges against anyone who chooses to
ignore its unwritten laws.
Though Clarksdale is 900 or so miles away,
some aspects of the Taylor-Donaldson case just
don't add up. The most glaring injustice so
far is that these men were put under $15,000
bond apiece for an alleged crime which, if
they were convicted, carries a maximum pen-
alty of five years in jail and a $1,000 fine.
Moving quickly, the Justice Department be-
gan an investigation of its own, and coinci-
dentally, bail was suddenly reduced by a factor
of ten --from $15,000 to $1,500.
THEN THERE'S the matter of illegal treat-
ment of the two by the Clarksdale police
department. They were not placed under ar-
rest when they were picked up, and if the
truck was searched at that time no drugs were
apparently found. It was only after they had
been languishing in jail for some hours that
police suddenly "found" the barbiturates and
pressed charges. The men were allowed no
phone calls (Aaron Henry, president of the
state NAACP found out "through the grape-
vine") and have been allowed no visitors ex-
cept for their lawyers.
THE THREE DOCTORS in Louisville who
contributed medidine for the Negroes have
signed sworn affidavits stating that no drugs
of any kind were included. Taylor and Donald-
son have no record of addiction, moreover, they

are smart enough to know that Mississippi
police would grab them on the slightest pre-
text. They would not be foolish enough to ask
for trouble by carrying any illegal merchandise.
No one knows how the so-called drugs got
into their truck, but why did Chief of Police
Ben Z. Collins refuse to divulge either the
name or quantity of the barbiturates? Perhaps
its because barbiturates are sold by serial
number in different parts of the country, so
that if the defense lawyer could find out what
drug Taylor and Donaldson supposedly trans-
ported they could discredit the whole case
simply by proving that it came not from Louis-
ville, but from a Clarksdale drugstore.'
The Taylor-Donaldson case is not an isolated
one. In various places throughout the South,
police are using trumped-up charges and judges
are passing outrageous sentences in a vain
attempt to deny the reality of Negro equality.
One shocking example also occurred in Mis-
sissippi where Clyde Kennard is currently
serving a seven-year jail term.
THE CHARGE: being an accessory to a $25
burglary.
Translation: Kennard attempted to get into
the all-white University of Southern Missis-
sippi and officials could think of no other way
to keep him out.
It is a disgrace to our heritage, to our prin-
ciples, to everything Americans ever fought for
that inveterate bigots are able to twist the law
into an instrument of terror.
"The philosophy of the authorities is to dis-
courage this project," Henry said. "They think
if they can make these boys look like crim-
inals, people will stop sending us the things
we need to stay alive."
AGREED. But hopefully this incident will
have the opposite effect. Hopefully it will
be spotlighted all across the country so that
the crude mentality of people like Collins and
the city fathers of Clarksdale will not be in any
doubt. Hopefully people will not ignore the in-
cident because it "doesn't affect them," but will
send letters and telegrams of complaint to
newspapers and public officials everywhere,
and will flood Mississippi with food and cloth-
ing.
It's about time for that state to learn that
it can't play games with people's lives if they
don't have a white skin. Men who ignore real-
ity for too long are eventually swamped by it.
-H. NEIL BERKSON

THE KATANGA FENCE:

Strange Alliances Result

H y-Pankry in the Lounges

THE STARK cold of winter has set in, and,
with it, the realization that the weather is
not conducive to the usual activity engaged in
under the trees of the Arboretum. The prob-
lem of where to go in subzero temperatures to
pursue romantic activity is quite a dilemma.
Most enamored couples who cannot take ad-
vantage of the facilities of apartments or fra-
ternity houses move to the lounges of women's
residence halls. They do not limit their activity
to Saturday nights; they carry on on week-
day afternoons, too. Many of the dorm resi-
dents even complain that the presence of these
couples makes them feel uneasy when they
walk past the lounges to get their mail at
lunchtime. Guests ,have undoubtedly been
shocked to see University men and women em-
brace (and more) in public lounges. Obviously,
this undignified situation must not continue.
Before proceeding with proposed solutions,
we should determine whether this problem
ought to exist. Should places be provided where
couples can be relatively alone together? My
answer is yes. Many classmates and contem-
poraries of University students are already
married and rearing families. It would seem
to follow then that University students are
old enough for "romancing." Also, since this
activity will apparently continue to exist in
public lounges anyway if private places are
not provided, providing private places would
not be instigating anything. In addition, there
is no good reason why men should suffer merely
because they happen to live in quads rather
than apartments or fraternity houses.
NDEED, THE problem of where to show af-
fection in winter is a real problem and one
worthy of a solution.
As a possible answer, "make-out lounges"
have been proposed in the larger women's resi-
Editorial Staff
MICHAEL OLINICK, Editor
JUDITH OPPENHEIM MICHAEL HARRAH
Editorial Director City Editor
CAROLINE DOW..... ............ Personnel Director
JUDITH BLEIER...............Associate City Editor
FRED RUSSELL KRAMER .. Assoc. Editorial Director
CYNTHIA NEU....................Co-Magazine Editor
HARRY PERLSTADT ............. Co-Magazine Editor
TO.4 WEBBER............. .......... Sports Editor
DAVE ANDREWS .,......... Associate Sports Editor
JAN WINKLEMAN ............Associate Sports Editor
ne s a

dence halls. In my mind, the conditions of the
establishment of such lounges might be as
follows:
1) They would be located away from public
view;
2) They would be completely (or almost com-
pletely) without light;
3) They would exclusively contain couches;
4) A system would be maintained whereby
potential users would sign up for a certain
time on special sign-up sheets;
5) They would have to meet certain capacity
standards set by the Fire Department.
Clearly, the make-out lounge is not the
answer to the dilemma; too many problems
would arise. First of all, students might get
injured fighting over the sign-up sheets, Sec-
ond, periodic inspection by Fire Department
officials (to see that capacity regulations are
being obeyed) might prove embarrassing. Third,
we have the reputation of the University (if
just see a co-ed freshman writing home to
Mother: "My dorm has many nice facilities-
dining rooms, laundry rooms, piano practice
rooms, public lounges, and make-out lounges."
In short, this "solution" is as undignified as
the initial problem itself. Fortunately, the resi-
dents of the dorms involved are not support-
ing the establishment of such lounges.
AS AN emergency measure, Markley Hall
is unofficially enforcing a couple patrol sys-
tem in the lounges "to avoid embarrassment."
It is disappointing to have to face up to the
fact that men and women of the University
must, be approached and warned that they
are causing "embarrassment." This should
not be the case, either.
Perhaps the unsatisfactory and indefinite
steps taken thus far show that students and
administrators are not taking the problem
seriously. The exercise of the imagination is
needed here.
Possibly opening men's rooms to women stu-
dents during certain designated hours would
be a feasible answer. This system is being em-
ployed at such distinguished institutions as
Antioch College, Sarah Lawrence College, the
University of Chicago, and Harvard with fa-
vorable results. Since the students would have
more privacy under this system, there would
probably be an easing of the "desperation" that
invariably results when they try to create their
own privacy in a public lounge. Even if such
a system were patrolled (doors of the rooms
should be left open), the situation would still
be an improvement over previous situations.
PERHAPS THIS "open-door policy" is not

By MALINDA BERRY
THE TOP Western allies are
finding it hard to agree on any-
thing more controversial than the
greatness of the Mona Lisa.
And the current muddle of pur-
poses and antagonists in the Con-
go has caused a further rift be-
tween the United States and the
European powers.
The world situation is in turmoil
enough with Skybolt, the Common
Market, nuclear vs. conventional
weapons for NATO, and De Gaulle.
And now that the Congo situation
has entered the fray it has thrown
the United States on one side of
the fence with the United Nations,
and the French, the Belgians and
the British on the other.
Powers which are allied against
UN handling of the Katangan sit-
uation are those who seldom find
agreement on any other interna-
tional issue.
THE UNITED States is getting
nervous over U Thant's convic-
tion that unless Katanga is taken
back into the Congo proper, Pre-
mier Cyrille Adoula's Central Gov-
ernment in Leopoldville will col-
lapse. And the administration sees
collapse of Adoula as opening the
door to anarchy and a leftist, pos-
sibly Soviet-backed takeover in
Leopoldville.
In the long run, only a success-
ful federation with Katanga will
save Adoula. Tshombe, as well as
the UN and the U.S. knows this.
The military mission was, among
other things, designed to increase
pressure on Tshombe to toe the
line.
The French and British both
have heavy investments in the
Belgian-owned Union Miniere du
Haut Katanga, the large copper
and cobalt mining company which
is the mainstay of Katanga's econ-
omy, and they are advocating a
hands-off policy. The Belgians
have demonstrated their feelings
by marching 200 strong, on the
U. S. embassy in Brussels shout-
ing, "Down with Kennedy."
* * *
THE BELGIAN officials of the
Union Miniere weeks ago predicted
that moves by the UN forces in
the Congo would lead to new fight-
ing between the UN troops and
the Katangese, which would im-
peril the facilities of the company.
The UN is trying to compel
Moise Tshombe, Katanga's politi-
cal leader, to pay allegiance to the
Congolese Central Government in
Leopoldville. Since Union Miniere
is the chief taxpayer to Tshombe,
the company has been under UN
pressure to pay the taxes directly
to the Central Government.
And new fighting would inevit-
ably mean destruction and dam-
age to the facilities, the company
predicted correctly.
Because of a complicated series
of events, some as disastrously
misunderstood and misread as
Custer's actions preceding the
Last Stand, the UN forces have
marched on the Katangese and
captured Jadotville, the key min-
ing center of the Union Miniere,
and are moving further into the
secessionist province.
THI renewed fihtin hpyoen

In any case, Katangan soldiers
soon after that shot down an un-
armed UN helicopter killing one
of the crew. Three days later a
UN guard fired a warning shot at
a Katangan soldier approaching
his post. Unhurt, the Katangan
rolled down a hill looking for
cover, but his comrades had
thought him hit.
* * *
THIS INCIDENT provoked the
UN into the decision that Tshombe
had lost control of his men, and
they struck back. UN headquar-
ters in New York authorized the
12,000 man force to "take all nec-
essary action in self defense and
to restore order." This began the
march of UN troops, which as of
now, is still moving across Ka-
tanga province searching for
Tshombe, who has gone into hid-
ing, but has not surrendered.
The Katangan retreat has been
marked by a scorched earth policy.
Shortly before the UN captured
the key mining center of Jadot-
ville Thursday, the followers of
Tshombe unleashed a wave of de-
struction that halted the Jadot-
ville operations of Union Miniere.
Destruction was continuing in
Elisabethville, it was reported.
Company officials said the flee-

ing Katangans set off five explo-
sions at the Jadotville refinery as
well as cutting power lines and
blowing up bridges. Secessionist
forces earlierhad forced the com-
pany to close its Prince Leopold
mine at Kipushi near Elisabeth-
ville and its Lumumbashi smelter
at Elisabethville.
* * *
THE company yesterday closed
down operations of the mines for
the duration of the crisis, even
though just last month the Union
Miniere opened a' $14 million cop-
per concentrator plant at Kakan-
da, near Jadotville, that will con-
centrate 700,000 tons of ore a year.
This will add about 25,000 tons of
refined copper to its producing
capacity. The company now has a
total capacity of 385,000 tons a
year.
The Belgian Prime Minister
Paul-Henri Spaak has threatened
to withdraw all the 18,000 Belgian
nationals in Katanga. This would
be the next logical step after clos-
ing the mines.
The departure of the nationals
would mean the indefinite shut-
ting off of resources from the cop-
per and cobalt mines and the UN
would be left with 143,000 square
miles of desolation on its hands.

Many Cubans, who are qualified
take menial jobs or to retrain to
meet Florida requirements for
doctors or lawyers.
Other Cubans, less well trained,
will take any job they can get, oft-
en at reduced wages. This intense
competition for jobs between na-
tives and refugees is placing a
heavy load on local, state and na-
tional welfare agencies which are
forced to dole out continuous re-
lief checks or food. The outlook
for the future is even less promis-
ing as jobs get scarcer and scarc-
er, and new refugees continue to
pour into Miami.
* * *
THE PLAN for relocation to dis-
tant northern cities also seems
a vain and unrealistic solution to
the problem. Most Cubans intend
to return to their native land as
soon as the Communist threat is
removed. They consequently want
to remain as close to Cuba as pos-
sible, merely waiting for the op-
portune moment for return. They
resist most attempts to send them
to any Northern city out of con-
tact with Cuba. Climate is also a
factor keeping many refugees close
to home. Florida's semi-tropical
climate closely resembles Cuba's,
and most refugees do not want to
experience the harsh blasts of a
cold Northern winter.
Convincing Northern cities to
aid in relocation is also a diffi-
cult task. Many cities do not want
to handle the new refugees and
will only unwillingly accept a small
group at any one time. Those who
have been relocated have been re-
ceived well, settling into the com-
munities in new homes and jobs.
This number in proportion to the
daily influx coming into Florida
seems quite small. Relocation is a
worthwhile sentiment which has
not been working well in practice.
President John F. Kennedy's re-
cent speech to the returned inva-
sion prisoners encouraged the
refugees and gave them pride in
their past attempt and any future
attempts to regain their homeland.
His speech did not specifically out-
line any definite formula for free-
ing Cuba, but it gave new hope to
the refugees. Revolutionary groups,
though split into many factions,
will continue to attempt to spread
propaganda for a new invasion, to
organize their forces for increased
agitation and to keep the eyes of
the United States turned south-
ward. This hope, however vague
and yet unformulated, will keep
Cuban refugees living as close as
possible to their homeland.
* * *
TO MANY refugees the ultimate
solution is still war and a United
States invasion. During President
Kennedy's speech the audience
could be heard chanting "guerra"
(war) over and over. Obviously
this plan can succeed only with
United States aid; this invasion
differing from the last one, bring-
ing victory instead of defeat. It
is doubtful that this is a realistic
approach, since at the present
time, the United States will not
risk a similar attempt.
The days continue to roll by
and the Cubans wait patiently in
the Florida sun. Each day their
ranks are swelled by more and
more refugees swarming into Mi-
ami. Relief rolls will continue to
be expanded, schools overcrowded
and the housing shortage more
acute. Unless some extra stimulus
can be applied in Northern cities
for relocation or the Castro gov-
ernment falls quickly, Miami will
have to bear the brunt of the
refugees. As time passes, the pa-
tience of Miamians grows more
strained, and the situation be-
comes more and more unbearable.

professionals, are either forced to
FILMY FILM:
'Peeping
Creep
BILLED as "an adventure in ter-
ror," Peeping Tom, a British
melodrama, has stumbled into the
Campus Theatre; but an adven-
ture in terror it most certainly is
not. A more apt description would
be an adventure in wasted effort.
The film is typical mediocrity. It
purports to be the story of a young
photorapher, Mark Lewis (Carl
Boehm), who is plagued by a little
considered affliction-voyeurism.
In short, he's a peeping Tom with
a new angle: He takes pictures.
Mark lives alone, upstairs in the
family homestead. (He's rented
the downstairs out.) From this
vantage point, he films people by
day and develops his handiwork
by night.
* * *
BUT OF LATE, Mark has puta
new twist on his work. He is de-
termined to capture on film hu-
manity in its ultimate stage of
fright. And what is this ultimate
stage - why fear itself, of course.
The plot insults the intelligence
of any reasonably retarded 10-
year-old. Mark runs about, filming
young ladies as they experience
the ultimate fear. The only prob-
lem is that this fear is hard to
produce artificially. So Mark, in-
genious fellow, resorts to reality.
He kills his subjects - and they
watch' themselves die in a mirror.
They actually see themselves
gripped by fear.
How this obsession with fear is
connected to Mark's voyeurism the
film mercifully does not explain;
the audience is spared this bore-
dom. But the viewers must suffer
nearly two hours of peering
through the cross-hatched lense
as Mark takes a picture and then
sitting through the scene again as
he views his handiwork on his
handy-dandy home movie pro-
jector.
THIS NEAT little package is
discombobulated, when romance
rears its ugly head. The girl down-
stairs, Helen Stevens (Moira
Shearer), takes an unhealthy in-
terest in the young recluse. Deter-
mined to draw him out, she digs
into his past life, and Mark tells
all.
It seems his father was a bril-
liant biologist - who studied the
effects of fear. Pappa planted tape
recorders all over the house and
trotted around after the boy with
a movie camera. Mark's whole
young life is a matter of public
record.
And was Pappa ever ingenious.
He pulled such stunts as planting
a lizard on the sleeping boy's bed,
ready to photograph the young-
and then waiting with camera
ster's terror when he woke up.
Nice guy.
IN SHORT, the picture is one
film clip after another, all spliced
together in a most boring fashion.
Moira Shearer is as bad in Peeping
Tom as she was good in Red
Shoes. Boehm is supposed to be
terrifying, but he is only insipid.
If you don't mind peering
through a camera for two hours,
perhaps you'll sec something of
interest. And if you do, tell your
neighbor what it is. Then he can
look at it too.
-Michael Harrah

NEW DATE:
September Primary?

By ROBERT SELWA
THE STATE may soon change
the date of primary elections
from August to September. The
major advantage of such a change
would be greater ease of voter
participation. In August people go
away on vacations. They can still
vote by absentee ballot, but this
involves a trip to city hall and a
trip to the mailbox while on vaca-
tion to send the ballots in. This is
small price for the privilege of en-
joying the fruits of a democracy,
but for a lot of people it is too
high.
A proposal by Rep. Lucille H.
McCollough (D-Dearborn), would
move the primary to the second
Tuesday of September (as it used
to be before the Korean War). By
this time families would be home
from their travels. A short walk
to the local polling place would be
easier than the procedures of ab-
sentee voting. More people would
vote in the primary-which in
many, if not most, districts deter-
mines who will win in November.
THOSE WHO favor the August
primary could argue, however,
that the concerned voter would
take the trouble of absentee bal-
loting, that those who are most
interested tend to be best in-
formed, and that the September
primary would take the election
down to the lowest common de-
nominator.
The major disadvantage of the
September primary would be a les-
sened opportunity for voter educa-
tion. It is hard for the candidate
to meet manyvoters and to discuss
the issues and his stands with
many as it is now. The September

media to be informative about all
levels of the campaign.
* * *
THE September primary would
reduce the potential for mud-
slinging. If a campaign is too long,
a candidate can get tired of argu-
ing the issues and might resort
to slander or sensationalism. In
this respect a two-month general
campaign would lessen the dan-
gers inherent in a three-month
affair.
A two-month general campaign
would be easier on the candidates
from a physical as well as a moral
standpoint. Although a candidate
ougth to be able to pace himself,
and should be healthy to qualify
for public office, a ,campaign ex-
hausts the most vigorous of men,
some having died while campaign-
ing.
Furthermore, according to Dem-
ocratic National Committeeman
Neil Staebler,nvolunteer political
organizations don't get moving un-
til after Labor Day in September
anyway. A September primary
might be more timely in this way.,
REP. McCollough reports that
the major opposition she has en-
countered consists of election
clerks who say they would not
have time to prepare ballots for
the general election. But the vot-
ers, not the election clerks, should
come first, even if greater effort
and speed is required in prepara-
tion of ballots.
Thus, while there are advan-
tages to keeping the August pri-
mary, there are more advantages
to holding it in September. Rep.
McCollough reports that she has
bipartisan support, and no politi-
cai onosition so far.

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR:
Universal Franchise

To the Editor:
MR. GAKHAR in his recent let-
ter talks about the legality of
the presence of Pakistani troops
in Kashmir. It seems that it never
occurred to him how legal was the
takeover of Junagarh, Hyderabad,
and more recently, of Goa by the
Indian troops.
True, elections were held in
Kashmir as a part of India, but
how free the elections were and
how interested the people of that
land were, is reflected by the fact
that out of 64 constituencies, there
was contest in only 17. In any
way, Mr. Gakhar does not seem to
realize the difference between elec-
tion and a referendum.
I cannot see in what context
elections in Pakistan comes in.
However, for information, the gov-

States of America and Switzerland,
among other nations, cannot be
regarded as democratic countries!
What an election on the basis
of direct universal adult franchise
can be in a country where 80 per
cent of the population cannot read
or write, was demonstrated by a
news item reported in the Man-
chester Guardian sometime in
1952-53. One rajah got a legisla-
tor elected from his domain
through his influence on his sub-
jects, and to make sure of the
loyalty of the legislator he select-
ed a completely illiterate man who
could speak only the local dialect.
Of course, he provided him with
a secretary to do the official busi-
ness and to show where to put
the thumb impression when neces-
sary. In New Delhi, the secretary

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