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December 14, 1962 - Image 1

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TEACHING CENTER:
EXCELLENT POSSIBILITY
See Editorial Page

YI rL

SirP

:43 a i1n

COLD
High-18
Low-5
Variable cloudiness,
with snow flurries

Seventy-Two Years of Editorial Freedom
VOL. LXXIII, No. 74 ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, FRIDAY, DECEMBER 14, 1962 SEVEN CENTS

TEN PAGES

AAUP Chapter Acts
On Shapiro Situation
Loomis Notes Lack of Evidence
To Indicate Violation of Freedom
By MARJORIE BRAHMS,
In the latest action in the controversy over Michigan State Uni-
versity-Oakland Prof. Samuel Shapiro, the University chapter of the
American Association of University Professors has issued a statement
saying that AAUP policy holds that "efforts to deal with violations of
prigciples of academic freedom should be confined to the national
organization."
The statement points out that the University chapter is "in touch
with the situation at MSU-O."
It also notes that "our latest information in the Shapiro case

Mariner II Approaches Venus
Many Problems Radio-Telescope
Beset Long Trip WU To Watch Planet

Federal

Court Denies

is based on informal talks with
Sees Cause
For Growth
In Income
By THOMAS DRAPER
"Raising the per capita incom
of the non-white population i
the key to economic growth i
the Union of South Africa," Prof
Hugh G. Wales of the Universit
of Illinois said last night in a lec
ture sponsored by the Marketin
Club.
In an analysis of income dis
tribution Prof. Wales structure
the distribution according to race
"The Bantus constitute 68 pe
cent of the population and receiv
the lowest per cent of national in
come. The whites constitute seven
per cent and receive the highes
share. The income of one whit
person is equal to that of eithe
seven coloreds, nine Asiatics o
11 Bantus."
Expansion
He said that there was room fo
a great expansion of the marke
for consumer goods, if the non
white income could be increased
Prof. Wales said that there is
wide variance of literary rates b
race. "The white literacy rate i
high. However, only 28 per cen
of the Bantu population can read
and write. Only eight per cen
read English." This impaired th
effectiveness of advertising.
Bantus spend a greater per cen
of their income on food than th
whites, Prof. Wales said. "How
ever, whites and Bantus of equa
income spent about the sam
amount. This invalidated any the
ories that the pattern of spending
was determined by race rather
than income"
Technical Teams
One of Prof. Wales' suggestion
for change was that they bring i
technical teams for advancing
technical training. He said tha
students sent abroad to study
often stay in th'e country where
they are trained. "This is to be
expected. If they're good we'll d
everything we can to keep them
If they're not we'll let them g
home."
He said that technical team
brought into the country coul
provide on-the-job training. I
this way emmigration of trained
labor would be minimized.
In a question and answer perio
Prof. Wales said that South Africa
withdrew from the British Com-
monwealth in order to gain more
markets through independence.
"They did not anticipate Brit
ain's entrance into the Common
Market." He said that South Af-
rica is now trying to set up trade
agreements with both the Inner
Six and the Outer Seven.
Gomez Asks
Compliance
On Documents
"Statement compliance is a
continuing thing," Chairman o
the Committee on Membership
William Gomez, Grad, told mem-
bers of Panhellenic Association
President's Council at their week-
ly meeting yesterday.
Of the 19 membership state-
ments submitted by sororities, al
have been deemed adequate b3
SGC, Gomez noted.
Whether or not these sororities
are in' compliance with Studeni
Government Council's regulatior
on submitting sorority member-
ship statements in content as well

as form is another issue, he said.
The only way in which it can be
determined whether or not a sor-
ority is in compliance is through,
an investigation.

representatives both of the MSU-O
chapter and the national office of
the AAUP. So far neither Prof.
Shapiro nor the MSU-O chapter
has requested the intervention of
the national AAUP."
Political View
Prof, Shapiro, whose contract is
up in June, was not recommended
for retention by MSU-O. He has
expressed views critical of United
States foreign policy, especially
concerning Cuba. At present there
is controversy over whether he is
e being dismissed due to his political
isviews.
'n Explaining the refusal to retain
f. Shapiro, MSU-O Associate Dean
y George Matthews said that Sha-
piro's contract had been termin-
g ated primarily for "academic rea-
sons," but said that Shapiro would
- have had a "better chance" had
. he written less about Cuba.
r Expressing his personal impres-
e sions, Prof. Ralph Loomis of the
- engineering college, president of
n the local AAUP chapter, said "at
t the'moment I do not feel that the
e case is a violation of academic
r freedom. Future developments
r may cause me to change my mind,
however."
He added that he is "dedicated
r to the cause of academic freedom"
t but first must know more facts to
- determine if this is really a case
of academic freedom violation.
a No Infringement
Y Norman Susskind, secretary of
s the MSU-O AAUP chapter, com-
t mented that "I think it will be
d found that there was no infringe-
t ment of academic freedom and
e that Prof. Shapiro's political opin-
ionsawere not a factor in his dis-
kt missal.,
e When questioned about the
- MSU-O faculty's reaction to the
e dismissal, Susskind said that "I
- haven't spoken to everyone on the
'- faculty, but no one I ,have spoken
g to feels militantly about the action
r taken."
He noted that there was some
division of'opinion as to the judg-
s ment involved on Piof. Shapiro's
n academic competency but that
g most people do not question the
t procedure and grounds of his dis-
y missal.
e Interesting Case
e Prof. Frank Kennedy of the Law
o School, vice-president of the local
. AAUP chapter, said that he doesn't
o know enough about the case but
it is certainly interesting, when
s a man who has been criticized by
d a television commentator, but who
a has appeared to be a good teach-
d er and a very busy man with mat-
ters of public interest is not re-
d tained.
a He explained that the AAUP
- national organization's Committee
e A; the Committee on Academic
Freedom and Tenure, ties together
- the issues of tenure and acaaemic
a freedom.;
In Prof. Shapiro's case, there
e was no legal violation of tenure.
r He did not have indefinite tenure
at MSU-O.
Freedom Denial
However, he added, the AAUP
"is typically concerned with cases
of a teacher being discharged be-
cause of academic freedom, in or
out of class."
Prof. George Peek of the )oliti-
cal science department,last year's
president of the local chapter and
a member of the executive com-
mittee, commented that "the facts
f as alleged presently do not pleaseI
me but I don't have the other side
yet." He added that "it is prob-
ably not true that Prof. Shapiro
was fired for his political views."

By MICHAEL JULIAR
One hundred and nine days and
178 million miles after the Nation-
al Aeronautics and Space Admin-
istration launched its Mariner II
space probe to Venus, scientists are
hoping that the long experiment
will be a success.
The Soviet Union now has a
spacecraft hurtling toward Mars,
an opportunity that United States
spacemen chose to pass up until
the next favorable launch position
in 1964.
At the Jet Propulsion Laboratory
in Pasadena, Calif. where Mariner
II was built, scientists have said
that the spacecraft has already
been subjected to higher temper-
atures than' it was designed to
withstand. This temperature rise
may cause the failure of two spe-
cial observation "experiments"
when the probe approaches Venus
at 3:01 p.m. today.
Save Power
A storage battery being saved to
power the two experiments may be
ruptured by the heat. It was de-
signed to withstand a temperature
of 1200 Fahrenheit, but recent
signals from the spacecraft in-
dicate that the battery may warm
up to 129.
Scientists, however, have said
that the solar panels picking up
energy from the sun (there were
originally two, but one failed) may
be able to offset any power fail-
ure in the battery. Now that Mar-
iner II is closer to the sun, its
one working panel is collecting
more solar energy than it origin-
ally did.
But this is not the only prob-
lem scientists have had to con-
tend with in Mariner II. Only six
days and a million miles from its
Aug. 27 launch from Cape Canav-
eral, the spacecraft's sensors,
which keep its antenna pointed
to the earth, seemed to lock on
the moon and not its mother
planet, the earth.
Sensing Erratic
Two days later, however, when
controllers on earth began firing
the mid-course rockets that would
orient Mariner II to the earth
and sun, it turned out that the
sensors really were watching the
earth.
OnSept. 7, nearly two million
miles from the earth, the gyros
that help control the pitch and
roll of the craft unexpectedly came
on-and then equally unexpectedly
turned themselves off again. The
same thing happened again on
Sept. 29 and at the same time, the
earth sensors brightened to the
expected magnitutide. This bit of
capriciousness on Mariner II's part
is still unexplained.
On Oct. 31, almost 12 million
miles from the earth, the space-
craft's power suddenly dropped
and scientists suspected a short
circuit in one of the solar panels.
A week later, the panel myster-
iously came back to life. On Nov.
15, it faded again.
Current Flow
The unexplained diminution in
current flow, a laboratory spokes-
man has said, has not been great
enough to impair operation of
four continuous observations of
phenomena in space.
These four experiments are:
measuring magnetic fields in in-
terplanetary space; cosmic dust
density; the energy, variations of.
charged particles; and the extent,
variations and mechanism of the
solar corona.
The two experiments directly
concerned with Venus involve mi-
crowave and infra-red radiometers
to measure the temperatures of
the atmosphere and 'surface of
Venus, and, if possible, informa-
tion on surface deviations.
Two Extremes
If, in scanning the surface of,
Venus, two extremes of the planet
turn up as relatively cold, it
might be assumed they are the
poles. This would then make an
estimate of the inclination of
Venus' axis possible. A "hot spot"
between them might be interpreted
as the location of Venus' equator.

The scientific instruments will
also answer such questions as:,
See TROUBLED, Page 10

PROF. FRED T. HADDOCK
... Venus view
CHANGES?
Board Votes
Pool Probe
By RONALD WILTON
and LOUISE LIND
The Michigan Union Board of
Directors yesterday passed a mo-
tion from the Union's Long
Range Planning Committee direct-
ing the Union's finance commit-
tee and general manager "to in-
vestigate possibilities of converting
the pool area to other uses or im-
proving its present condition to
make it a more valuable campus
service."
The "improvement" referred to
stemmed from a suggestion by
Prof. Richard E. Balzhiser of the
chemical engineering department
that the pool be converted to ac-
commodate co-educational swim-
ming.
While noting that an investiga-
tion into the possibilities of co-ed
swimmingncouldgbe made, Union
rGeneral Manager Franklin C.
Quenzel pointed out that such in-
vestigations had been made in the
past and that the cost of renovat-
ing the pool's facilities had al-
ways been found to be prohibitive.
The Board also referred to its
house committee for clarification
a motion to -extend Union guest
privileges to faculty and members
of the administration.
Also discussed was the question
of whether the Union should take
stands on political issues. Union
President Robert Finke, '63, com-
mented that "the Union should not
become a political organization."
He also said that the executive
committee would draw up a policy
statement for the Union to follow
on political issues and would pre-
sent this to the Board at the next
meeting.
Director of Financial Aids Wal-
ter B. Rea maintained his posi-
tion on the Union Board, as he
was appointed special representa-
tive of the Office of Student Af-
fairs.
IQC Objects
To Proposal
On Misconduct
The Inter-Quadrangle Council
unanimously objected to the pro-
posed changes in the disorderly
conduct chapter of the Ann Arbor
City code as an undue restriction
on freedom of assembly.
It was decided that these
changes brought about an extra
burden of subjective interpreta-
tion on the police officer at the
scene. Notification of their deci-
sion will be sent to the Ann Arbor
City Council, Student Government
Council and to the office of Vice-
President of Student Affairs James
A. Lewis.
A motion was passed that the
IQC Rules and Regulations Com-
mittee should study the existing
policies in the distribution of liter-
ature in the mailboxes, circula-
tion of petitions, campaigning in
Quadrangles and operating rules
of IQC a n d Inter-Quadrangle
Judiciary.

The University's 85-foot radio-
telescope on Peach Mountain near
Dexter will be trained on Venus
when Mariner II brushes past the
planet- this afternoon and takes
measurements of the planet's at-
mosphere and surface.
{"The National Aeronautics and
Space Administration asked us to
observe Venus, and we have agreed
to do so," Prof. Fred T. Haddock
of the astronomy department and
director of the University's Radio
Astronomy Observatory said last
night.
Venus will just be setting below
the Peach Mountain horizon as
Mariner II makes its closest ap-
proach, Prof. Haddock said, but
the observatory intends to make
observations of our "sister" planet
today, and may also on Saturday
and Sunday.
Across Country
The observation will be only one
being made by several similar fa-
cilities across the country, as re-
quested by NASA. This is to give
NASA figures to compare with
those Mariner II will send back,
Prof. Haddock said.
"There are only a handful of
radio-telescopes in the world cap-
able of observing Venus," Prof.
Haddock pointed out.
"The instrument has to be a
large, precision one, capable of re-
ceiving radio signals of the high
frequencies that come from
Venus," he said.
Radio Signals
High frequency radio signals
may handicap the observatory on
Peach Mountain. "We will need
clear weather for our observa-
tions," Prof. Haddock said. "We
can 'see' through overcast, but
clouds radiate high frequency
radio signals that interfere with
our readings of Venus."
The 85-foot dish was used to
make the first radio contact with
Mercury and Saturn, and was used
to monitor temperatures on Venus
and Saturn for NASA this fall.
Although Mariner II does not
contain any instruments or ex-
periments designed or built by
present University faculty mem-
bers, Allen H. Barrett, a former
research associate of the Univer-
sity's Radio Astronomy Labora-
tories, now at the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, is one of
a group of four scientists who de-
signed a microwave experiment
for the spacecraft.
Three years ago, when the tele-
scope was dedicated, it was the
world's most precise steerable ra-
dio telescope. It is the same type
as England's Jodrell Bank tele-
scope.
One use of the telescope is to
track celestial objects across the
sky for 12 hours at a time within
an area.of one part in 40,000 so
as to receive radio waves from a
tiny portion of the sky without
interference from strong sources
nearby.
It can pick up radio waves from
space that are half a billion years
old.
Also at Peach Mountain is a
much smaller radio telescope
which has been used to study the
sun.
The radio-telescopes are oper-
ated jointly by the University's as-
tronomy and engineering depart-
ments.

I-A w eploto
WITNESS APPLAUDED-Supporters of Mrs. Dagmar Wilson,
Washington leader of Women Strike for Peace, cheer and applaud
as she enters the House Committee on Un-American Activities
hearing room to take the stand.
HUAC Questionts Leader
Of Women's Peace Unit
WASHINGTON R)-Mrs. Dagmar Wilson, organizer of Women
Strike for Peace, emphatically told House probers yesterday she had
no desire to purge any Communists from the pacifist organization.
She testified before a House subcommittee on Un-American
Activities, with an overflow crowd of militant women partisans back-
ing her with frequent applause. <-

Communist Party Plea
Of Self-Incrimination

Trial To Go
Before Jury
OniMonday
Prosecution, Defense
Finish Off Cases
In Abrupt Actions
WASHINGTON (Pi ) - United
States District .Judge Alexander
Holtzoff ruled yesterday that the
Communist Party could not claim
the Fifth Amendment protection
against self-incrimination to pre-
vent registration as an agent of
the Soviet Union as the trial goes
to the jury Monday.
He denied a defense motion for
a directed verdict of innocent, aft-
e.r both the government and the
Communist Party closed their
cases abruptly.
The Communist Party is charg-
ed, in a 12-count indictment hand-
ed down a year ago, with faiure
to register under the 1950 Sub-
versive Activities Control Act as
a "Communist-action organization,
substantially controlled, dominat"ed
and directed by the Soviet Union."
Twelve Counts
Eleven counts of the indictment
deal with the failure to register
and the 12th with failure to pro-
vide information about its offi-
cers,-members and finances.
If convicted, the party is subject
to a $10,000 fine for each day it
continues to refuse to register.
Defense Attorney Joseph Forer
said the party had provide the
information required in the form
dealt with in the first 11 counts of
the indictment in a letter to the
Justice Department Nov. 10, 191.
Soviet Agent
He conceded it was not on the
form provided by the department,
but said the form required the
Party to admit it was an agent of
the Soviet Union, which the party
denied.
If the party made this admis-
sion, he said, it would constitute
self-incrimination for its members,
laying them open to possible fur-
ther prosecution.
Holtzoff said the Fifth Amend-
ment protection could not be
claimed by an organization, "only
by a natural person."
"No officer or member is re-
quired to sign the statement. It
may be filled out by a clerk."
Holtzoff said it was up to the
jury to decide whther the Com-
munist Party had, in the words of
the indictment, "willfully and un-
lawfully" failed to register.
Creates Board
At California
The University of California's
student senate has established an
independent publishers board for
the Daily Californian.
Previous to the action the senate
held direct control over Daily
Californian appointments. Sever-
al members of the student govern-
ment expressed concern that the
senate was too personallyinvolved
in this year's appointments. They
felt the board was needed to in-
sure objectivity.

Asked if she would permit mem-,
bers of the Communist Party to
hold leadership positions in WSP;
Mrs. Wilson said:
"Well, I have no way of con-
trolling, or desire to control, those
who wish to join ,s in our efforts
for peace. Unless everyone in the
whole world joins us in this fight,
then God help us."
Subcommittee Counsel Alfred M.
Nittle then asked if she would wel-
come Nazis or Fascists. She replied,
"If only we could get them on our
side!"
For the final question after
three days of hearings on alleged
Communist infiltration of the
group, Nittle asked Mrs. Wilson
if she planned any action "to pre-
vent Communists from assuming
positions of leadership in WSP, or
to eliminate Communists who have
already assumed such positions."
"Certainly not," said Mrs. Wil-
son.
Nittle prefaced his questioning
by saying the subcommitttee had
no evidence that Mrs. Wilson was
a Communist or a Communist
sympathizer and wished to em-
phasize that.

IFC Reveals
Rule Violation
By Phi-Delts
By MICHAEL ZWEIG
The Interfraternity Council Ex-
ecutive Committee found Phi Del-
ta Theta fraternity guilty of viola-
tion of an IFC by-law which lim-
its some types of pledge class ac-
tivities to the fraternity house'
and its grounds.
The executive committee felt
that the pledge activity in ques-
tion was "detrimental to the f 'a-
ternity system as a whole," and
therefore found the act in viola-
tion of the by-law, IFC adminis-
trative vice-president Fred Rieck-
er, '63, said last night.
Made. Aware
"The executive committee be-
lieves that any function conducted
by a fraternity's pledge class in
in fact a function of the frater-
nity, and pledges should be made
aware of this," an executive com-
mittee statement said.
"We therefore mandate the IFC
executive vice-president to inform
them (the Phi Delts) of their guilt
and suggest further ways to im-
prove their pledge programs," it
continued.
Besides the reprimand, IFC ex-
ecutive committee imposed no fine
or punishment on the fraternity
or its pledge class.
Consideration
Phi Delta Theta president James
Waterston, '63, said that his fra-
ternity is "going to take the 1FC
recommendations into considera-
tion."

Kerner Warns of Exodus
By Students from Region
By The Associated Press
CHICAGO - Illinois Gov. Otto Kerner, opening the first Mid-
western Governor's Conference, warned against the exodus of college
graduates from the region.
While the Midwestern universities' scientific and engineering
standards are equal to anywhere else in the world, the region is not
holding these institution's graduates, he said. "We produce the es-

PARTICIPATION STIFLED:
Gives Effect of Elite Power

sential ingredient of the growth
industries - trained scientific and
engineering manpower in quan-
tity - but we ship it elsewhere as
if it were iron ore,"
In the long run, the region's
universities will be weakened by
this failure to provide jobs for
these graduates, he asserted.
"It is high time that the states'
of this region cooperated in their
political efforts to reverse a tide
that has been allowed too long to
run against us," Kerner said.
The opening sessions of the con-
ference centered on higher edu-
cation. Succeeding meetings were
to deal with water resources, re-
search and development, tax and
fiscal problems, agriculture, econ-
omic problems, tourism and men-
tal health.

SCIENCE:
Views Education in Philippines

By EDWARD HERSTEIN
"Relatively speaking, the Phil-
ippine government spends more
on education than the United
States," said Very Rev. Father
Isisdore D. Katigbak, director and
president of San Juan de Letran
College in the Philippines.
Fr. Katigbak explained that
one-third of the gross national in-
come of the Philippines goes to
education. Characterizing Philip-
pinos as "educationally-minded,"
he said that even illiterate farmers
desire to see their children become

I

would be valuable in the labora-
tory.
Fr. Katigbak said that he has
been very impressed by "overhead
projectors, the themofax process
and physics, chemistry and biology
laboratory equipment."
He explained that his trip,
which covered a large portion of
the United States, was made pos-
sible through an invitation by the
state department with the cooper-
ation of the Philippine National
Science Development Board.
Dniamtricalv Onnnsed

igbak noted that the government
has a secretary of education, with
bureaus of public and private
schools under him.
These bureaus set teaching
standards and allocate laboratory
equipment, as well as - determine
the location of educational insti-
tutions, he said. In the public
schools, they even administer civil
service type examinations for
prospective teachers.
3700 Students
Fr. Katigbak described his col-
1Po on nPn nderraai institu-

By LAURENCE KIRSHBAUM
There is an inverse correlation
between the power of the small
town's elite and the amount of
citizen participation in important
local decisions, Prof. Robert Prest-
hus of Cornell University said last

citizens participated in the hospi-
tal and school efforts.
But in Cambridge, where one
man was directly involved in all
five decisions, only ten per cent
of the citizens participated in the
hncnla imc pnn oi4S nr nant ns.r-

characteristics of the two cities
which, he felt, influenced the at-
titudes of the citizens.
Eliteless Oxford was 71 per cent
Republican due to professional and
businessmen comprising 16 per
cent nf theo nnniltinn he id.

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