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December 01, 1962 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1962-12-01

Disclaimer: Computer generated plain text may have errors. Read more about this.

Seventy-Third Year
Truth Will Prevail"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

_ 40*1
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Two Beneficial Results

Faculty Must Take Part
In University Decisions

TH-E PROCESS of decision-making in a large
organization is always complex. The process
of decision-making is particularly complicated
in an organization like the University where
any given matter can have far-reaching con-
sequences for faculty, students and admin-
istrators, all of whom want to have a' say
in it.
This is why the study by the University Sen-.
ate's Committee on Aacademic Freedom and
Responsibility of the role of faculty in policy-
making is of critical importance. Hopefully,
it will clarify what say the faculty has in
University-wide policy. Hopefully, it will sug-
gest methods by which the faculty can make
its weight felt in these matters.
At present, the faculty is already delegated
major areas of policy-making. Within the in-
dividual schools and departments, decisions
are made by faculty members on promotions,
curriculum, future needs and budget.
THE. PROBLEMS of faculty participation
arise mainly in University-wide questions
and on those problems which do not relate
to the academic processes within individual
units. For example, a department or a school
will prepare its budget and its projected faculty
needs. But how can faculty members work
effectively on the University budget or the
projected faculty needs of the University?
Obviously, these problems are highly tech-
nical. To work on them, a faculty member
would have to spend a great deal of time away
from his teaching and his research. Yet if the
faculty does not work on the preparation of
the overall University budget, it cannot expect
to have an effective say in related academic
questions like the size of the University.
Added to the technical nature of such de-
cisions, there is the growing size of the Uni-
versity administration. In some respects, ad-
ditional administrators are necessary. As the
University grows-not merely in size but in
in complexity also-an increasing number
of coordinating functions must be performed.
When new programs are devised, when new
centers are created or new departments added.
Whether or not these add faculty or students,
they create administrative work.
IT IS NOT that administrators are power-
hungry or that they want to make all the
decisions themselves. But if the faculty aban-
dons its functions relative to University-wide
policy, then the administration will neces-
sarily take over; the decisions have to be
Faculty members face a difficult time when
they work on policy-making groups. They must
do a tremendous amount of research and back-
ground work and at the same time maintain
their classroom work and academic research.
But it is necessary for the faculty to have
members who are interested in education as
a whole as well as in their own particular
Part of the problem can be solved by making
use of the technical specialties already present
within the faculty. For example, faculty mem-
bers of the business administration school and
the economics department could make an
especial contribution to compiling the Univer-
sity budget. Faculty members in the various
social sciences could contribute in the area of
organizational problems. But the basic prob-
lem of getting a variety of faculty members
interested and informed in highly technical
policy problems remains the unanswered and
perhaps the unanswerable question which faces
the committee.

BUT HOWEVER the committee resolves the
question of faculty participation as a prac-
tical matter, it must also resolve the problem of
faculty participation as a philosophical mat-
ter. The University Senate is empowered only
to advise. In some ways, this is only a technical
limitation since legally, the Regents are given
complete power in the University. Also, in some
areas the faculty has, for all practical purposes,
the final say.
The question is whether faculty power ought
to be extended into as many areas as faculty
members and committees are capable of hand-
ling, leaving only the most technical matters
to the administration. There is a real conflict
here among faculty members whether it is
simply the role of the teacher to teach and
perhaps advise the administration or whether
it is his responsibility to take an active part
in University-wide policy making.
Certainly it is easier for faculty members
to limit themselves to teaching. But if fac-
ulty members conceive of the University as
a community of scholars, then of necessity they
must do as much as they can to shape that
community. To fail to do so is to allow the
community to be shaped from the outside. A
community of scholars ought to be based on
the ideals of scholarship; where else, besides
the faculty, can this direction be found?
ANOTHER ASPECT of the problem is the
present organization of the faculty. At
the moment, the University Senate is in itself
not the most important organ of faculty power.
Rather, it is the committee system of, the
Senate and the various departmental com-
mittees. The Senate itself is too large a body
to work effectively as a whole.
The Senate Advisory Committee on Uni-
versity Affairs is an important body; however
it is not empowered to give opinions as having
the backing of the faculty. It is an admittedly
unrepresentative body.
What is necessary is some new form of or-
ganization which would have the power to
express opinions as having the support of
the entire faculty. It would be less cumbersome
than the faculty Senate and more powerful
than the present SACUA.
Another program which might help is the
encouragement of informal University-wide
faculty seminars on University problems. Open
to all, they would help disperse knowledge on
the difficulties the University faces.
STILL ANOTHER part of the problem that
the committee ought to keep in mind is the
possibility of student participation with the
faculty in University policy making. Much con-
sideration has gone into questions of student
affairs; however, not much has been done on
the role of the student as a member of the
intellectual community.
Certainly students could sit on some faculty
committees. They could relieve faculty mem-
bers of much of the research burden the
faculty would otherwise have to bear. Further-
more, they would broaden the scope of view-
point' especially where student concerns are
involved. At least some consideration ought
to be given to the student's academic role at
the University and just how students fit into
the decision making processes.
In short, the committee is really considering
the relationship between the faculty and the
University as an institution. Hopefully, the
committee will define a dynamic, forward-
looking concept.

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THE SINO-INDIAN conflict has
had at least two beneficial re-
sults. First of all, it has resulted
in a swing of neutralist nations
which previously held non-align-
ment policies toward the West.
Secondly, it has resulted in the
first concerted effort to solve the
India-Pakistan dispute over Kash-
The Indians themselves are fin-
ally beginning to realize-or, more
correctly, being shocked into re-
alizing-that the policy of neu-
tralist non-alignment in the cold
war just does not work.
Forsaken by their Soviet friends,
attacked by their Chinese neigh-
bors,with whom they had ad-
vocated "peaceful co-existence,"
the Indians were literally forced
to turn to the West for aid.
* * *
THIS AID was badly needed.
The Indian troops were using
World War I vintage bolt-action
rifles, wearing lightweight com-
bat apparel, and were virtually
unprepared for any conflict of
the scope of the present Sino-
Indian border war.
The much-needed military as-
sistance was fast in arriving. Less
than a week after Prime Minister
Nehru's request for aid from the
West, Britain had sent two Bri-
tannia turbo-props carrying Bel-
gain-made FN automatic rifles
(standard NATO weapons) and
the United States had set up a
Germany-to-Calcutta airlift oper-
ating around the clock.
While U.S. Ambassador John K.
Galbraith has warned the Indians
not to view this aid as the "magic
solution" to the present crisis, the
aid is definitely indispensible and
essential to any hope of the In-
dians being saved from the threat
of Chinese Communism.
* * *
West which Nehru and his Indian
government have taken is not an
isolated case. Although the rest
of the neutralist countries are
not all in such dire positions as
India, they can still look on the
example of India and learn some-
thing about the policy of neutral-
ist non-alignment and its dim
prospects for the cold war. And it
appears that some of them are
doing just that.
Recently, a national news mag-
azine reported that eight of the
neutral countries committed to a
policy of non-alignment who had
previously abstained on the sub-
ject of the admission of Red China
to the United Nations voted an

unequivocal "No" when the issue
came before the last session.
As time goes on and the Sino-
Indian crisis becomes more acute,
it is probable that the world will
witness an increasing swing to
the West by neutralist nations.
* * *
ANOTHER interesting develop-
ment coming out of this crisis is
the conference held last night be-
tween Indian and Pakistani of-
ficials regarding the settlement of
the Kashmir dispute.
This is the first really positive
attempt at the solution of this
crisis, something for which the
United States has long been push-
ing. The indication would seem to
be that neutralist nations such as
India and Pakistan are anxious to
solve crises among themselves,
with external help if necessary, so
that their position in case of
a hot war will be more tenable and
more secure.
The sudden decision by the In-
dian and Pakistani officials to
confer over the solution of the
Kashmir crisis would also indicate
that the neutral nations of the
world would like to solidify their
position and present a more uni-
fied picture to the world. When
the neutrals have such disputes as
the Kashmir situation, they can-
not stand really united against
such aggression as the Chinese in-
vasion of India. This good indica-
tion that the neutrals may have
in mind the concept of unification
is one of the first true indications
of such a tendency that the mod-
ern Cold War has seen, and it is
indeed enheartening.
The Sino-Indian confict, by pro-
ducing these two positive effects,
has shown that the neutrals are
not necessarily going to maintain
their policy of non-alignment and
passive resistance in the face of
an aggressive threat. It has also
shown that the United States may
be given the opportunity several
times in the near future to reverse
the trend and begin taking advan-
tage of "bad" situations and mak-
ing some good out of them, as the
Soviet Union has been doing for
some time.
The present crisis in India may
prove to be the turning point of
the Cold War. But this will only
happen if the U.S. and its allies
begin to take advantage of such
situations and use them to their
advantage. Our position in the
Cold War could be drastically im-
proved if we maintain our present
position and refuse to stand by
and watch the Communists take
over the world.

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Defense and Workers' Rights

WHEN a free economy, like that
of the United States, is placed
in competition with a completely
planned one, like the Soviet Un-
ion's, problems inevitably arise
regarding the right of workers to
strike at essential defense plants.
The whole controversy was fan-
ned into flame once more as the
Lockheed Aircraft Co. machinists
went out oh strike in order to
secure a union shop.
There can be no doubt about the
fact that the work stoppage harms
some of the most vital defense
projects in the nation-the Agena
space rocket project, the Polaris
submarine missile and the ac-
tivities of Cape Canaveral. In
terms of national defense, strikes
can be devastating.
Fortunately, the workers have
returned to work pending more
negotiations and a report from a
presidential committee set up by
President John F. Kennedy un-
der the Taft-Hartley Law. But the
issue has not been solved.
** .1.
ation of Machinists' spokesman,
Robert R. Simpson, said that the
union would strike again after the
"cooling off period" if it was not
granted a vote on union shop.
The union shop, if approved by
a two-thirds majorityofall the
workers in a plant, would make
it necessary for them all to join
the union. A presidential com-
mission earlier this year recom-
mended that such a vote take
The company, on the other
hand, has said that it would be
able to win without a vote tal-ing
place. Previous strikes at Lock-
heed have occured over the same
issue and all were settled without
a vote.
Other major companies with
large defense contracts have sub-
nuitted the issue to a vote of the
workers. At North American Avia-
tion, General Dynamics and Ryan
Aeronautical, votes were taken, all
of which failed to produce the
needed two-thirds. But, simple
majorities were achieved.
IN WAR TIME it has been cus-
tomary for unions to refrain from
striking because of the defense
needs ofthe country. But insthe
Cold War, which has now lasted
for 15 years, it is inconceivable
that workers be asked not to strike
at defense plants.
Efforts have, and should, be
made to settle the differences be-
fore the issue comes to a strike.
In the past when such strikes
have occured they have been det-
rimental to the projects involved
and if prolonged, a strike could
set the project back a yearcor
The problem is complex but it
is all too easy to jump on a band
wagon and claim that unions are
working against national security,
are unpatriotic and need, there-
fore, to be put down.
Union officials are all too cog-
nizant of the issues at stake and
the strikes are taken when they

deem that they are necessary, not
on a whim.
THE LOCKHEED workers are
not asking for more than the right
to associate themselves with a
certain organization. But Lockheed
fears that once a union comes in
it will be more difficult to deal
with the workers and unnecessary
demands will be made.
The effectiveness of the present
strike is being debated by union
and company officials. John E.
Canaday, Lockheed vice-president,
says that between 20-60 per cent
of the workers were out but the
IAM says 97 per cent.
If, indeed, the strikers number
only 20 per cent it would seem
that Lockheed would have no-
thing to fear from a vote for the
workers do not seem to support
the union. If 97 per cent is a
more closely correct figure than
Lockheed should realize that a
mandate is needed because the
workers desire it. And, finally, if
there are only 60 per cent out then
the chances for passage of the
vote are 50-50 and either side
could gain.

THE REPORT of the presiden-
tial commission is the paramount
telling point. Prof. Arthur M. Ross
of the University of California
and head of the study committee
has announced that he will re-
quire written statements from
each side and will hold oral hear-
Workers at Lockheed plants are
no different than those in Detroit
in the automobile industry or in
the steel plants in the country.
They are dependent upon their
own methods of bargining with
management in order to secure
workable contracts. Lockheed
seems unwilling to give them this
right, based on an argument that
it is not good for the national
defense and the differences could
be worked out in another way.
If Ross' committee can come up
without another solution it is to
be commended. But the workers
need their rights and cannot be
dismissed with charges that they
hurt national defense. After all,
without civil rights for citizens,
what nation is there left to de-

Expediency Demands
India-Pakistan Talks

EXPEDIENCY was the cause for
the renewal of negotiations
between Pakistan and India over
the bitter and often-bloody Kash-
mir dispute.
For 15 years the two countries
have been feuding over the divided
area in a nagging squabble which
has been draining the resources
of Pakistan and India as well as
leaving Kashmir in a state of in-

Nullification Old Practice

Academic Freedom

higher learning across the country, a dan-
gerous aggregation of self-styled patriots and
would-be moralists have set out on dirty
white horses to safeguard American youth from
the evils of academic freedom.
The month of November has been rather
full of such incidents, but rising head and
shoulders above any other is the weird case
of Prof. Sheldon Grebsteip, who was both
suspended and reinstated at the University
of South Florida within the space of 20 days.
State legislatures are all alike, it seems, and
the legislature of the state of Florida created
this mess when one of its committees gathered
"incriminating" evidence against Grebstein.
The evidence: one dittoed copy of an essay,
"Know-Nothing Bohemians" by Jack Kerouac,
which Grebstein used in one of his classes.
THE COMMITTEE relinquished its dittoed
copy to the Board of Control for Florida

education (a dubious appellation in itself),
and Grebstein suddenly found himself sus-
The Board then proceded, after the suspen-
sion, to pass a sweeping "Directive on Com-
munism and Homosexuality in Colleges" and
nebulously related this directive to the Greb-
stein case. To this day no one close to the
case understands why, and the Board hasn't
provided any enlightenment.
Grebstein was found completely innocent of
all charges by a nine-man faculty committee.
He can be thankful that the American As-
sociation of University Professors mobilized on
his behalf. AAUP chapters all over the state
(and outside the state, too-although the
University chapter didn't concern itself with
the matter) raised an uproar over the sham
tactics of the Board and the legislature.
BUT WHILE the battle may have been won,
the war in Florida and across the country
against those small-minded men who would
destroy the meaning of education is far from
over. The incredible directive-more perverted
and subversive than any Communist or homo-
sexual it could hope to ensnare-still remains
in Florida. In Lincoln, Ill. a professor has
been fired because he protested the Cuban
blockade. The papers repeatedly inform us of
groups across the country on witch hunts and
book burnings.

To the Editor:
against the acquittal of the
murderers of the Belgian thalido-
mide baby seems to contain a mis-
conception of the function of the
jury. She fears that the jury's
acquittal of an admitted murderer
is a "horrifyingprecedent" open-
ing the door for an unforseeable
number of murderers escaping.
First it must be noted that Miss
Oppenheim is expressing horror
with a very old practice. This
practice of a jury refusing to con-
vict a defendant, when the law
in its needed rigidity leaves no
doubt that he is guilty, is called
nullification. Nullification is prob-
ably as old as the jury itself. Back
in England when that nation was
just becoming a great mercantile
power nullification affected an
Act of Parliament.
It appears that a wave of em-
bezzling had struck London mer-
chants and they petitioned Parlia-
ment to redress this grievance.
What was interesting, however,
was the request that Parliament
reduce the penalty from death to
only a prison sentence! Their
reason: Jury nullification. Jurys
were refusing to convict any em-
bezzler because they felt that the
death penalty was too harsh a
punishment for embezzlement.
* * *
cation itself is reason to discount
Miss Oppenheim's fears. Our law
has survived pretty well the many
"horrifying precedents" of acquit-
ting criminals by nullifications
that have occurred for centuries.
There have been worse "horrifying
precedents." In 1887 in Regina v.
Serne a man was acquitted of
murdering two of his sons who
died in a fire that he set. In that
case it appeared that the jury did

function of the jury. Despite Miss
Oppenheim's fears it is not the
jury's function to set "horrifying
precedents." The jury's duty is
only to find facts, in this case for
example, did the Belgian woman
kill the baby? The verdict of the
jury, despite her admissions was
Thus as far as legal precedents
are concerned she did not kill her
baby. The legal affect is that no
future murderer can point to the
Belgian case as a precedent to
escape criminal prosecution as a
matter of law. The law stills calls
the killing of a maimed child
murder. But, on the other hand,
if a jury felt that the law was
being harshly applied in a par-
ticular case it could remedy the
evil by nullification.
* * *
UNTIL MAN can draft laws
which are perfect so that their
application will never be harsh,
nullification is a useful though
sometimes clumsy tool. Ideally the
jury represents a cross section of
the community with a better un-
derstanding of present societal
mores than laws made hundreds
of years before.
There can be little doubt that
nullification is clumsy. Sometimes
it has caused horrible results. A
jury acquitted the murderers of
Emmett Till, simply because Till
was a Negro boy who whistled at
a white woman in the South. It
might cause the law to be less of
a deterrance. But instead of elim-
inating nullification by abolishing
juries, for example, a more proper
course would be to continue efforts
to draft laws which are more just
and less harsh.
-John Fischer, '63L
Co-ed Housing...

keep two things in mind, both in
their private meetings and public
statements: first, that the kind
of emotionalism which marked
the NSA campaign be kept from
discussion of these problems in
order to promote the clear and
objective statement of the issues
which is so necessary to rational
Secondly, although I am no stu-
dent of Michigan politics, I think
it is well to remind those who
will formulate the final program
that suchaobjectivity plus a great
deal of care must be taken be-
cause of the few legislators who
would happily snatch up any un-
fortunate incident which might
occur as a "look what goes on
there" argument against many of
the important bills, as well as the
budget, which would aid the Uni-
Co-ed housing is an excellent, if
small, step toward diluting an
overly strong and masculine tra-
dition at the University. But it
must be planned and discussed
without emotional influences from
political interests and with care-
ful consideration of all contin-
-Will Irwin, '65
Review ...
To the Editor:
WISH to extend - my sincere
apologies to Messr's Camp,
Hope, and Waldrop, editors of
"Burning Deck," for both the
shortness of the review of their
magazine and the false inferences
that could be made from the re-
viewer. I am, and was, fully aware
that the magazine is not a Wolgo-
mot publication (even if the head-
line writers at The Daily aren't).
The review specifically stated that

decision sometimes bordering on
Prime Minister Jawaharlal Ne-
hru, in taking the initiative for
the talks, has recognized the im-
possibility of leaving his country
fighting on two separate fronts.
Since fighting with the Red Chi-
nese will probably begin again in
the near future, Nehru must free
the large numbers of troops sta-
tioned on the Pakistani border to
concentrate on the Chinese ag-
gressions farther west.
It is also imperative to Pakis-
tani security that India not be
constantly in a state of turmoil.
And since a refusal by President
Mohammad Ayub Khan to renew
talks would appear to be showing
support to the Chinese, the agree-
ment is evidence of good sense on
the part of Ayub. IfmPakistan
were to champion Communist
China against India, she would
in effect be breaking her relations
with her Western allies-who have
sent aid and support to India.
Pakistan needs the West far more
than the West needs her, and Ayub
could hardly expect much finan-
cial aid from an impoverished
* * *
IN VIEW of the strong emo-
tions felt in the two countries
over the Kashmir question, Ne-
hru and Ayub have shown cour-
age in merely reopening the dis-
cussions. Popular feeling is so
high that the negotiations are
facing a tough road. It appears
that any yielding by either gov-
ernment will provoke strong crit-
icism at home. However, the belief
must exist in the two capitols that
some sort of decisions can be
reached-and tensions must be
relieved or there will be little hope
for defending the Pakistan-Indian
Pakistan hai been advocating
a plebiscite t. solve the Kashmir
question, mainly because the
Kashmiris generally would like
to become part of Pakistan, while
the leaders of the country would,
prefer an affiliation with India.
Thus by sheer numbers Pakistan
would probably win, since 77 per
cent of the Kashmiris are Mos-
lems and Kashmir is a Moslem
* * *
would be partition acceptable to
the majority peoples of the separ-
ate parts; perhaps a condominum
or joint administration by the two
powers would be workable.
Another factor in the decision
to negotiate was the urging by the

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