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October 04, 1964 - Image 3

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The Michigan Daily, 1964-10-04

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_UNDY, CTOBR 4 198 THa MT flIAv[1i.. V1iLZ: ; .IV. . . tT1


Supreme Court To Meet Tomorrow; '
New Politial 1

Breed Emerging in Son

Controversial Issues Crowd Agenda

T T. -. -V .- - . w ./ r 'wa .-


Associated Press Staff Writer

WASHINGTON - The Supreme'
Court, under fire for what some'
critics call its overly liberal views,
opens a new term tomorrow, fac-
ing a crowded docket certain to
produce more controversy.
t Majority votes in recent land-
mark decisions have raised com-
plaints that the court is easy on
criminals, soft on Communism, in-
vading states' rights to apportion
their own legislatures, in error on
church-state matters, and too, lib-
eral in the field of race relations.
The tribunal will make historic
rulings on the following key is-
sues in the next nine months.
Does the public accommodations
section of the new Civil Rights
Act violate the Constitution." Un-
der a speeded-up schedule, this
question will be argued tomor-
Classroom 'Under God'
Should a schoolroom pledge of
allegiance that uses the phrase,
"under God" be declared uncon-
Must a man express belief in a
supreme being to qualify for draft
exemption as a conscientious ob-
To provide racial balanee in
public schools, is it constitutional.
to reassign pupils and bus them
from one neighborhood to anoth-
May pupils be reclassified on
the basis of their educational ap-
titudes, even though the result
may be classes that are all Ne-
gro and all white? .
Inter-racial Marriage
Should, states be permitted to
bar marriages of Negroes and
whites and make it a crime for
men and women of different races
to occupy the same room at night?
Does a state law violate the
Constitution by outlawing the une
of contraceptives and forbidding
doctors to give advice about their
May asserted Communist-front
organizations and Communist Par-
ty members be required to regis-
ter with the attorney general? .
Should the court strike down
laws that bar Communists from
office in labor unions, and that
permit the postmaster general tc
destroy Communist political prop-
aganda mail from abroad?
In peacetime, may the secretary

SUPREME COURT JUSTICES Wiliam J. Brennan (left), Hugo L. Black (center) and Tom C.
Clark will join their six colleagues tomorrow for tie court's opening meeting of its fall session. The
conph x and potentially explosive problems of civil rights, church and state, and state reapportion-
ment will be handled by the court this session.

of state prohibit travel of citi-
zens to Cuba.
.Did Texas authorities violate
the Constitution by seizing 2000
books and pamphlets from the
home of a suspected Communist?
May Louisiana enforce its sub-
versive activities and Communist
control law and its Communist
propaganda control statute?
Last June the high court over-
turned convictions df sit-in racial
demonstrators' in three southern
states, but did so on technical
grounds. The justices left unan-
swered the major question whether
states may use their trespass laws
in support of business men who
no not choose to serve Negroes.
The question may be answered
in the new term since the court
has agreed to hear arguments in
racial demonstration cases from
South Carolina, Arkansas and
Alabama. The new civil rights
law will have an important bear-
ing on these cases because it pro-
hibits such businessman discrim-
ination in many instances.
Other Racial Cases
About two dozen other racial
cases on which the court is asked
to hear arguments involve such
diverse questions as:
-Picketing of stores to com-
pel the hiring of Negro clerks;
-Virginia requirements that di-
vorce decrees state the race of
husband and wife and that other

official records separate names by'
-Justice Department efforts to
compel desegreration of public
schools near military installations;
-And a contention that consti-
tutional rights of a Negro who was
convicted of raping a white wom-
an were violated because of in-
tentional inclusion of Negroes on
a list from which grand jurors
were drawn for the case.
More Reapportionment
While Congress debated the
court's rulings that both houses
.of state legislatures must be ap-
portioned substantially equal, on
the proposition of one person, one
vote, new appeals on the reappor-
tionment problem were filed dur_-
ing the justices' summer vacation.
The appeals involved reappor-
tionment questions in Georgia,
Pennsylvania, California, a n d
South Carolina. The justices also
were asked- to reconsider their
last term decisions in cases af-
fecting Alabama, Florida and Illi-
A batch of labor cases on which
the court already has agreed to
hear arguments in the new term
appear certain to throw new light
on the rights of unions, workers
and employers.
Labor-Management Cases.
In the area of labor-manage-
ment relations, the court will also.
rule on:

--The right of a manufacturer
to shut down his plant in asserted
retaliation for union activity;
-The right of a company to
contract out part of its work with-
out first bargaining with unions
on the action;
-H 9W union conventions may
vote to raise membership dues;
-if meat cutter unions violated
antitrust law by insisting on a
working agreement limiting hours
for retail sale of fresh meat.
Censorship problems, which have
been before the court over many
years, are back for decision in
the new term.
A test case from Maryland ques-
tions constitutionality of that
state's law, requiring submission
of motion pictures to a censorship
board for approval and dicensing.
The case involves a film called
"Revenge at Daybreak" which
deals with the Irish rebellion. A
Baltimore theatre manager who
filed the appeal said the state
conceded the film would have been
approved if submitted. But he re-
fuses to submit. He must pay a
$25 fine if the Maryland law is
Another censorship case from
New York concerns refusal of state
officials to license a Danish film
they previewed. The censors said
two scenes were obscene and had
to be eliminated before approval
of the film, called "A Stranger
Knocks." Still a third case ques-
tions seizure by police in Phila-
delphia of several thousand publi-
cations for asserted obscenity.
The Supreme Court's judgment:
on what to do about many of the
appeals-whether to grant or de-
ny hearings-will be announced on
Oct. 12.

Associated Press staff Writer
ATLANTA-"I'm tired of play-
ing follow the leader," Gov. Carl
E. Sanders, the nation's youngest
state chief executive, has said.'
"I -think the time has come for
the South to play 'Let's be the
leaders." -
That is the way Sanders has
pilayed it since igniting his politi-
cal rocket 10 years ago. He jump-
ed into the governor's race in
1962 after experience in the legis-
lature. His moderate racial stand
swamped a segregationist oppo-
"If you don't risk anything, you
don't win anything," was his reply
to criticism of his supporting the.
Democratic ticket of Lyndon John-
son and Hubert Humphrey.
Shared Outlook
This kind of outlook is shared
by some officeholders in other
Southern states, such as Alabama,
Florida, Tennessee, North Caro-
lina and South Carolina.
Sanders is an unorthodox poli-
tician who epitomizes this emerg-
ing new breed, but his type is not
without recedent.
Tradition-breakers on tie scene
earlier included the former FMori-
da governor. Leroy Collins; Sen.
Claude Pepper (D-Fla); former
Gov. James E. Folsom of Alabama;
the late Sen. Estes Kefauver of
Tennessee; incumbent Gov. Terry
Sanford of North Carolina and
his predecessor Luther Hodges;
and former Gov. Ellis Arnall of
.The 'balance of power still. i e-
mains with the old line conserva-i
tives in mast cases, but there are
changes seen in the election of
Politicians of a different type. In
Tennessee's Democratic primary
Rep. Rtss Bass defeated Gov.
Frank Cleinent in a United States
Senate race, though Bass voted'
for the civil rights bill.
Political Structuring
The new breed results from the
fcices of ('hange at work in the
South. Gpoi gia, as a prime ex-
ample, has undergone a series of
drastic changes in its political
structure in the p-st three years.
Reapportionment of the state I
Senate o- a population basis mul-!
tiplied the influence of the city
voters; tiis was ;repeated with
Congressional reapportionment.
Shifting populations through-
out the South--from rural to ur-
ban - support the trend. The
lounger voters, srvice veterans
who have been exposed to other
Esieas of the nation and the world,
and the civil r{ hts movement
have contributed. So has the
steady inrlux of non-Southerners
as new industries have moved into
the area.
Negro Votes
Growth of the Negro vote be-
comes an increasingly important
factor, articularly in the big

cities where Negroes often join
with a white majority in electing
their candidatesM
Industriali ttion and the fierce
ccmpetition for new factories and
jchs--refiecting the ,ianging em-
phases--heve brought new faces
into old areas to leaven the
Presidential Risk
Sanders took his first big risk
four years ago As a state senator
le called for keepirg Georgia
schools open despite facial inte-
gration. That turned out to be all
right with the voters.
Now he is taking another big
risk in the presidential race.
Sanders, who calls himself a
progressive conservative, shrug-
ged off the threat of being beaten
on the Johnson-Humphrey stand.
"I believe that is %vhat I ougnt
to do," he said. "Thei e are two
kinds of politizal leader' One sits
and tries to figure which way the
wind is blowing. The other tries
to move people In the right dN- r
Negative Cripples
Sanders claims credit for the
civil rights plank adopted at the
Democratic National Convention
in Atlantic City. He said he took
the role he played at the conven-
tion because "a negative attitude
has crippled the South for years."
Georgia's only Negro legislator,
Sen. Leroy Johnson of Atlanta,
has described Sanders as the most

progressive leader in the South.
Johnson was one of four Negroes
chosen by Sanders 3s convention
delegates -- first n the Georgia
party's history.
. Another Georgian received a
big reception at the Democratic
convention. When Rep. Charles L
Weltner, the only Georgia con-
gressman to vote for the civil
rights bill, rose to make a short
speech, there was a demonstration.
Weltner, serving his freshman
term, won renomination over a
Imore conserva:ive opponent in the
Sept. 9 Democratic primary.
Weltner captured the congres-
sional seat by defeating veteran
James C. Davis, who now pub-
lishes Atlanta's new econservative
newspaper. In explaining his vote
for the civil rights bill when it
was returned to the House from
the Senate, Weltner urged that
"we at home move on to the un-
finished task of building e new
South. We must not remain for-
ever bound to anothermlost cause.-
Another of the new breed is
Gov. Edward T. Breathitt of Ken-
tucky. Breathitt defeated A. B.
(Happy) Chandler in the Demo-
cratic primary and tack a' narrow
victory over his Reptblican oppo
nent last November in a contest
centered on the civil rights issue.
Like Sanders, Breathitt ham-
mers on education as his top pri-
ority. The theme used to be roads



aout that
certain perso
who is far away

are an inexpensive, lasting
reminder of your thoughtfulness.
Cit eJteie 9,6,t

North Ireland: A Violent History

BELFAST, Northern Ireland (A)
-The violence in Northern Ire-
land's election campaign has re-'
vived old feuds that responsible
leaders of all Irish parties, had
hoped were dying.
For the first time in many years,
the lines in Belfast's back streets
were drawn sharply -between
Roman Catholics and protestants.
After three nights of rioting scores
of persons lay injured or under
So far the violence has been
confined to a few blocks of a pre-
dominantly Catholic and working
class district in West Belfast. The
weapons have been rocks and Ml-
otov cocktails from the rioters,
batons and blackthorn canes from
the police.
I But the fight is in fact another
violent chapter in an argument
that has .lasted centuries. On the
one side is the demand among
Roman ,Catholics for the end of
the partitio'i of Ireland. On the
other the protestants insist on
continued union with the British
It is thus an extension of the
Battle of the Boyne River in Ire-
land in 1690 where protestant
King William III defeated Catho-
lic King James II and his Irish
It also is an extension of the
fights that break out in Glasgow.
every New Year's Day when Irish
divide in support of their religions
and their rival football teams.
And it is an extension of the
home rule battle that in 1912
brought the y o u n g Winston
Churchill--then a liberal and ad-
vocate of Irish home rule-near
a lynching from protestant mobs
on Belfast's Royal Avenue.
After World War II Irish na-
tionalist bomb and machine gun

raids forced Northern Ireland's
police to carry arms, something
unheard of AIn the rest of the
United Kingdom.
Shed Arms
Over the past few years these
divhions diminished. Police in
county dis riets shed their arms.
Informed ophuun cites many
reasons for the easement:
One is the economic Improve-
ment on both sides of the Irish
border. Ireland has no more
hungry. fighters.
Another was the effect of the
appeals of the late Pope John
'XXIII to end intolerance.
Still another was the condem-
nation of violence by the Irish Re-
public's prime minister, Sean Le-
mass,- and other ,veterans of Ire-'
land's fight for independence.
Independence left the six 'pre-
dominantly protestant counties of
Northern Ireland still part of the
United Kingdom. They have.their
own parliament but send 12 mem-
bers' to Britain's House of Repre-
'All 12 seats are held by Union-
ists loyal both to Queen Elizabeth
II and to the British Conservative
Accept Partition
They are contested by Laborites
who accept partition and bid for
both Catholic and protestant
SW , - ' V V V VVV
Call NO 8-8878
Evenings by Appointment
., A £ A A A a A A A A A A A A A A . A A a

working class votes, and by 10
No responsible leader believes
the gains of the past few years
will be shattered by a few nights
of street fighting. The main ef-
feet of the disorders will probably
be a blow to the Laborites by
rallying protestants behind the

312 S. State

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,t .

October 14th is deadline for
Liberal Arts majors to 'apply

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Let us clarify what we mean by a "uniquely rewarding career." If you agree with our definition,
then perhaps you should see your College Placement Officer to learn more about the National
Security Agency and the Professional Qualification Test to be given Saturday, October 24th.
(Passing this test does not commit you in any way, but you must pass it first in order to schedule
an on-campus interview with NSA representatives.)


1209 S. University


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If you are interested in an NSA career,
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and application. (You must be a U.S. citi-
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Engineers, Scientists and
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