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September 22, 1964 - Image 4

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11

Seventy-Fifth Year
EDrrD AND MANAGED B STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSrTY OF MICiGmAx
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS

FORMULATING PLANS...

Small Colleges in Large

Universities

'er, Opinions Ae Free 420 MAYNARD ST., ANN AJ.oR, MICH.
Truth Will Pevan

NEwS PHONE: 764-0552

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 22, 1964

NIGHT EDITOR: MICHAEL SATTINGER

.

In Defense of the Good
Ol d American Way

THIS Is AN EDITORIAL for mother
hood, America and the five-cent cigar.
It's against honors housing, King George
III and cigarettes. What's right with
America? Not much, some would have us
believe, while just about everything is
wrong. Why? A maldistribution of power
and wealth is a common answer.
Power and wealth, we are told, are mu-
tually self-supporting and self-perpetu-
ating. They have combined to trod on
and exploit the poor, discriminate against
minorities, stifle the intellectuals and
impede social development. The result is
social stagnation.
Eventually, when this powerful elite
has fully developed and refined its great-
est instrument, automation, the process
of exploitation, discrimination, censor-
ship and impedance will reach its dis-
astrous end-99 per cent of the country
completely at the mercy of the other one
per cent.
PITY. Look for a moment at where the
powers that run this country are lo-
cated. A few things stand out. In poli-
ties it is easy to say that the President is
at the top, but the lines of policy deci-
sion and implementation in the national
government run almost , incoherently
through a fantastic array of offices, sec-
retaries, under, secretaries, bureaucrats,
commissions and committees on both the
legislative and executive sides of govern-
ment.
Add the endless array of foreign repre-
sentatives and domestic groups looking
after their own, stir in the strong ties of
congressmen to their home areas and the
somewhat nebulous ties of the President
to the voters, and you get some idea of
the forces that shape our political direc-
tion. Of necessity the lines of influence
and control are bewildering and often
frustrating. But they are designed spe-
cifically with the idea that those con-
cerned with and knowledgeable about the
problems at hand should be the ones to
discuss them and formulate acceptable
solutions.
AND THIS IS JUST the national gov-
ernment. Repeat the whole array at
the state and then the local levels. The
problem is not concentration but disper-
sion of power. The degree to which ad-
vocates of social change regard this as
bad is reflective of the degree to which
they are able to marshall this process in
their favor. Those who are unsuccessful
would naturally like to see a greater con-
centration of power,. assuming it is in
their hands.
Move on now to the business world.
The so-called captains of industry-the
oil, minerals, transportation and finan-
cial magnates-made their bid for con-
trol of the country early in this century.
They came close, but the ponderous and
shaky alliance they managed to create
between business and government was
destroyed in 1929 through its own weak-
nesses.
FREE ENTERPRISE, which rests bas-
ically on the profit motive, survived.
It was and still is an extremely powerful
and efficient system on which to base the
country's economics. But we found out in
1929 that it is also a delicate and treach-
erous system. A bit of bad air and it col-
apses. Turn your back and it knifes
ou. Nevertheless, properly controlled and
egulated-and we are learning more and
ore about how to do this successfully-
t is a powerful system unmatched in
he world for the efficient production of
oods and services, the development of
ew techniques and products and the ap-

lication of free choice as an integral and
ssential part of distribution.
Business per se is hardly democratically
un, but it is part of a free market sys-
em that forces it to run itself efficiently,
roductively and with maximum return.
OWER IN AMERICA is found in many p
other places. There are the courts,
ardly perfect, yet hardly isolated from i
orces of change and development. There
re the journalists, the financiers, the a
*1 s~y fnn ~ ,~. r..A..,.a

university people and the plain people
who have, if nothing else, their votes.
This vast panorama of power and men.
and machines and politics contains with-
in it a great capacity for change, for
growth and development. The myriad
points of control and the endless lines
of influence have insured this. Such a
capacity for change, however, is being
put to a severe test in this world of
brinkmanship, nationalism, Russia and
civil rights.
IN AMERICAN SOCIETY there are the
Negro and the poor that have not yet
found their places, or had their places
found for them. They are rejected and ig-
nored. They are currently the pre-emin-
ently static part of our society.
The Negro, however, is beginning to
comprehend his position and is trying to
tear himself away from it. He has achiev-
ed a remarkable degree of sucess. The
assimilation of the Negro into a dynamic
role in American society and culture has
proceeded farther than any such pre-
vious development in history.
There is no sign that such an assimila-
tion is about to be rudely reversed. At this
stage it probably couldn't be, for it has
passed the point of no return. The Ne-
gro has had a taste of what he can
achieve in the way of jobs, education,
influence and acceptance. He's not going
to settle for less now.
BUT THERE ARE still the poor. The
great American economy has appar-
ently passed them by. Free enterprise
and big government, singly or together,
have done little for them. But before
drawing any conclusions from these gen-
eralities, it is well to note a few specifics
of the case.
Poverty is not the simplicities that some
might wish. Even getting an estimate of
numbers is a major undertaking. Those
who have studied the problem most com-
prehensively make a conservative esti-
mate of 20 per cent. That is, 20 per cent
of all U.S. families have inadequate in-
come for a basic level of subsistence.
What is important, though, is not so
much how many are poor but why they
are poor. Several reasons assert them-
selves very prominently in the studies
made. The largest classes of the poor are
found to come from the aged, the severe-
ly disabled, families of three or more
with only one adult member, those em-
ployed at one time recently but present-
ly without a job, farmers and self-em-
ployed and Negroes. It was with precisely
these groups in mind that the Presi-
dent's "political" poverty program was
formulated.
IN ADDITION, two other important fac-
tors have turned up in these studies
of poverty. The first is that inheritance
is not a major source of poverty, which
is to say that the children in poor fam-
ilies do not necessarily stay poor them-
selves. The second is that poverty is not
at all confined to the "economically de-
pressed" areas. Five per cent of the coun-
try's population live in these "depressed
areas." Seven per cent of the poor live
in such areas-not much of a disparity.
One can also note from an analysis
of the sources of the poor that automa-
tion is not an overriding factor. Forces
within our society and our economy are
fully capable of controlling this "great
threat." It is a simple enough matter of
arithmetic that a labor force capable of
a given level of production is capable of
so much more production with better
equipment. Full use of this capacity is
largely a matter of governmental stim-
ulus, combined with business ambition+

and union watchdogging.
WHICH STILL LEAVES unanswered the
basic question of what to do with this
hard-core poverty-those, excluding the
Negroes and the temporarily unemployed
discussed above, presently incapable of
playing a productive role in our economy.
With the problems thus defined and put
into statistical form, the answers, theor-
etically, are fairly explicit. Educate,, train
and rehabilitate mentally and physically '
all whom you can and support the rest
with public funds. These are the steps
being taken, and, while it hasn't been a£
spectacular start, and the means are
hardly as explicit as the ends, at least it

By THEODORE M. NEWCOMB
EACH OF THE "big three" uni-
versities in Michigan is either
operating or planning some kind
of small-college enterprise for its
undergraduates. Two of the three
new campuses in California that
are destined to become huge uni-
versities, hardly more than half
of whose students will be under-
grads, are engaged in similar plan-
ning. Connecticut's Wesleyan Uni-
versity, a private institution of
very modest size has already
launched the first few of what
are to be several small units
within the larger one. A glimpse
at the anticipated advantages of
these and other enterprises may
be instructive.
Both largeness and smallness in
universities have their education-
al uses. Large institutions are apt
to offer such advantages as a
wide range of specialized academ-
ic offerings, a comsopolitan stu-
dent population, a diversity of
enjoyable and exciting things tc
do. These advantages are often
at the cost of individual home-
lessness and anonymity, especial-
ly on the part of younger under-
graduates.
These personal costs may or my
not bring with them a decline in
motivation to learn, or even in
learning how to learn, but in
universities like ours, they are

often accompanied by a certain
divorcement between personal-so-
cial interests and academic-intel-
lectual ones. Personal-social con-
cerns are reasonably well provid-
ed for, usually, in the informal
life of students; but insofar as
such interests are separated from
books, classrooms, and laborator-
ies, intellectual concerns may b(
cut off from the sense of here-
and-now reality that is so im-
portant to learning.
If such kinds of anonymity and
divorcement are more prevalent in
large institutions -than in smal'
ones, the reasons are not hard
to discern. Take the "tradition-
al" small, liberal arts college in
this country as an example. Here
one lives, dines, and plays with
many of the same individuals with
whom one sits in class; ideas,
problems, and controversies that
stem from hearing the same lec-
tures and reading the same books
"spill over," easily and naturally
into residence halls, dining rooms
and other everyday student ren-
dezvous. Divorcement between the
personal-social and the intellec-
tual-academic is not invited, un-
der these conditions.
* * *
DIFFERENCES between large
and small colleges, however, dc
not inevitably inhere in the sheer
size of the educational institution

as a whole. They have to do
rather, with the manner of it.
organization, because it is this
that determines who interacts with
whom, about what, how often, and
under what circumstances.At this
point, the history of higher edu-
cation in America is illuminat-
ing. Until a few decades ago, our
universities and colleges wer
small enough so that, without an3
special planning about organiza-
tion, student-faculty interaction
retained an informal quality thai
usually minimized both individual
anonymity and serious divorce-
ment between personal and aca-
demic concerns. With subsequent
growth in the size of the univer-
sities, there has been little change
in fundamental organization; with
some interesting exceptions, noth-
ing changes except that everything
gets bigger.-
Let me offer two illustrations.
There are now at least three de-
partments in the LS&A College
whose faculties number one hun-
dred or more and whose student,
each year are well up in the thou-
sands. Who meets whom within
any of these departments comes
to depend upon whether one is a
graduate or undergraduate stu-
dent and what one's specialty ih
within the discipline. In short, in-
formal sub-organizations develop
but the department as a whole, a
a sub-organization within the uni-
versity, has only limited impact
upon those who interact within it
-especially undergraduates. This,
of course, is a descriptive-illustra-
tive statement, not an evaluation.
Take, as another example, the
organization of the University's
student residences. They have nc
direct relationship to students'
academic activities. This organi-
zation has the consequence tha'

,
'4
5
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t
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's
i

all University freshmen have ready
opportunities to interact witY-
many other freshmen and a good
many sophomores, but relatively
few upperclassmen (especially in
the case of men), in such im-
portant activities as living and
eating. It also has the consequence
that the persons with whom one
interacts in this setting have little
more than a chance likelihood of
going through the same academic
experiences at the same time.
**
SUCH CONSIDERATIONS, I be-
lieve, have a good deal to do with
dissatisfactions on the part of
many of the fast-growing univer-
sities in this country. As they
sense the consequences of growth
without reorganization, they come,
to see that with internal reorga-
nization it may be possible to gain
the advantages both of largeness
and of smallness. The total univer-
sity community can provide the

advantages of complexity, cosmo-
politanism, and diversity of stim-
ulation. Small colleges within the
university-especially if they meet
two conditions-can provide the
advantages of smallness. These
conditions include, ideally, both a
residential basis and a partially
distinctive curriculum for relative-
ly small groups of students.
It has been said, correctly I
believe, that many industrial or-
ganizations have been more sensi-
tive to matters of internal reor-
ganization that need to accom-
pany growth than have most uni-
versities. Perhaps we, in the near
future, with our presumed re-
resources for theoretical under-
standing and for research inquir-
ies, can outdistance the more com-
mercially-oriented institutions in
this respect, as we attempt to meet
our own objectives.
NEXT WEEK: Nicholas D.
Kazarinoff,

... FOR SCHOOL GROWTH

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR:
0*
American Politics: You
Can't Even Be a Liberal

THEODORE M. NEWCOMB, professor of
of psychology and sociology, has pub-
lished an extensive series of books and ar-
ticles and is recognized nationally as a lead-
ing social psychologist. He came to the
} University in 1941 from Bennington College.
Newcomb is chairman of the doctoral pro-
gram in social psychology.

"Jus' One More Li'l Shot"

r ,
LAW- E
0 0 - N T 'I

Ii NO~
TPhf Tl C

I

To the Editor:
NORMAN THOMAS once said
that most Americans do not
know the difference between so-
cialism and Communism but feel
that both are bad like a stomach
ache. To the above philosophies
one should add liberalism, inas-
much as to be or to have been
a liberal is apparently indefensible
in the opinion of a considerable
number of our population.
In recent televised interviews,
Senator Humphrey was obliged to
parry skillfully questions regard-
ing his former membership in the
ADA (Americans for Democratic
Action). It was up to him to prove
that he is moderate-that he has
been on the safe side all along.
Every decent politician nowadays
aspires to the classification of
"moderate" even .if he happens to
harbor progressive and generous
views, as does Senator Humphrey.
MEMBERS OF a panel in such
programs as "Face the Nation"
obviously go all out to test the
mettle of candidates for high of-
fice. However, in this case their
zeal seemed somewhat overdone.
It was not so much the senator's
political philosophy that appeared
to interest the panel, but the real
emphasis was upon any possible
"taint" of liberalism past or pres-
ent. Repeated attempts to ferret
out the truth did bring out the
fact that the senator had been a
liberal, instead of a moderate,
years ago. Thank Heaven he has
reformed and become a good mod-
erate. That is the word for all as-
pirants in our highly conservative
society.
I imagine that a European ac-
customed to tolerance of all poli-
tical philosophies: left, right and
center, would have been immense-
ly amused by last Tuesday even-
ing's performance-a very serious
form of educational entertainment,
reminding one of a doctor's oral
examination in the good old days.
At any rate, it is comforting to
know that Mr. Humphrey is a
genuine moderate at present even
though years ago, when a callow
and naive young man, he ventured
a step or to away from the same
center.
-Antoine J. Jobin
'U' Loyalty Oath
To the Editor:
THE FOLLOWING is the text of
a letter I have sent to Vice-
President for Academic Affairs
Roger Heyns, protesting the re-
quirement that all University per-
sonnel take a loyalty oath as con-
dition of employment.
The oath is prescribed by state
law, dating from the McCarthy
period in 1951. But I fail to un-
derstand why the University, a
constitutionally autonomous body
in Michigan, allows its internal
operations to be controlled in this
matter, unless University officials
agree with the oath.
The required oath reads:
"I do solemnly swear (or affirm)
that I will support the Constitu-
tion of the United States of Amer-
ica and the constitution of the
state of Michigan and thatI will
faithfully discharge the duties of
my position to the best of my
ability."
y-Michael Zweig, Grad
Dear-Mr. Heyns:
I WISH TO express to you and to
the Office of Academic Affairs
my extreme distaste for employe
oaths as a condition of academic
employment at the University, and
the great displeasure which ac-
companies my signature to the re-
quired oath. I am happy at all
times to pledge that I will do my
job "according to the best of my
ability," as this pledge states, and
I believe that the University as
my employer has the right to de-

pose must be to close the academy
to persons with certain political
and social beliefs, beliefs which are
not germane to any decision re-
garding the technical competence
of the persons barred.
I have honestly signed this oath,
forced to do so by my desire to
continue my education here and to
gain the educational benefits of
being part of a research team in
my field. But while submitting to
this illegitimate demand, I wish
to express vigorous protest and to
appeal to you to do whatever is
in your power to abolish this re-
quirement which runs against all
principles of a free society and an
academy open to all who are com-
petent.
Sincerely yours,
Michael Zweig
AFRAFECIGGE
To the Editor:
HAVE ONE comment concern
ing Stuart Bremer's AFCIGGE
(Americans for Emigration to
Canada if Goldwater gets elected)
and its members: Good riddance.
However, for those who, when
President Goldwater takes office
early next year, will be too lazy
to follow uj on their pledge, I
should like to form a group which
will easily accommodate their de-
sire to save face. It is called the
AFRAFECIGGE (Americans to
Forgive and Rehabilitate the
Americans for Emigration to Can-
ada if Goldwater gets elected) (af-
raf-a-siggy).
-David Andrew, '65
Friendly' Theatres
To the Editor:
AFTER READING last Satur-
day's Daily, I discovered that
Ann Arbor's local Butterfield
Theatres have once again succeed-
ed in lowering their, already du-
bious public image, again in the
form of the State Theatre.
Last year "Seven Days in May,"
in itself a rather mediocre cel-
luloid portrayal of the book, was
cut in order to run under the two-
hour limit-equivalent to the one
dollar limit.
THIS YEAR, however, the State
management outdid themselves.
After announcing on Thursday
that "A Hard Day's Night" was to
be held over through Friday, they
came out on Saturday proclaim-
ing, "Last day showing of the
Beatles. Starting tomorrow two
Alfred Hitchcock romance mys-
teries"-neither of which was
"Marnie," the Hitchcock movie
that was previewed to follow the
Beatles.
If Ann Arbor businessmen in
general would stop being so dollar-
conscious and become as "friendly"
as their ads make them out to be,
they may find that student opin-
ion of them would start to pick up.
What with public feeling at its
present level, they don't have
much to lose.
-Dave Metzger, '68
Good Reviews
To the Editor:
IJUST FINISHED reading the
reviews of the movies on your
editorial page. It appears that you
are about the only ones who 'the
producers of trash films cannot
fool. Your articles attack the pro-
per sting to a form of criticism
which has of late grown very dull.
I approve completely of your ap-
proach. Keep it up.
-George Sternbach, 68
Poverty
nb

1 F{ - d96'4f Ir WF~

When Old Friends'

EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the first
in a twice-monthly series of edi-
torial features by members of stu-
dent newspapers belonging to Col-
legiate Press Service.
Ed Schwartz is a senior major-
ing in government at Oberlin Col-
lege in Ohio.
By ED SCHWARTZ
Collegiate Press Service
OBERLIN-There are few more
discomfiting experiences for
an undergraduate than comparing
notes with high school buddies as
to recent accomplishments and
future plans. You would think
that such occasions would be
marked by benevolence, camarad-
erie, and reminisences from the
glorious past. Not by a long shot.
Just about the friendliest comment
you can inject into these repartees
is a "bye" modified by a "good,"
and the chances are that it ill
be one of the best "bye's" of your
college career.
In the first place, everyone's
become a psychoanalyst. You know
the look-that faintly derisive
smile which says, "Aha!l He still
hasn't overcome that latent in-
feriority complex which plagued
him ih hir h ~c n nrm-

ed, at which point the two of you
dissect the rest with unrestrained
brutality. You can be sure that
out there on the highway two
others are rendering you the same
disservice.
Along these same lines, it is
imperative that you prove how
much you have changed. If you
were jovial in high school, wince
periodically to indicate the un-
remitting torment which afflicts
you now. If you were known as a
cynic, be sincere; if you were in-
genuous, act jaded. Let the lo-
quacious become silent, the witty
become sombre, the rock 'n roller
become beat, the artistic become
materialistic, and the Don Juan
become Victorial. The most humil-
iating insult is to be accused of
"not having changed a bit." Your
only recourse in dealing with such
slander is to assure your detractor
that though outward appearances
remain unaltered, deep down in-
side you are a new man. Then you
shut up for the rest of the con-
versation.
THIS PSYCHOLOGICAL gam-

Conve neI
criteria are length and time As to
the former, Durrell's "Alexandria
Quartet" is the ideal, comprising
four volumes, all of which must
be completed to understand the
first. Tolstoy's "War and Peace"
may be substituted, particularly
since. Russian writers sound more
impressive than English or Ameri-
can. The time factor indicates
when you have finished a novel
two years before any of- your
friends and magnanimously to al-
low them to discover it themselves,
when you can say that you have
outgrown it.
Novels are only one area of
combat. For some, new clothes be-
come the target. Past seductions
are also popular. In hip circles, it
has become fashionable to des-
cribe the latest encounter with
LSD or morning glory seeds. The
gaines are different, but the rules
are the same: never let 'em out do
you.
IN FACT, the expert remains
conscious at all times of the con-
versational value of everything he
does. When his girl leaves him, he
suffers twice as much, so as to be

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