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September 22, 1964 - Image 3

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1964-09-22

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Rail Strike.

,Says County Board,

Negotiators Announce
Tentative Settlements

Needs Redistricting
Redistricting filtered down to the lowly county courthouse last
week. Kent County (Grand Rapids) Circuit Judge Fred Searl declared
that the county board was malapportioned.
Members of the county board are selected from townships and
cities. Each township receives one representative while cities are
represented by a complicated formula based on population. Rural
townships are generally over-represented according to the criterion
of one man- one vote laid down by the U.S. Supreme Court this year.
Searl declared that over-representation accorded to voters in sparsely

n ew rena s nange oneges

1962 REPORT :
UN Population Study
Shows Rate Increase
UNITED NATIONS (M)-The world is filling up with people faster
as it grows older.
A record 2.1 per cent would average rate of increase has been
chalked up for 1962, the latest period for which figures are available.
There is little sign of any slowup.
The United Nations demographic yearbook statisticians figure
that the world density of population now averages 23 persons a square
kilometer-which translates into nearly 59 in a square mile. The
population explosion is compounded from more babies being born
and people living longer, thanks to improved medical care. There is

Coup, Chiefs
In Bolivia
Face Exile
LA PAZ (P)-The Bolivian gov-
ernment tightened security in ma-
jor cities yesterday and informed
sources reported the regime is con-
sidering exile for any rightist or
leftist political leaders found guil-
ty of taking part in a plot to
overthrow President Victor Paz
Estenssoro in a weekend coup.
The sources said it was possi-
ble that deportations to neigh-
boring Paraguay would be carried
out next week. There was no word
here whether President Alfredo
Stroessnes of Paraguay would ac-
cept Bolivian exiles, particularly
The government announced
Sunday it had arrested 60 mem-
bers of rightist and leftist politi-
cal, parties in an army sweep
against the alleged coup. They
included a former Paz colleague,
ex-President Hernan Siles Zuazo.
Leftist Not Included
The informants said the name
of former Vice-President Juan
Lechin, leftist leader of Bolivian
tin miners, is not on the list for
possible exile but that many mem-
bers of his leftist revolutionary
party are. Lechin has gone into
hiding, however.
Siles and other rightists join-
ed forces with Lechin and his left-
ist followers after Paz was re-
elected to a second successive term
May 31. They charged that Paz
was forbidden by the constitution
from succeeding himself as presi-
The constitution has prohibited
presidents from serving consecu-
tive terms but Paz' National Rev-
olutionary Movement (M N R)
pushed through the 1960 congress
an amendment permitting it. Paz'
opponents claimed the amend-
ment did not apply to Paz.
Order Curfews
Cracking down in the after-
math of the weekend-events, the
government ordered 11 p.m. to 5
a.m. curfews in major cities. In
La Paz, no one was allowed out-
side city limits without a safe
conduct pass.
Paz' government imposed a state
of siege (modified martial law)
Dispatches from Sucre, about
310 miles southeast of La Paz, re-
ported that one of the reasons
for the state of siege was a dem-
onstration Saturday during which
a mob attacked the United States
Information Service building and
the homes of MNR local leaders.

one case-Ireland-where a de-
crease has been listed by the year-
book. It comes about through a
combination of a birth rate below
the world average of 37 per 1,000
population-the Irish rate is 22.2
--and emigration. The rate of
"growth" for Ireland is listed as
minus 0.3 per cent.<
Fastest Growing3
Central America, including the
Caribbean, is the fastest growing1
region in the world. Since 19581
the population has grown at an
annual rate of 2.9 per cent.
But starting with the millions1
of people already in east Asia, that1
region's 2.5 per cent increase ac-
counted for the largest in ab-
solute numbers, putting 74 milliont
more people in the area in 1962j
than there were in 1958.t
By continents, the heaviest1
average percentage of increase was
South America, with 2.7 per cent,
followed by Africa's 2.4 per cent,
Asia's 2.3 and 2.2 for the Western
Hemisphere and Oceania. The1
North American continent rate
was 1.6, and Europe's rate aver-f
aged 0.9 per cent.1
The average for the Asiatic and
European areas of the Soviet Un-J
ion was 1.7 per cent.
Tiny Areas High
Some tiny areas of the world forj
one reason or another showedt
rates high above the world aver-1
Oil-rich Kuwait had an 11.3 per
cent rate and Qatar 8.3 per cent.3
In the Western Hemisphere Sur-
inam had 5.5 per cent, Greenland1
4 per cent, the United States Vir-1
gin Islands 3.9 per cent. But Costa
Rica's 4.3 per cent was high for
established countries.
In Africa, two new countries
stood out-Mauritania with 5.1a
per cent and Burundi with 4.9 per
Twenty other countries in Africaj
were above the 2.1 per cent worldI
average. Below them were Nigeria;
and the Central African Republic
with 1.9 per cent, Congo Brazza-
ville with 1.3 per cent, Zanzibar
with 1.7 per cent and Sierra Leone
with 0.5 per cent.
In Europe, Switzerland matched
the world average, and Albania
with 3.2 per cent and Liechten-
stein with 3.1 per cent were above.
The rest ranged from Iceland's
1.9 per cent down through Hun-
gary's .04 per cent--and the Irish
minus quantity-with 16 coun-
tries below even one per cent
In Asia, the majority were above
the world level, from crowded
Hong Cong's 4.5 per cent down to
Thailand's 3 per cent. 15 areas
had a 3 per cent' or above rate.
- Five other countries were below,
with Japan-after severals of birth
.control programs-registering a
0.9 per cent rate.
S The world death rate is 17 per
1 1,000 population, down one from
the previous year.

End Lengthy
Talk Session
Unions, Railroad
Settle Job Dispute
WASHINGTON (M-)-Strike sig-
nals flying over most of the na-
tion's railroads were hauled down
yesterday, ending the second
threatened national transportation
tieup in less than six months.
Negotiators for the railroads
and six shop craft unions an-
nounced a "tentative agreement"
on four major issues in their job
security dispute and settlement of
a fifth point seemed assured.
In the absence of an agree-
ment, the strike was to have
started at 6 a.m. (local time) to-
Marathon Talks
The strike threat ended abrupt-
ly ,yesterday after more than 30
hours of marathon talks with none
of the cliff-hanging dramatics that
accompanied last April's White
House settlement of a similar na-
tionwide rail dispute.
Both J. E. Wolfe, chief railroad
negotiator, and Michael Fox, head
union spokesman, expressed con-
fidence of being able to "wrap
up the balance of the dispute" in
talks resuming at 10 a.m. today.
They indicated this should be ac-
complished within a few days.
Although President Lyndon B.
Johnson did not intervene pub-
licly as he did in last April's
strike threat by five train-oper-
ating unions, negotiators indicated
the President had made it plain
the government would not stand
for a strike.
'Well Advised'
Johnson was "kept well advised"
throughout the progress of the
talks, said Francis A. O'Neill, mem-
ber of the National Mediation
Board who guided railroads and
unions toward the tentative agree-
O'Neill released no details of the
tentative agreement except to say
that unions and management have
agreed on "a certain formula."
However, spokesmen indicated
the tentative agreement was made
along lines recommended by a
presidential emergency board last
Spokesmen for both unions and
management indicated there is lit-
tle danger if any of a renewed
strike threat.
"We have reached an agreement
on four of the major issues in-
volved and feel certain we will
be able to complete the agree-
ment very soon," said Fox.
"The fact that we have disposed
of these troublesome issues ... in-
dicates . . . that railroad manage-
ment and railroad labor are big
enough to solve their own prob-
lems," Wolfe said.

settled townships is a violation of
the equal protection clause of the
fourteenth amendment of the
federal constitution.
Next Challenge
"Suits are coming and coming fast.
This is the next stage in the chal-
lenge of malapportionment," Prof.
Arthur Bromage of the political
science department commented
In a speech delivered recently
to the Michigan Municipal League
in Lansing he predicted that fed-
eralism will not be considered a
valid defense for, over-representa-
tion on a county board. This argu-
ment will be rejected as it was
when the Supreme Court ordered
redistricting of state legislatures,
he said.
As a solution to this growing
problem in Michigan, New York,
Illinois and Wisconsin, Bromage
suggested that "our only rational
alternative may be to elect five,
seven, nine or some such number
of county board supervisors, either
at large or from districts approxi-
mately equal in population."
Not Only Counties
Not only counties are involved'
in this problem if the decision is
carried to its logical conclusion, he
noted. Cities whose city council-
men are elected on a ward basis
are equally vulnerable if some
wards are found to have signifi-
cantly fewer residents than others.
To avoid litigation such muni-
cipalities would do well to make
their wards as equal in population
as possible, Bromage said.
A third type of government unit,
the metropolitan authority, may
also be involved in this extension
of the Supreme Court's June de-
cision forbidding one man to have
more influence at the ballot box
than another.
Public Corporations
Metropolitan authorities are
public corporations created to
meet specific and usually limited
needs of a locality. Examples are
local park districts and metro-
politan planning commissions.
According to Bromage, "such
authorities rarely conform to one
man-one vote." They may beelect-
ed by the people, but more likely
they are appointed by the gover-
nor, local judge or participating
local governments.
At present no one knows how:
the courts will handle these service
and administrative agencies. They
may be viewed as quite different
from general governing bodies,
Bromage said.
What does this mean to a city
resident in a county presently con-
trolled by a rural minority? For
one thing, it will bring the rural-
urban controversy right down to
the local level, Bromage said.
Rural politicians losing power are
not likely to stand idly by. Once
the transfer of political power has
been made to the representatives
of the more urban areas, the coun-
ty should give increased attention
to city demands for service, he

EDITOR'S NOTE: "Enrollment
Crisis" is a term familiar 'to the
American educational community.
This article is the first in a series
investigating how this and otherI
problems arenaffecting European
higher education.
Collegiate Press Service
LONDON-The European stu-
dent today studies under condi-
tions that differ radically from
those which existed only a gen-
eration ago. Whereas American
education is rooted in the rela-
tively modern concept of mass ed-,
ucation, the European system.
reaching far back into the Middle
Ages, has traditionally fulfilled an
elitist and rather esoteric func-
Fifty years ago, for example;
British education was designed to.
prepare children of the ruling
class for their eventual roles in
the political system. Now one of
the accepted functions of the edu-
cational system is to uncover the
untapped talents of the lower mid-
dle and working classes.
The most prominent guardian.
of the tradition, Oxford and Cam-
bridge, are probably the last bas-
tions of the old style, strongly
and resolutely resisting the pleb-
ian onrush. But even these two
old dowagers of the Ivory Tower
are slowly beginning to awaken
and join the national debate on
university reform.
Same Pressures
The revolution now taking place
in Western Europe higher educa-
tion rises out of many of the
same pressures that American
universities are feeling: the post-
World War II baby boom, the
demands of an increasingly indus-
trialized society, middle-class fam-
ilies and the clamor for higher
The question is whether high-
er education should be open tc
all students who desire it, and the
problem becomes acute in the face
of the rising student population.
In Britain and West Germany al-
most 20 per cent of all high school
students are following a course
of study leading to university en-
A recent series of articles on
reform of the French educational
system by Girod de l'Ain, educa-
tion editor of "Le Monde," posed
the question of whether educa-
tional reform "is a matter of
reaching the American system ir
stages. No European country
either west or east, seems to have

The contrast between the old
and the new is most striking in
Britain. The "Oxbridge" system
the oldest in England, now pro-
vides places for only 16 per cent
of all university students, as
against 22 per cent before World
War IL.
The burden of providing higher
education for an increasing stu-
dent population has fallen to the
"redbrick universities," dynamic
institutions located in the indus-
trial centers and originally in-
tended to serve local needs.
National Centers
They have become national cen-
ters, drawing over one-third of all
the university students in England.
More recent expansion has center-
ed about the younger civic uni-
versities, founded between the
two wars, and the establishment
of seven new universities since
A government commission on
higher education, headed by Lord
Lionel Robbins, professor of eco-
nomics at the University of Lon-
don, issued a mammoth and un-
precedented report in 1963 calling
for rapidly increasing expansion
of the university system.
The Robbins report seems to
have marked the beginning of 'R
new era in Britain, and all dis-
cussion on the subject begins eith-
er for or against Robbins.
Startling in Emphasis
The report was startling not
simply in terms of the number.
of students it wished the universi-
ties to accommodate, but also in
the emphasis it placed on the con-
cept of a university as an institu-
tion responsible to the needs of
society as well as to the needs
of its individual students.
The first objective of any prop-
erly balanced system, the Robbing
report declared, is "instruction in
skills suitable to play a part in
the general division of labor. Wt
regard it as the most important.
put this first, not because we

but because we think that is some-
times ignored or undervalued."
In France the crisis in higher,
education consists almost wholly
of a numbers game. The main
building of the Sorbonne, the lib-
eral arts faculty of the Univer-
sity of Paris, was built in 1890
for a student body of 1000. Pres-
ent enrollment in the same build-
ing is over 33,000.
Decentralization of the mono-
lithic French higher education
system has been proposed as the
solution to overcrowding in Paris.
The French government has at-
tempted to encourage students to
attend the provincial universitieE
and. a.couple of new campuses out-
side Paris, but, this has consistent-
ly failed.
In West Germany, on the other
hand, what is called the "cata-
strophe of education" is blamed
on decentralized, relatively unco-
ordinated educational system.
No Central Ministry
There is no central Ministry
of Education, as there is in France
and England. Educational policy
is formulated independently by
the minister of cultural affairs ir
each of West Germany's twelve
states. No comprehensive program
exists as a result of the lack of
central planning.
Teaching, an occupation which
has attracted particular attention
in other Western nations, has suf-
fered heavily in West Germany.
It is estimated that 00 per cent
of all students currently at the
universities would have to become
teachers before the national need
would be met.
Educational reform in Western
Europe is proceeding on two as-
sumptions: one, that higher edu-
cation should be available to more
students, if not all students; and
two, that the university is no long-
er an isolated community, but
bears a definite responsibility to-
ward the society in which it exists.

World News
By The Associated PressI
CARACAS - President CharleF
de Gaulle arrived under massiveI
security guard yesterday to open
his drive to spread France's in-
fluence in Latin America. Jet
fighters and helicopters flew over-
* 0 .
PARIS---The three feuding lead- ;
ers of the troubled Southeast
Asian kingdom of Laos held their
long-postponed Paris summit con-
ference yesterday. Although they
agreed partly on an agenda, the
talks broke up after four hours and
the three princes decided to turn
over further debate to their sub-
NAIROBI, Kenya-Rioting Digc
tribesmen demolished a million-
dollar dam with spades, spears and
axes near Mombasa this weekend
and ruined a' plan to modernize
sugar production in the area.
WASHINGTON-Talks by Sen-
ate Republican leader Everett M.
Dirksen of revising his legisla-
tive reapportionment p r o p o s a l
raised only a faint ray of hope
yesterday for breaking the Sen-
ate filibuster over the issue.
He indicated the change would
be only in wording and not in
the substance of his proposal to
delay court-ordered reapportion-
ment on a one-man, one-vote
NAIROBI, Kenya-Rioting Digo
tribesmen demolished 'a million-
dollar dam with spades, spears and
axes near Mombasa this weekend
and ruined a plan to modernize
sugar production in the area.

*Now Appearing at the Golden Vanity

on Leading Magazines
Box 1161, Ann Arbor Phone 662-3061

G,, , .
UP ' S'
p O
o =.

JAPAN: .Ae u awake?
* Of its role in today's world?
Discussion-V. K. Bayashi
Tuesday, Sept. 22, Multi-Purpose Room
UGLI at 7:00 p.m.
* its.cultural character?
Discussion-Dr. Wm. Malm
Wed., Sept. 23, Multi-Purpose Room
* Of its people here on campus?
Folk-Cultural Evening
7:00 p.m. at International Center





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