EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the firstofsa two-part series dealing with
the operations of the Ann Arbor bookstores.
By HARVEY WASSERMAN
One of the bigger aspects of the University is the bookstores
surrounding and servicing it. Last year the six campus area book-
stores did approximately $4 million gross in book business. They
did not come by this amount of business by accident, nor could
anyone hoping to get a good-sized chunk of that impressive volume
hope for an easy time of it.
According to William Marshall, manager of Bob Marshall's
Bookstore, in order to open a competing textbook store in Ann
Arbor, one would need at least $100,000 for inventory alone. This is
not to mention the expenses of rent over a year's period, upkeep of
a building, advertising and office supplies. This is in addition to
salaries which run quite high, he said. The book-selling industry
is labor intensive-a good deal of the expenses which a bookseller
must account for come from paying the salaries of the large num-
ber of employes, some of whom must be professionally trained.
A good sized bookstore needs from five to seven full-time clerks
to keep the store going, according to a report done last year by
Christopher Cohen, '67L. In addition, stockboys and secretarial
staff also form a part of the hard-core of workers necessary to a
successful operation. Finally, the entire operation must center
around a professionally trained bookman, often earning from
$10-$15,000 a year, He orders new texts, handles their stocking and
selling and generally coordinating the entire textbook operation.
Since a large part of the stores' text business is done in the
first few days of each semester, thousands of dollars' worth of
business can be gained or lost on a single stroke of the bookman's
pen, and indeed the success or failure of a new book operation can
hinge on this one man's prowess, Cohen's report said.
The presently -established bookstores are open from 50-70
hours a week during pre-semester rush periods, and a new com-
petitor might indeed plan to be open longer (the Centicore Poetry
bookstore, the area's newest bookstore, is open 72 and more).
Yet even after the battle to get established has been won, the
new competitor can expect no overwhelming profits in the text-
book business. The Ann Arbor bookstores, according to Cohen's
report, clear only 2.25-2.75 per cent on capital invested on new
textbooks, considerably less than could be earned on capital in the
Despite this however Ann Arbor bookmen have established
profit-making enterprises. They also, as far as can be seen, are
working in open competition with each other. Follett's, Wahr's,
Ulrich's, Slater's, Overbeck's and Marshall's are separate enter-
prises engaged in open-market competition. The .competition is not
entirely head-on, however, as the various stores are somewhat
specialized. Overbeck's, for instance, specializing in medical and
law books, is not in direct competition with Ulrich's, which deals
more in undergraduate, engineering and architecture material.
Marshall's, on the other hand, deals only in trade books. The ever-
present question of the possibility of collusion is without, according
to Cohen's report, apparent truth; "There is no Ann Arbor cartel."
Prices on new textbooks are strictly set by publishers. Books
come to Ann Arbor already priced. The usual discount allowed the
bookmen is 20 per cent off list price on textbooks, and from 20 per
cent to 40 per cent on trade books, depending the risk involved. The
retailers are not allowed to change prices on the books, however,
unless it is to lower them. All new textbooks are fair-traded by the
publishers themselves and according to Marshall they can take
punitive measures such as withholding distribution and even suing
in order to prevent book merchants from raising prices above list.
Occasionally price differences may occur, but this is either due
to markdowns or to a change over a period of time in the pub-
lisher's price. Thus one store may buy a book one month at a cer-
tain price. The next month the price hiay change and then-another
bookstore may buy the book at the new price, thus yielding a price
difference between the two stores. This seems the only way such
differences could occur. As stated in Cohen's report, "There is no
price-setting among the Ann Arbor bookstores-there is no room
The book publishing industry's rather rigid price structure thus
seems to close out much possibility of any substantial price dif-
ferentials on new text prices in Ann Arbor as compared to book-
stores anywhere else. Yet, according to past research, and to one
fairly well-substantiated report in the process of being compiled,
Ann Arbor new book prices are as much as 10 and 20 per cent above
prices at other campuses. Among those campuses which, according
to one of the reports, indicate higher Ann Arbor prices are Colum-
bia, Boston University; University of Miami (Fla.), University of
Chicago, Syracuse, Berkeley, Michigan State, Harvard and Wayne
See CAMPUS, Page 2
UNIVERSITY MUST NOT
See Editorial Page
:43 a t I#
warmer in afternoon
Seventy-Four Years of Editorial Freedom
VOL. LXXV, No. 156 ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, FRIDAY, 2 APRIL 1965 SEVEN CENTS
Viet Nam Teach-In
By MICHAEL MEYERS
Nearly 1,000 students crowded the halls of the University of
Wisconsin Social Science Bldg. last night to hear the final panel
discussion of a teach-in protesting United States policy in Viet Nam.
The teach-in, which lasted from 2 p.m. until midnight, was
neither total protest nor debate. Rather, as in the 8-12 p.m. portion
of Michigan's teach-in, each of several experts in such fields as
Southeast Asian culture, foreign policy and guerrilla warfare, gave
accounts of his experiences in relation to the Viet Nam situation.
The activities, which were stimulated by faculty-student action
at Michigan last week, will culminate at 11 a.m. today with a rally
"featuring Mark Raskin, formerly
Willow Run House-Senate Rift Delays
Unit Backs Senior Citizens' Tax Relief By Conduct .
Federal Aid By THOMAS R. COPI FOn Campus Receives Support
Passage of a measure to provide property tax exemptions for
SAMUEL E. BRADEN
By LAURENCE MEADOW
"Fraternities and sororities will
survive as long as man is a social
being," Vice-President for Under-
graduate Development Samuel .E.
Braden of Indiana University pre-
dicted last night in his keynote
address to the thirteenth annual
IFC-Panhel Big Ten Conference.
"There have always been pre-
dictions of the demise of the
Greek systems," Braden said, "but
complex societies need small
groups where people can live in
Braden's address opened the
annual conference of Interfratern-
ity Council and Panhellenic Asso-
ciation officers at Big Ten cam-
puses. Approximately 100 fratern-
ity and sorority leaders will meet
in discussion groups today and
tomorrow morning and a business
meeting will be held Saturday
afternoon. A banquet will close
the conference tomorrow night.
The conference theme is "Lead-
ership or Lack of It-In the Greek
System." Discussions will focus on
the problems of academics, mem-
bership selection, and relations
with university administrations
and individual houses.
In his keynote address, Braden
said the survival of the Greek
system depends on the leadership
of IFC and Panhel. The system
must adapt to constantly chang-
ing e d u c a t i o n a l institutions.
with the National Security Council
under President John F. Kennedy
and now the Co-Director for the
Institute of Policy Studies in
On Monday, the Wisconsin
Faculty-Student Committee to
End the War in Viet Nam issued
an open letter to President John-
son which expressed "concern
about policies and tactics which
the United States is pursuing" in
Viet Nam. The letter further urg-
ed that the Administration "re-
spond immediately with positive
proposals toward achieving an end
to this conflict."s
More specifically, the communi-
cation asked Johnson to "order an
immediate end to escalation" and
to "end restrictions to press
Silent vigils were staged around
Bascom Hall, the university's ad-
ministration building, yesterday
and Wednesday concentrating es-
pecially around the statue of Lin-
coln in front of Bascom Hall. Noon
rallies were also held on each of
the two days preceding yesterday's
Last night, 26 faculty members
led discussions on various aspects
of the Vietnamese situation. The
History Dept. provided the cor'e,
as Prof. William A. Williams dis-
cussed the American policy and
other History faculty members in-
cluding Prof. William Taylor and
Prof. Merle Curti, a Pulitzer Prize
winner, attacked the problem from
Prof. George Mosse of History
explored the Munich myth, while
Prof. Germaine Bree from the
Humanities Dept. explored the im-
plications of Sartre and -Camus
regarding U.S. commitment.
John Gruber of the Wisconsin
Daily Cardinal informed the Daily
that University Administrators
took no official position on the
protest, though they readily made
facilities available, saying that
the teach-in was in the "free'
spirit of inquiry" which should
exist at a University.
Both faculty and student parti-
cipants were greatly enthused
about the cooperation between the
two. One professor commented
that "the plannedaactivities prov-
ed that sturdents and faculty can
get together without knitpicking!"
There had previously been a stu-
dent committee which held sem-
inars about the Viet Nam situa-
tion. Now faculty members plan
to join in these discussion groups.
A counter-rally of those sup-
porting current policy, held yes-
terday afternoon, drew 200 per-j
sons. At the teach-in itself there
were no signs or picketers, but
Wisconsin is one of 48 colleges
and universities which have al-
ready staged or intend to stage
teach-ins in the near future.
rrh mnv--nt is icn -r-ru
The Willow Run Federation of
Teachers went on record yester-
day as giving strong support to
a $188,252 federal war on poverty
grant for use in the former Wil-
low Village area, as Donald Rob-
erts, consultant and counselor in
the Ferndale public school system
was named associate director of
the controversial anti-poverty
The teachers' group said "we
believe. this program - the pre-
school program and the attack on
the school dropout problem, a rec-
reation program and the attempt
to bring the community into clos-
er working relationships with the
institutions in the surrounding
areas to be valid and obtainable
The grant was made to the In-
stitute of Labor and Industrial
Relations, a joint project of the
University and Wayne State Uni-
versity; the ILIR's associate di-
rector, Hyman Kornbluh, contin-
ues in charge of the Willow Vil-
The project met criticism from
some residents of the Willow Vil-
lage area, who claimed the anti-
poverty grant was unnecessary
and a slur on the community.
The teachers, in reference to
this opposition, said "the federa-
tion deplores the attacks on the'
programs by right wing and ex-
tremist groups, whose influence
hampers the effectiveness of the
program and alienates many who'
stand to benefit from it.
"The federation deplores the
use of underhanded tactics, mis-
representation and outright lies
used in distorting the aims and'
purposes for political purposes.
"Further, the federation wishes'
to commend the Superior Town-
ship and Ypsilanti Township
Boards on their position of sup-
port on this matter of significantj
Ypsilanti Township Supervisor
Roy Smith registered the only vote+
against the grant.+
senior citizens has been delayed by disagreement between House
and Senate Democrats over what should be included in such a bill.
A tax relief measure was rushed through the House last week,
but was apparently going to be delayed for study in the Senate
taxation committee. However, in a six-hour meeting Wednesday,
the Democratic caucus came up with a bill that passed the Senate
by a virtually unanimous 35-1 vote. The Senate bill deleted from
the House-passed measure a provision that would allow property
------" tax relief for renters over 65,
40 Over 60
There are 40 students at the
University over the age of 60, ac-
cording to a report released re-
cently by the Office of Registra-
tion and Records.
Today's University student has
an average age of 23.3, contrasted
with an average of 23.5 in 1959.-
The report was prompted by a
desire on the part of University
officials to see if there was any
substantial difference in the
average ages of students here and
in age distribution according to
school since the 1959 report. As
expected, these factors have re-
mained fairly stable.
Unlike the late forties, when
former soldiers flocked to cam-
puses in droves, today's elder un-
dergraduate is usually looked upon
as a rarity.
However, the University has
hundreds of students over the age
of 30, mostly in graduate and
professional schools. Officials have
reported that many of these are
older married women who want
to begin a career in teaching,
doctors returning to school for
training in new methods, and
people whose education has been
interrupted by practical necessities
after four years.
In the engineering school, Dean
Stephen S. Attwood reported that
most older students are graduates
doing government-sponsored re-
search at the University instead
of in. industry and are taking
engineering courses on the side.
saying that such a provision would
make the bill unconstitutional.
The Senate also inserted a $5000
maximum income as a require-
ment for receiving the aid.
The House, which argues that
coverage for renters in addition
to property owners would be per-
fectly legal, had set no income-
ceiling requirement for recipients,
of the tax exemptions.
The cost of the House bill has
been estimated at from $21 mil-
lion to $40 million, while the Sen-
ate bill would reportedly cost only
House Speaker Joseph Kowal-
ski (D-Detroit) and Senate Ma-
jority Leader Raymond Dzendzel
(D-Detroit) agreed that there is
"no serious split" over the tax
exemption measure, and both hope
for passage of a bill today.
Dzendzel, who called the dis-
agreement "merely a difference of
opinion," said that "the Senate
won't budge on this issue." He
added that the Senate bill repre-
sents "equitable, reasonable legis-
lation that is unanimously sup-
ported by the Senate."
Although immediate House con-
currance with the Senate bill was
originally predicted, House mem-
bers are insisting that renters also
be covered in a tax exemption
The Democrats have been blast-
ed by both the Republican legis-
lators and Gov. George Romney
for taking "irresponsibily hasty"
action on the bill.
Romney is awaiting a citizens'
committee report on tax relief for
the aged before he makes any
specific recomijendations in this
area. The report, originally sched-
uled for release April 15, may be
given to the governor today.
In a "Memorandum on the
Restoration of Discipline AmongI
Members of the University," Prof.
Warner G. Rice, chairman of the
English department, criticized the
attitude and attire of both stu-
dents and faculty at the Univer-
Rice feels that many under-
graduates exhibit not only bad
taste but a "decided preference
for vulgarity" in their dress, man-
ners and "indifference to the us-
ages of civilized living."
He also finds it "equally dis-
couraging to catch glimpses of
young faculty members endeavor-
ing to maintain their academic
freedom by going jacketless and
tieless to classrooms, where they
consume belated breakfasts or
early snacks while they teach
Rice's memorandum states that
the University is failing to per-
form adequately its function of
"shaping and tempering the
character of each pupil through
the enforcement of standards
which apply not only to intellec-
tual matters, but also to moral
and social conduct."
Because of the administration's
refusal to demand proper behav-
ior outside the classroom, Rice
feels a "considerable fraction" of
the student body takes "delight
in vandalism, stealing clocks,
telephones and other moveable
objects and destroying "thousands
of dollar's worth of new plantings
on the University lawns."
"We have proceeded far along
the road of excess; indifference
and permissiveness have speeded
our progress. Some of us are ex-
periencing strong disgust and
should like some evidence that
there is going to be an effort to
restore order, decency and de-
corum among the adult and the
juvenile delinquents with whom
we must associate. We are ready
By NEIL SHISTER
- ' i
Harden was reached by phone
yesterday, but refused to comment
on developments. He verified that
his resignation was still in, despite
reports about a retraction.
He said that any further an-
nouncement would come from Ed-
win George of Bloomfield Hills,
the president of the board.
In an interview last night,
George expressed the hope that
Harden would continue as presi-
dent. He said that there had been
a telegram from the campus ex-
pressing the complete support of
the faculty, students, and citizens
He clarified the disagreement as
a difference over "programs on
expansion," and basically as a
conflict between Harden and
Frazier was out of town and
could not be contacted. He said
earlier that his differences with
Harden could best be classed as
a difference of philosophy on gen-
"I don't want him to resign
from the university," said Frazier
in reference to Harden. "I think
probably the university would be
better served if I resigned rather
than he, but that hasn't been.
Harden's resignation will be
acted on at a board meeting on
Monday. With the board's sup-
port, Harden could continue as
Vice - President for Academic
Affairs Roger W. Heyns said yes-
terday that his office is gathering
information on the problem of
enrollment for the summer tri-
The office had originally esti-
mated that 3000 students would
attend term 3-2. On the basis of
student questionnaires, this num-
ber was raised to 6000. However,
it has been suggested that not
that many students will enroll.
The most serious enrollment
question at p r e s e n t centers
around the problem of what to do
about teachers who have commit-
ted themselves to teaching under-
However, the problem rests on
the outcome of many other ques-
Among these are:
-Whether there will be general
underenrollment in all courses,
or only in some;
-Whether whatever underen-
rollment there is in an area is
-Whether a11 commitments
made have been firm ones to at-
tend or not to attend.
Harden's Recent Resignation Stirs
Conflict; Board, Romney Involved
By ROBERT KLIVANS
Edwin George, president of the board in control of Northern
Michigan University, offered the "full _support of the board" for
Edgar Harden, the school's president, who has submitted his resig-
The president of the Marquette institution was reported to have
had a dispute with the board, which can accept or reject resignations.
Board member Lincoln Frazier of Marquette had submitted his
resignation to Gov. George Romney following Harden's statement.
McConnell Studies Focus on RNA Learning Role
By BARBARA SEYFRIED
The flatworm may well conquer the field of learning. Planarians
are being used by Prof. James McConnell of the psychology depart-
ment and editor of "The Worm Runner's Digest," in a series of studies
on the chemical changes that take place in learning.
McConnell has run numerous experiments using planarians. The
most basic is the simple classical conditioning experiment. In this
experiment a worm is placed in a trough, where a light was turned on
for two seconds, then the worm was shocked for an additional second.
At the beginning of training the worm responded an average
of 25 per cent of the time. After pairing the light and shock 150
times, the worms responded to the light an average of 50 per cent of
the time, McConnell explained.
Using this as a basis, McConnell has varied his experimentation
to study what has gone on within the worm to make it respond to
the light when it is not paired with shock.
In one experiment McConnell fed worms which had been condi-
tioned to worms which hadn't. He found that there was a significant
decrease in the number of trials required for the worms in the second
group to "learn" to respond to the light in the conditioning situation.
In an effort to investigate this, McConnell went further. He
extracted ribosenucleic acid from worms which had been trained and
injected it into an untrained worm through its pharynx. The un-
trained worms learned to respond to the light more quickly than the
The method of extracting RNA and purifying it is not an easy
job. But it can be done, McConnell maintained, if there is a lot of it
and one can afford to lose it.
McConnell also explained that the RNA must come from worma
trained to respond to light in the conditioning situation because the
RNA, assuming that learning is based on it, has to have the same
changes within it. This is because it takes more than one worm to
provide the necessary RNA for the injection experiments.
Although the RNA may differ because of different "learning"
experiences by the planarians, if they are trained, then the RNA will
have one thing in common. It will all have the same characteristic
changes, that occur in RNA due to the same learning experience. This
would serve to dilute the effects of any special changes due to indi-
vidual learning experiences outside of training, McConnell explained.
Another reason for improving the methodology, McConnell main-
tains, is that if you get dull results in running rats, people will believe
them. If you get some really significant results using worms, which
are exotic animals, some people won't believe you no matter what you
do and others take a great deal of convincing.
"The research in our experiments," McConnell maintained, "are
probably better controlled than 99 per cent of the experiments run
For example, experiments are run on a double-blind in every