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May 11, 1966 - Image 2

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1966-05-11

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Seventy-Sixth Year

May 11: Mens Sano in Corpore Sano

Where Opinions Are Free
Trtb WUI Prevail


NEws PHONE: 764-0552

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the inidividual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

EDNESDAY, MAY 11, 1966


Language Placement Tests:
Unnecessary Expenses

BECAUSE LANGUAGE placement tests
at the University have probably not
undergone thorough revision in several
years, the faculty and admissions com-
mittee decision to adopt College En-
trance Examination Board achievement
tests for this purpose was unquestionably
a move toward needed improvement. In
this way, too, the University hopes 'to
eventually relieve itself of the inconven-
ience, responsibility and expense of ad-
ministering language placement tests to
incoming freshmen during orientation.
OWEVER, while the quality of such
examinations may be improved, it
seems unlikely that the University will
accomplish the second part of its goal.
According to Professor Benno Fricke of
the evaluation and exam division of the
Bureau of Psychological Services, the cost
of giving the CEEB's here on campus
will be at least 70 cents per student re-
gardless of whether or not test booklets
and other materials are reused.
Although this fee has been debated with
the College Board people, it cannot be
lowered as the Board must collect a roy-
alty on every test administered.
Further, during the next two or three
years while high schools across the
country are informing their students of
the University's requirement that one of
the three CEEB achievement tests nec-
essary for admission to the literary col-
lege must be in a language, the Univer-
sity will undoubtedly be giving a large
number of these exams itself at consid-
erable expense.
FOR EXAMPLE, roughly 4600 new fresh-
men will enroll at the University this
fall and conceivably as many as 85 per
cent of them will not have taken a lan-
guage achievement test previously. Thus
the University will spend between one
and two thousand dollars simply to de-
termine what language course, if any,
they must take. Unfortunately the pros-
pects of immediately cutting this expense
to a nominal figure seem slim.
Many high schools are not yet equipped
with language labs or other facilities for
giving the listening part of the CEEB
exam, though they may be giving the
written part. Since the University will be
requiring both sections, it will have to
administer the listening part itself-at a
cost of 70 cents per student-when the
entering freshman arrives for orienta-
The alternative is for the high school
to go to the expense of equipping itself
with these facilities for perhaps four or
five students or for the student to take
the exam at another high school. If the
student chooses the latter, he may be
Charged additionally to take the test else-
examination is still debatable among
faculty and admissions committee mem-
bers. One or two feel that tests compiled
Second class postage paid at Ann Arbor, Mich.
Published daily Tuesday through Saturday morning.

by the Modern Language Association and
available to the University through the
Cooperative Test Division of Educational
Testing Service are of the same quality
as the CEEB's and might spare much of
the expense. These could be purchased
by the University for an -initial cost of
25 to 60 cents and then reused without
further cost.
OR IF THIS does not seem to be an en-
tirely feasible and satisfactory pro-
posal, perhaps the University should sim-
ply wait the two or three years until
such time as all or most of the incoming
freshmen and their high schools have
had the opportunity to adjust to the new
language placement testing plans here.
To begin using the CEEB achievement
tests immediately-with the first orien-
tation groups this summer-would bring
the University under more unnecessary
expense and inconvenience that exists al-
ready. In seeking to improve language
placement tests, facilitate counseling and
alleviate cost, relatively little seems to
have been accomplished as yet.
Our County ...
IN 1906, MARK TWAIN worked on a book
which was to be called either "Glances
at History" or "Outlines of History." The
book was never finished and only two
brief fragments remain extant. They were
suppressed by Twain's daughter Clara,
his literary executor, and were not pub-
lished until 1962 as part of the collection
"Letters from the Earth."
In one of the fragments, Twain ex-
pressed his dissent from the campaign the
United States was then conducting
against Philippine nationalists. A popular
phrase of the day was one coined earlier
by Stephen Decatur, "Our country, right
or wrong!" Twain commented:
"OUR COUNTRY, right or wrong! ...
"Only when a republic's life is in peril
should a man uphold his government
when it is in the wrong. There is no
other time.
"This Republic's life is not in peril.
The nation has sold its honor for a phrase.
It has swung loose from its safe anchor-
age and is drifting, its helm in pirate
hands. The stupid phrase needed help,
and it got another one: 'Even if the war
be wrong we are in it and must fight it
out: we cannot retire from it without
"Why, not even a burglar could have
said it better. We cannot withdraw from
this sordid raid because to grant peace
to these little people upon their terms-
independence - would dishonor us. You
have flung away Adam's phrase - you
should take it up and examine it again.
He said, 'An inglorious peace is better
than a dishonorable war.'
"YOU HAVE PLANTED the seed and it
will grow."
The seed is still growing.

T HE UNIVERSITY'S intramural
athletics program and the pro-
grams of physical education and.
general recreation associated with
it are in big trouble.
Although they were able to get
along under the wing of the Board
in Control of Intercollegiate Ath-
letics for a long time, IM sports
are now being pushed out of the
nest with, in effect, little more
than]good wishes to sustain them.
This may or may not be a bad
thing; what is unfortunate is
that no one has decided whether
it is or not and that the situation
is thus in danger of being left to
find its own solution without any
direction whatsoever.
THERE ARE two factors which
have put the IM program in this
position. The first is that, accord-
ing to the Regents by-laws, which
set up both the intercollegiate
athletics board and the IM pro-
gram, both intercollegiate sports
and intramural sports are ad-
ministered by an overall Depart-
ment of Physical Education and
In practice, the result has been
that the intercollegiate half, run
by the athletics board, has jro-
vided almost all the financial sup-

port for the intramural half.
Every building and most of the
equipment used by the IM and
physical education staffs was
bought with athletics board
money, the "profits" from football
and, more recently, basketball
The second fact is the Univer-
sity Events Building, now under
construction by the athletics
,board. The building will cost $6.7
million, of which $5.8 million has
been raised by bonds running for
the next 25 years. The extra $900
thousand plus the interest on the
bonds must be provided by the
athletics board itself. And, as a
faculty member of the athletics
board said, this puts the board in
a "tight belt situation for the
foreseeable future."
INSOFAR as the building or the
athletic board itself is concerned,
there is nothing unusual about
tight belts; the University has
built few buildings whose con-
struction has come off easily.
But as far as the IM program
goes, this means the cupboard is
THIS COMES at an especially
bad time as far as the IM and
physical education programs go.

As enrollment has risen, and as
the trimester has become more of
a reality, the demand for athletic
facilities has risen sharply. With
the completion of North Campus
dormitories next fall, the need
will be even greater.
The University needs a new in-
tramural building and fields. With
the widening of Stadium Boule-
vard, the IM program will lose
the two football fields which 40
intramural teams have used. IM
administrators have been waiting
four years for a reply to their re-
quest for more field space; no
plans exist for IM facilities on
North Campus at all.
There are few who would deny
these IM needs, or the obvious
fact that it is the building of the
University Events Building which
has accentuated them. But be-
tween the two, the Events Build-
ing was certainly needed more,
and the athletic board is evidently
incapable, and will be so for quite
a while, of financing them both.
SO THE BOARD has quite
reasonably asked for help for the
IM program. Prof. Stuart Churchill
a faculty member of the board re-
ported the problems to the Senate
Advisory Committee on University
Affairs in April. Fritz Crisler,

director of the department, is
open to suggestions as to how to
ease the insolvency.
This makes it clear that the
IM program and the physical edu-
cation program have reached a
turning point. There is a real
question of how long, and in what
form, they will exist in the future.
ought;to be asked is whether the
University actually needs IM pro-
grams. Many would argue for their
necessity. Yet it is certain that
many students have not seen the
inside of the IM building since
Homecoming and are little the
worse for it.
This may well resolve itself into
the question of whether an ex-
panding University short of money
can afford to divert funds into
a physical education program, de-
sirable as it might seem to some
groups. It is, of course, a question
of priorities, and someone with
some competence in athletics and
University planning ought to de-
cide those priorities. At the mo-
ment matters are evidently drift-
ing with neither competence nor
concern to resolve them.
Second, it is fairly clear that if
it is decided that IM sports do
have a place at the University,

their place ought to be with a
board in control separate from the
athletics board. The University is
the. only Big Ten college whose IM
program depends so completely
upon the money provided by inter-
collegiate sports.
the rising costs of building con-
struction and maintainence and
the increasing costs of maintaining
competitive teams in the Big Ten
all indicate that the University's
athletic interests can no longer
be as self contained as they were
in the past. The gains of the one
area are no longer sufficient to
offset the losses of the other.
Somewhere some extra money is
needed if IM sports are to be
maintained. Other colleges usually
take this money from student fees,
assuming all students profit equal-
ly from the use of the facilities.
Perhaps that is the answer here.
that no one seems to care that
much about the matter. If that is
the case, then the IM program
will die a natural death, and good
riddance to it.
But if anyone thinks differently,
if anyone cares particularly about
the IM program, he'd better get
to work.


The New Community of Professors

the second article in a three-
part series reprinting a speech
delivered May 8 by Walter Lipp-
mann at a convocation sponsor-
ed by the Center for the Study
of Democratic Institutions.
I HAVE SAID enough, I hope to
reassure anyone who might
think that I am glorifying the
professors and attributing to them
more power and authority than
they are entitled to have. I do
not mean to do -that. I have had
my share of controversies with a
good many professors.
What I do say is that the com-
munity of professors is in the
modern world the best available
source of guidance and authority
in the field of knowledge. There
is no other court to which men
can turn and find what they once
found in tradition and in custom,
in ecclesiastical and civil author-
ity. Because modern man in his
search for truth has turned away
from kings, priests, commissars
and bureaucrats, he is left, for
better or worse, with the profes-
And while we must treat the
verdict of the professors with a
vigilant skepticism, they do have
a certain authority. It comes from
the fact that they have vowed to
accept the discipline of scholar-
ship and to seek the truth by using
the best intellectual methods at
the time known to contemporary
TO MAKE SURE that I am not
overstating my thesis, let me re-
peat. The community of scholars
is the court of last resort in those
fields of inquiry and knowledge
about which scholars, as scholars,
are concerned.

Thus, if a professor is charged
with the murder of his colleague,
the court of last resort is not the
faculty of his university or the
faculties of all the universities.
It is the judiciary of the state its
which he lives. For the scholar
is a scholar only part of the time
and in part of his activity. In the
role of murderer he is outside the
field of scholarship.
But if a professor is alleged to
have murdered his colleague a
hundred years ago, -as in the case
of Professor Webster at Harvard,
the court of last resort today about
his guilt or innocence a ^antury
ago is jnot the judiciary of Mas-
sachusetts. It is the nistorians
who have studied the evidence now
available and have been ::onfront-
ed with the findings of all the
historians who have read tha his-
tory of the case. After a hundred
years, no one is more quaiified
than are the historians to judge
the case.
REFLECTING on this we come
close, I think, to the essential
principle of academic freedom. In
his relations with the laws of the
land, a professor is as subject as
any other man to the laws against
murder, robbery, cheating on the
income tax, driving his automobile
recklessly. The laws for him, as
for all other men, are what the
law-enforcing authorities say they
are. The professor has no special
privileges and no special im-
But in the field of truth ar d
error about the nature of things,
and of the history and future of
the universe and of man, the state
and its officials have no jurisdic-
tion. When the scholar finds that
two and two make four, no police-
man, no judge, no governor, no
legislator, no trustee, no rich

alumnus has any right to ordain
that two and two make five.
Only other scholars who have
gone through a mathematical
training equivalent to his, and are
in one way or another qualified as
his peers, can challenge his find-
ings that two and two make four.
Here it is the community of
scholars who are the court of last
IT FOLLOWS that they are the
court of last resort inadetermining
the qualifications of admission to
the community of scholars-that
is to say, the criteria of appoint-
ment and the license to teach. No
criterion can be recognized which
starts somewhere else than in the
canons of scholarship and scien-
tific research. No criterion is valid
here because it emanates from the
chamber of commerce or the trade
union council or the Am-rican
Legion or the clergy or the news-
papers or the ADA or the John
Birch Society or any political
The selection and the tenure of
the members of the community of
scholars is subject to the criterion
that scholars shall be free of any
control except a stern duty to bear
faithful allegiance to the truth
they are appointed to seek.
A judgment as to whether a
scholar has been faithful is one
that only his peers can render. The
supreme sin of a scholar, qua
scholar, is to lie, not about where
he spent the previous weekend,

but about whether two and two'
make four.
IF WE SAY that the vocation of
the scholar is to seek the truth,
it follows, I submit, that he must
seek the truth for the simple pur-
pose of knowing the truth.
The search for truth proceeds
best if the- scholar disregards all
secondary considerations of how
his knowledge may be applied, how
it can be sold, whether it is useful,
whether it is good or bad, re-
spectable, fashionable, moral, pop-
lar and patriotic, whether it will
work or whether it will make men
happier or unhappier, whether pit
is agreeable or disagreeable,
whether it is likely to win him a
promotion or a prize or a decora-
tion, whether it will get a good
vote in the Gallup Poll.
Genius is most likely to expand
the limits of our knowledge, on
which all the applied sciences de-
pend, when it works in a condi-
tion of total unconcern with the
consequences of its own findings.
the university must have at its
core a sanctuary for excellence
where the climate is favorablento
the pursuits of truth for its own
sake. In our conglomerate and
swarming society the last best
hopes of mankind lie in what is
done and in what example is set in
these sanctuaries.
I do not think of them as
monastic establishments shut off
from the stresses and strains of
the human condition. I think of
them as societies of fellows within
the great corporate institutions
that our universities have become,
as societies where the relatively
few who can pursue truth dis-
interestedly will find the support

and sustaining fellowship of their
SINCE MAN'S whole knowledge
of things is not inherited and
must be acquired anew by every
generation, there is in every hu-
man socitey a culture, a tradition
of the true and the false, the
right and the wrong, of the good
which is desirable and the bad
which is to be avoided. This cul-
ture is rooted in the accepted ver-
sion of the nature of things and
of man's destiny. The accepted
version evolves and the encyclo-
pedias become outdated and have
to be revised.
Since the prevailing tradition
rests on the prevailing science, it
follows that modern men must
look to the company of scholars
in the universities to guard and to
preserve, to refine and enrich the
tradition of civility. They have to
revise the curricula of studies and
the encyclopedias of knowledge.
course, that the scientists and the
scholars are to be regarded, much
less are to regard themselves, as a
mysterious elite of the initiated
who can lay down the law of right
and wrong, of good and evil in
human affairs. It does mean that
insofar as religion, government, art
and personal living assume or
imply that this or that is trueor
false, they are subject to the
criticism andrjudgment of the
company of scholars.
The prevailing and accepted
science of the time is the root
from which grow the creations of
poets and artists, of saints and
prophets and heroes. The science
of an age is the material with
which inspiration and genius
TOMORROW: Transmitting
Knowledge into Learning.


Inflation: Serious Government Mistakes


..._ ...


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IT IS FAIRLY common knowl-
edge that an inflationary trend
exists in the American economy at
the present time. The President
has acknowledged the problem
with urgent pleas to the business
community to curtail both its
spending and the increase in price
levels. The problem is not one of
diagnosing tle symptoms to dis-
cover the patient's illness, but one
of prescribing the cure.
The confusion centers around
the government itself. As the New
York Times aptly described the sit-
uation, the "right hand seemingly
does not know what the left is
doing." Despite presidential warn-
ings that changes in specified
appropriations could force a tax
increase, the House passed a bill
boosting several administration
appropriations. At the same time,
the House Appropriations Commit-
tee made significant reductions in
another money bill.
EVEN THE TOP governmental
economists advocate contradictory
solutions. Gardner Ackley, chair-
man of the Presidential Council
of Economic Advisers, in a speech
to the United States Chamber of
Commerce, cited the continued rise
in profits and evidence that prices
have risen faster than business
costs for labor and material as
the main factors in the present
He said that "it is time to ask
whether a further rise in the share
of the profits in the national in-
come is in the interests either of
the health of the nation's economy

costs" have been a major cause
for the price increase.
the government itself is to blame,
refuting Ackley's charge against
business. They feel that the gov-
ernment should attempt to con-
trol the situation through some
action such as a tax increase.
The chairman of the Federal
Reserve Board, William McChes-
ney Martin, Jr., and his colleagues
have frequently advocated a gov-
ernmental move to increase taxes
and thus relieve some of the anti-
inflation burden from the mone-
tary policy which the Reserve
Board controls and has attempt-
ed to tighten. Martin claims that
"the logical way to deal with in-
flation would be a simple, clean-
cut, across-the-board increase in
THE ECONOMISTS see the gov-
ernment as the primary culprit
in the inflationary situation be-
cause only the government can
independently raise or lower total
spending in the economy over a
long period of time. Private forces
such as individual businesses, or
accidental forces, such as a mon-
soon in Viet Nam, can cause in-
flation for only a relatively short
period of time.
Thus, for serious inflation to oc-
cur over any length of time, it
must be sustained, or, at least tol-
erated by the government. Only
the government can govern the
total spending power, and prices
cannot rise much if the spending
power does not undergo a parallel
increase to support them.

add to the demand faster than
production can meet this increase
in demand, inflation occurs. This
has been the case in the past
months with government expendi-
tures soaring as a result of the
various "Great Society" programs
and the war in Viet Nam, and
the monetary policy now in effect
has not prevented a big expan-
sion in bank loans and the money
supply. With a simultaneous full
utilization of industry the con-
sumer prices have risen because
of the increase of money in the
economy and the increase in
spending power.
The government can cut infla-
tion off with restraining taxes, a
decrease in its own spending, and
a tighter monetary policy. Be-
cause such moves are unpopular,
and because the President and the
secretary of the Treasury, Henry
H. Fowler, feel that the infla-
tionary trend is only temporary,
such moves have not been made.
FOWLER SAID that the trend
of the economy, and the likeli-
hood of further inflationary pres-
sures were "still unclear." Repeat-
ing his stand in the past, he
claimed that a tax increase could
prove to be a dangerous "over-
cure"-it may have its effect aft-
er other forces have been working
to slow down the boom.
Describing the government's
aim, Fowler said that the admin-
istration was attempting "to slow
down without stalling." The main
confusion at the present time "is
simply to what extent the present
exuberance is a relatively tempor-

a tax increase would be the wrong
method of curbing the present sit-
These "if's" are shaky premises
on which to base policy. As Con-
gress showed last week, the budg-
et may not be held intact. The
amount of Viet Nam spending
needed is never a certain figure,
and there is little indication that
the monetary policy will be great-
ly tightened.
President Johnson has made
only vague attempts-such as his
half-hearted request to the newly
formed Labor Management Advis-
ory Committee to generate new
ideas on how the private sector
of the economy could help solve

"the crucial domestic issue of the
day-the maintenance of our un-
paralleled prosperity with econom-
ic stability."
THE PRESIDENT and his ad-
visers are faced with the possi-
bility of being proved seriously
wrong. If they are, the present in-
flationary trend could grow to
dangerous proportions. The sit-
uation calls for a vigorous cam-
paign to bring about deflation.
The government should call for
a tax increase regardless of the
move's unpopularity; tighten the
money policy; and most import-
antly, drastically curtail its own

More About Salaries,
Teaching Fellows

To the Editor:
SINCE APRIL 3, 1966, The Michi-
gan Daily has printed several
articles and an editorial concern-
ing grievances claimed by some
teaching fellows. The primary de-
mand has been for a 50 per cent
increase in wages. In view of the
appropriations the University is
able to obtain from the Legisla-
ture, the increase in teaching costs
would probably come from another
increase in tuition.
AS A TEACHING fellow for the
past two years on a quarter time

basis in industry (where in my
case the wages have been com-
petitive and satisfactory to me), I
have had no trouble in staying out
of debt. I question therefore the
complaint based upon poverty
TO BRING a bargaining agent
into the picture would no doubt
hamper the educational process as
has been shown in several Detroit
area high schools. This would not
be in the interest of the students
who are only mildly interested in
the power plays between employer

If O

- m WL~7U -


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