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July 08, 1966 - Image 4

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Michigan Daily, 1966-07-08

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Seventy-Sixth Year

by larncean Grim Meaning of Back& Power' yt
SOUND and FURY of D1 h yt

Where Opinions Are Free,
Truth Will Prevail 420 MAYNARD ST., ANN ARBOR, MICH.

NEws PHONE: 764-0552

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the inidividual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

FRIDAY, JULY 8, 1966


Johnson's Newest Escalation:
Neither Peace nor Victory

WITH THE BOMBING of oil storage de-
pots at Hanoi and Haiphong the Viet
Nam war has now been escalated anoth-
er notch. Once again the country is told
that only the sternest military necessity
and a strong desire to bring about peace
negotiations may lay behind the decision.
There is every reason to believe, how-
ever, that the military results will be
negligible-that this escalation, like oth-
ers before it, will be matched by equal
escalation on the other side. Ever since
February of 1965 we have been bombing
North Viet Nam in order to interdict the
support of Viet Cong and South Vietna-
mese forces in the South. The objective
,has not been achieved; the infiltration
rate is greater today than it was when
the bombing began. Why should any dif-
ferent results be expected from the new
strikes at the major cities?
As for diplomatic results, administra-
tion officials in the past have acknowl-
edged that bombing the cities might well
end any hope of negotiations. We hope
they were wrong. But in view of the rec-
ord of 18 months of air attacks it must
be granted that, as Senator Mansfield
says, the new scale of the war makes a
peaceful settlement more difficult rath-
er than less.
IT IS A CURIOUS coincidence, if noth-
ing more, that every American escala-
tion of the war has appeared to come at
a time when Hanoi was sending peace
feelers, or international efforts for peace
negoteiations were afoot. A report pub-
lished last week called attention to this
fact, and naturally one wonders whether
history is repeating itself.
In recent days, President de Gaulle,
UN Secretary-General U Thant and Pope
Paul VI all have reiterated the world
community's pleas for peace. A Canadian
ambassador visited Hanoi on a special
mission and brought back information
which must have been important, since
the administration sent Assistant Secre-
tary of State William P. Bundy to Ottawa
for a personal report. A Romanian deputy
premier, after visiting Hanoi and Peking,
called on the American ambassador in
Bucharest reportedly to explore the pos-
sibilities of a negotiated settlement.
What, if anything, has been going on
the public has no certain way of know-
ing. The State Department dismissed both
the Canadian and the Romanian contacts
with the perfunctory statement that they
showed no change in Hanoi's position.
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Published daily Tuesday through Saturday morning.

But U Thant, who may be a more detach-
ed witness, was reported last week to feel
that there was hope for peace talks if the
United States would accept his recom-
mendation for an indeterminate suspen-
sion of air attacks on North Viet Nam.
INSTEAD, THE AIR attacks are expanded
and escalated.
The American position is that we will
consider ending the bombing only if Ha-
noi agrees to end its support of the
Viet Cong. This is asking for surrender.
It is asking for North Viet Nam to end its
buildup of ground troops while we re-
main free to continue ours.
U Thant has also laid down as one of
the conditions for a peaceful settlement
American willingness to accept represen-
tatives of the Viet Cong at the conference
table. Secretary Rusk in Canberra said
this could not be done because it would
give the Viet Cong a veto on a settle-
ment. This, too, is asking for surrender.
It amounts to saying that the principal
belligerent on the Communist side shall
have nothing to say about the terms of a
settlement. Why should we be surprised
at a Communist refusal to negotiate on
that basis?
sire for negotiations must remain un-
convincing. If you sincerely want a ne-
gotiated (which means a compromise)
settlement, you do not escalate the war
in ways most likely to discourage peace
talks. You do not support implacably a
military junta in Saigon which is unde-
viatingly hostile to compromise or nego-
tiation, You do not exclude from the
conference table the principal force you
are fighting.
We believe the road to a peaceful set-
tlement lies in another direction from
that which the Johnson administration
is following. It has been repeatedly point-
ed out by U Thant, speaking as the con-
science of the United Nations; first, a
suspension of the air war; next, a re-
ciprocal reduction of hostilities leading
toward a cease-fire; and finally, a peace
conference at which the Viet Cong shall
be represented, whose object would be to
restore the principles of the Geneva
agreements of 1954-principles founded
on the concept of military neutrality for
Southeast Asia.
T-HE NEW ESCALATION does not lead
in this direction and neither, in our
opinion, does it lead toward some easy
victory that will dispose of the Viet Nam
problem once and for all. It may increase
the cost of Hanoi's military operations
as Mr. McNamara hopes, but more im-
portantly it will cost the United States
untold sums of good will and esteem
around the world.

Special T
cial discon
brightly across
nowhere is the
dent than in t
community of r
lion Negroes.
There have b
cidents in Harle
mer, despite a
which sent tem
100's several da
"black power"i
quently, althoug
the term has1
Black Muslims
Stokely Carm
er of the Studen
ordinating Com
the phrase dur
march last mon
in areas where
majority of th(
groes had the ri
power at theI
sized that decis
would hencefort
groes, not by N
erals. He decla
tacked, Negroes
defend themse
meansmay ber
anyone else.
and the newspa
ael's battle cry
out of context
through whiteI
ers, both libera
In a recent ra

ENCE FANTO michael claimed that his state-
To The Daily ments had been quoted out of con-
-The fires of ra- text by newsmen whose intention
tent are burning was to "discredit" SNCC. He
te naeibni ng charged that former SNCC chair-
tesnation and man John Lewis, once character-
tesion' moeei- ized as an extremist in the press,
this city's teeming had suddenly been transformed in-
nore than one mil- to a "moderate" upon Carmichael's
appointment and Lewis' resigna-
been no racial in- tion.
em as yet this-sum- Carmichael also clarified his
10-day heat wave emphasis on economic betterment
tperatures into the for the Negro. "Integration means
iys. But the cry of nothing to a Negro who earns $5
s uttered more fre- a day or less," he pointed out. He
gh the meaning of added that SNCC is not in favor
been distorted by of black supremacy, nor is it
and other black anti-white; on the contrary, he
plans to use white civil rights
nichael, new lead- workers to build up a power base
nt Non-Violent Co- in suburban areas.
nmittee, originated
ing the Mississippi UNFORTUNATELY, whatever
th. He meant that, his intentions, Carmichael's em-
they constitute a phasis on "black power" has led
e population, Ne- to grave misunderstandings, both
right to exert their amonfi sympathetic whites and
polls. He empha- other Negro civil rights organiza-
sions within SNCC tions. Roy Wilkins, executive di-
th be made by Ne- rector of the National Association
[orthern white lib- for the Advancement of Colored
red that, when at- People, attacked the slogan as well
have the right to as Carmichael. He charged that
lves by whatever the words suggested an "anti-
necessary, just like white" attitude.
"The kindest thing that can be
said about the expression is that
LEVISION cameras it exhibits a kind of naivete, may-
pers took Carmich- be playful naivete, but kind of
of "black power" dangerous," Wilkins said at a re-
and sent chills cent news conference.
readers and view- However, at their recent con-
I and conservative. vention, the Congress of Racial
.dio interview, Car- Equality enthusiastically adopted
View ofthe

the theme and defined it as "the
effective control and self-determi-
nation of men of color in their
own areas."
"POWER is the total control of
the economic, political, education-
al and social wealth of our com-
munity from top to bottom, and
the exercise of this power at the
local level is simply that which all
other groups in American society
have done to acquire their share
of American life," Lincoln Lynch,
CORE's associate national direc-
tor, declared.
Thus, the "black power" phrase
has already led to dissension with-
in the civil rights movement as
well as misunderstanding among
whites. Perhaps the most serious
ramification of the schism in the
rights movement will be seen in
the racial ghettoes of our major
Outbreaks of violence have al-
ready occurred this summer in
Cleveland, Omaha, Boston and
Los Angeles. Tension is high in
New York, Chicago, Miami, New-
ark, N.J., and Philadelphia. Wash-
ington, D.C., is reported to be sim-
mering after several incidents at
amusement parks early this sum-
mer, and Baltimore is in a similar
Stokely Carmichael may mean
nothing more than voting and eco-
nomic power in his "black power"
declaration, but to the unemploy-
ed, barely surviving resident of a
ghetto, the phrase is a battle cry
for action.
FOR EXAMPLE, a reporter

who recently toured Harlem en-
countered several teenagers who
threatened him.
"You just get goin'," one of them
said. "You laugh at me, you white
-? You laugh at me? Let me tell
you somethin,' whitey. This time
next year, you don't even get
here 'less you got you a passport.
Harlem be a nation then. All the
Jew bastards be gone. We gonna
own. the stores, we gonna have
our own police, and everything
else. You come up here then, you
gonna be killed. Your women come
through in a car, you never see
them again. Blood gonna flow,
whitey. Blood gonna flow."
It is sentiments such as these
which are in danger of being in-
flamed by the statements of prom-
inent civil rights leaders. CORE's
advocacy of "black power" may be
ideologically justifiable, but the
ramifications of such a declara-
tion could get out of hand. The
ghetto dwellers who hear the ral-
lying cry "black power" are not
going to stop to think of what the
phrase may mean politically. They
are going to use it in a rampage
against the hated white man, who
has hobbed the Negro male of his
manhood and deprived him of his
basic economic and political rights,
as the Negroes see it. They may
not be far from the truth in their
assassment of the white man, but
they are treading a dangerous
path if they reject all offers of
political help from sympathetic
only consistent road to betterment

for the Negro in this country. In
the past, civil rights bills have
been passed in the wake of impres-
sive non-violent, bi-racial demon-
strations of protest, such as the
Selma-Montgomery march last
year and the farch on Washing-
ton in summer, 1963. On the other
hand, riots have usually been fol-
lowed by white backlash and sus-
Conditions have improved very
little in the Watts area of Los
Angeles and in Harlem since the
riots there in 1964 and last sum-
mer. In fact, there have been re-
ports that whites in Los Angeles
have stocked up on weapons in
anticipation of 'another outbreak.
Parts of that city are said to re-
semble an armed camp.
"This time next year, the (only
white man in Harlem will be a
dead one," the kid in Harlem
IF MASSIVE outbreaks of ra-
cial violence in the nation's cities
are to be avoided this summer,
civil rights leaders, who should
know better, must not say things
which may agitate or inflame the
passions of residents in the ghet-
toes. Although most of the Ne-
groes' complaints are justified, the
only road to progress in race rela-
tions is the non-violent one. If the
long-standing prejudices of the
white middle class are to be over-
come, the Negro community must
exert an effort- not to reawaken
deep-rooted fears among whites
of a racial bloodbath in the na-
tion's cities.
found that no students or teachers
had been mobilized but a big ex-
pansion of teaching staff and
student intake was under way.
Also that political and ideological
courses had been organized to
explain to staff and students why
it was better service to the coun-
try to study, than to take off with
a gun to fight. Students are to be
100 per cent subsidized as from
this year with substantial material
improvements also for teachers.
In general, the war has given
the country a thorough shaking up
with; great emphasis on the need
for what is described as the "tech-
nical revolution." Often one heard
the phrase: "We have to thank the
Americans for this."
THERE IS no question but that
morale is good, people everywhere,
but especially the youth are in
high spirits and there seems jus-
tification for Pham Van Dong's
remark that: "We are living
through an extraordinary epoch
in our history, a veritable flower-
ing of the traditional virtues of
our people, courage, energy, in-
telligence, patriotism, faith in


ar from


EDITOR'S NOTE: This article is
the last of a two-part series writ-
ten by Wilfred Burchett, an Aus-
tralian Communist writer who has
traveled frequently to North Viet
Nam. It gives a Communist view of
the war and its effects, and is
presented for whatever light it may
shed on the situation in view of
the fact thatrAmerican correspond-
ents are barred from North Viet
By The Associated Press
PHNOM PENH, Cambodia -
Among my visits in North Viet
Nam was one to that country's
Defense Minister, Gen. Vo Nguyen
Giap, once called the "Tiger of
Dien Bien Phu." I asked him the
military effects of American bomb-
ings on his country and he replied:
"The Americans had hoped to
break the morale of our people,
destroy our military and eco-
nomic potential and by this
change the situation in South Viet
Nam in their favor. They have
not attained their aims. They
have only stirred up hatred and
reinforced the Vietnamese people's
will to fight. The Pentagon has
been forced to admit that it is
dealing with an adversary who
shows not the slightest sign of
weakness. We continue to build
our Socialist system. We had a

marvelous harvest last year. As
you've been able to see for your-
self, the railway is still running,
prices have not increased. Our
military and economic potential
has increased, not decreased."
GIAP SAID use of B52s against
the North and the attacks against
the textile town of Nam Dinh and
in the outskirts of Hanoi and Hai-
phong at the end of April, were
"no surprise" but could not change
the situation. In replying to my
question as to the effects of U.S.
military activities in both North
and South Viet Nam, Giap said:
"Viet Nam is one and indivisible.
American intervention followed by
armed aggression in the South
already constitutes a very grave
violation of our country's sov-
ereignty. By their air raids against
the DRVN-Democratic Republic
of Viet Nam-they have carried
the war to the whole of Viet Nam
in such circumstances to resist
aggression arms in hand for our
national salvation is the most
sacred duty of every Vietnamese
patriot, of the entire Vietnamese
people. Our people are determined
to defend the North, to liberate
the South and to achieve the

peaceful reunification of the dents or cutting back on the edu-
motherland. cational program they were taking
in 50 per cent more students into
"THE AMERICANS have failed the higher educational establish-
in what they called their 'dry ments for the 1966-67 scholastic
season' offensives. They will fail year; far more students were being
again. They have failed in their sent abroad and a big expansion of
desperate attempt to stabilize the the educational system was under
Saigon puppet government. They way, starting from this year.
can reinforce their expeditionary "We have the war on our hands
corps in South Viet Nam. They but there is also an urgent need
can intensify their bombardment to train technical personnel," said
of North Viet Nam, even engage Minister Huyen. "To do that we
in other adventurous measures. need to train teachers to be ready
But the further they get involved in three years time to have train-
in the war, the more they will ed technical cadres five years after
expose themselves to heavy de- that. Normally we take in 800 to
feats. We will fight until final 1,000 trainees for secondary school
victory. And we will win." teachers a year, but for the 1966-
Premier Pham Van Dong ex- 67 school year we will take in
pressed himself similarly on this 2,5000. During the past few years
point. On the question of nego- we have matriculated an average
tiations, Pham Van Dong said: of around 15,000 a year for en-
"For the problems of South Viet trance to the higher educational
Nam, it is necessary for the United establishments. But our aim in 5
States to talk with the National to 6 years time is 40,000 in order
Liberation Front, the only authen- to train technical cadres for the
tic representative of our com- South as well as the North. We'll
patriots in the South." need cadres to push the country
ahead at 'cosmic' speed."
ONE OF THE surprises was at
the education ministry where Min- AT HANOI UNIVERSITY, the
ister Nguyen Van Huyen told me Polytechnical Institute and the
that far from mobilizing any stu- Teachers Training Institute, I


Decentralizing the Great Society

/ , -(my /
j~ LfJ,

First of Two Parts
L ANE'S END, Brookville, 0. -
John Loomis surveys the woods
before his tractor. His eyes pick
out, then his feet trace, a path
through the underbrush over
which he will drag the 18-foot
felled oak trunk to the winding
dirt track.
"John, even at 79, continues his
logging," his wife, Mildred, had
said last night.
John Loomis settles his wir y
frame into the ancient vehicle's
seat, checks the pulling chain,
guns the motor and hauls. After
five holdups to jolt the trunk from
the mud, he will pull it through
the woods to his field where it will
become firewood for the winter.
BACK AT the homestead gar-
den, Mrs. Loomis has been gath-
ering green peas for lunch.
"We're at least 95 per cent self-
sufficient when it comes to food-
stuffs," she explains. "You'ie
watching a lesson in domestic
technology; for 25 years I've nev-
er bought my bread."
Many of the farmers around
the Dayton area turn their yields
into cash and re-purchase their
food in processed forms. Mrs.
Loomis claims she can produce six
pounds of nutritious bread for 25
cents and 10 minutes of her time.
This would cost $2.25 from a
health store. The Loomis's also
make their own cheese, butter and
other staples on small electric
grinders and mixers.
LANE'E END is neither an an-
achronism from the American past
nor an imminent portent of the
future. Yet this seat of the School
of Living, now with its two re-
maining permanent proprietors, is
looking toward the future. It bears
the undeniable stamp of one man,
Ralph Borsodi, a visionary with
practical convictions whose life

books, "National Advertising vs.
Prosperity," in which he lambast-
ed the frauds of mass marketing
long before Vance Packard made
it fashionable; and "This Ugly
Civilization," published in 1928, in
which he described his family's
experience in rural homesteading.
"When the Depression hit," re-
calls Mrs. Loomis, "the banks clos-
ed up, people were thrown out of
work, children came to my classes
hungry and without shoes. There
was not enough money to re-hire
us school teachers.
"R.B.'s second book had been
largely ignored when first pub-
lished, but now important people
in the government were at odds
end for a way to take care of so
many unemployed people. The De-
partment of Agriculture, Elmer
Roosevelt and Harry Hopkins be-
came interested in self-heir home-
steading as a result of Borsodi's
Dayton experiment."
BORSODI had hoped to get the
people out of the city into dozens
of self-sufficient little communi-
ties where by building homes and
raising their own food they could
develop a modern philisophy of in-
dependence and pride in a crea-
tive life. John Loomis, a Missouri
farmer who had been forced by a
variety of circumstances to sell his
"eighty," bought a plot in the
First Homstead Unit west of
Dayton. Mildred Jensen became
involved in this decentralist com-
munity and there met and mar-
ried John.
"The experiment ended before
it had fully blossomed," says Mil-
dred. "A million dollars was ear-
marked for the project, and Wash-
ington insisted on direct supervi-
sion when renewal of the loan
came. Borsodi had always been
adamant on the decentralism of
government principle; so he with-
drew from the project and it lost
most of its direction and momen-

School of Living bought 32 acres
of Dutch Farm and renamed it
Bayard Lane. The community im-
mediately set out to establish an
Independence Foundation to make
the purchase of land easy, and to
research in this human laboratory
for the best methods of home-
The educational aspects of the
School of Living were hammered
out in hundreds of hours of sem-
inars, informal lectures, corres-
pondences, with advocates of every
stance in the political and econom-
ic spectrum churning the new
idea around. Mildred Loomis was
UN, Britain
FOR THE FIRST time since it
was formed, the United Na-
tions, on the request of Great
Britain and with the support of
this country, has invoked Chapter
VII of the charter. This chapter
covers unexplored territory, for it
deals with the use of military
measures to enforce the peace. All
the rest of the charter deals with
pacific measures, with concilia-
tion, mediation and the like.
But Chapter VII envisages a
resort to war by the United Na-
tions itself; it envisages the wag-
ing of war to forestall "threats to
the peace, breaches of the peace
and acts of aggression." Until last
week the members of the United
Nations have always avoided
bringing Chapter VII into their
The Security Council has now
accepted a commitment under
Chapter VII in the dispute be-
tween Ian Smith's rebel racist gov-
ernment in Rhodesia and the
Queen's government in Britain.
IT IS ADMITTED that in order
to do this the Security Council has

at Suffern for 18 months during
its peak activity before internal
difficulties caused its dissipation
before World War II.
"I LEARNED more about the
real problems of life then, than I
learned out of all the books which
I had studied in a half-dozen
schools," she remembers. "We use
modern electric tools to reduce
the drudgery-unlike strict Thor-
eau homesteaders who 'rough it.'
And we produce our meat, grain,
vegetables, fruit, honey and dairy
goods for home consumption, sell-
ing only the natural surplus."
and Rhodesia:]
Salisbury, Rhodesia, is a "threat to
the peace." When the Security
Council accepted this determina-
tion it possessed the legal right to
authorize Great Britain to prevent
oil intended for Rhodesia from
being carried to Portuguese ports
in ships.
It cannot be denied, I think,
that there is a genuine threat to
the peace in the smoldering racial
conflict in that part of Africa
which is controlled by Rhodesia,
Portugal and South Africa. The
Security Council is not concerned
with an emergency, but it is con-
cerned with a real and not an
imaginary threat to the future.
For there exists in South Africa
and Rhodesia, though not so
sharply in the Portuguese terri-

The School of Living holds small
seminar groups around the coun-
try, especially in New York and
Michigan, but Lane's End is the
nerve center from which Mildred
Loomis keeps the interest alive
with a voluminous correspond-
ence. She soon hopes to see a
large scale active school going
with the forthcoming purchase of
nearby land and building by oth-
er interested decentralists. It is
from such carefully fanned hopes
as these that decentralism is keep-
ing itself alive today.
TOMORROW: Borsodi the
Last Resort?
off. It is a real one. What is not
so clear is whether it was neces-
sary, whether it was prudent to
involve the United Nations at this
stage of the quarrel with Ian
Smith's rebel government. For in
doing this it has become involved
along with Britain in a quarrel
which extends beyond Rhodesia
and includes Portugal and South
Would it not have been better if
the Wilson government had treat-
ed Rhodesia as a British responsi-
bility? Could it not have taken
over British measures which
would have involved only mem-
bers of the Commonwealth be-
fore it involved the United Na-
tions in a quarrel which is not, at
least not yet, international?
portance that the United Nations
should not be used as a dumping
ground for hard decisions which
are unpopular at home. For sure-
ly it is in no sense a world gov-
ernment which can step in where
the national governments fear to
tread. It cannot, for example, set-
tle the racial conflict in Africa



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