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May 27, 1966 - Image 3

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Michigan Daily, 1966-05-27

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THURSDAY,.MAY 26, 1966

THE MICHIGAN DAIVV

' lt, ' t to M1 rt ce ra .

TUUSDY, AY26 196 HE ICJ(aw N fl r aiY

PAGE THRiEE

.L

.S., Russia

Locked

in

Tight

Race

to

the

CAPE KENNEDY, Fla. (P)-The.
United States and the Soviet
Union are locked in a tight race
to land the first men on the moon,
perhaps within three years. The
winner's rewards will bp substan-
tial: national prestige, scientific
knowledge, possibly military dom-
ination of space.
Last March, President Johnson
predicted that Americans would be
the first on the moon. Who's
ahead at this stage? It's hard to
tell because of Soviet secrecy.
U.S. space officials are cur-
rently spending $3.3 billion on the
manned space and lunar program
and say their budget is adequate
to the American objective. Slight
cuts in recent years have not
affected the manned space de-
velopment; reductions were made
in other phases of, the space pro-
gram.
On the basis of deeds accom-
plished, the United States has an
edge. But American space officials
are looking to the next Russian

manned flight to provide the an-
swer.
It's been more than a year since
Russia sent cosmonauts into orbit.
That was Voshkod 2, a one-day
mission March 18, 1965, during
which Alexei Leonov took history's
first space walk and sent Soviet
prestige soaring.
Since then, the United States
has orbited six two-man Gemini
teams and wrested every man-in-
space record from the Russians.
The Gemini flights, up to 14
days, have, demonstrated the basic
techniques for getting to the
moon. These are ability to maneu-
ver a manned space ship. rendez-
vous of two ships, linkup of two
space vehicles and the ability to
sustain life for the length of time
-8-14 days-planned for early
lunar voyages.
The Russians have demonstrat-
ed only one of these: the space
walk.
Unless they show they can do
the others on their next manned

launching, U.S. experts believe
America will hold an edge.
Reports from behind the Iron
Curtain indicate that during the
long pause since Voshkod 2, the
Russians have been developing a
large third generation space ship
to follow the early Vostok and the
Voshkod.
There are indications it may
weigh up to 27,000 pounds and
carry a crew of three-to-six men.
The ability to link up two such
craft would give the Soviets a big
boost toward the moon. For it
generally is believed they plan to
assemble a station in earth orbit
as their lunar launching pad.
The United States, meanwhile,
plans to make a direct ascent to
the moon, using a single mam-
moth Saturn 5 rocket which is
scheduled for its test flight early
next year.
This giant 36-story-tall rocket
will generate 7.5 million pounds of
booster thrust, compared to 430,000
pounds for the Titan 2 which

hoists the 7,700-pound Gemini
craft.
Why are the Russians taking the
more difficult approach?
The answer is that the United
States-which for years has trail-
ed the Russians in operational
booster power-decided to develop
a huge rocket engine called the
F-1, with 1.5 million pounds of
thrust in a single chamber. There
was no serious thought about go-
ing to the moon in those days and
there was no specific assignment
fo an engine of that size. But
farsighted space agency officials
felt they would need such a boost-
er some day.
In 1961, when both nations made
their commitments to race to the
moon, the United States was two
years ahead in development of the
huge engine-five of which will be
clustered in the Saturn 5 first
stage. The rocket will be able to
hurl the 92,000-pound three-man
Apollo ship to the moon.
To stay in the race, Russia had

to depend on an uprated version
of the 800,000-pound thrust rocket
it had been using for several
months. Improvements have upped
the thrust to over 1 million
pounds.
Best information available in-
dicates the Russians plan to clus-
ter three of the uprated rockets-
each of which is a cluster of
smaller engines-for total thrust
of 3.3 million pounds.
That is not enough power to
send a manned ship to the moon
and provide it with the means of
returning to earth. Thus, the Rus-
sians would have to launch two or
three rockets to establish a base
in earth orbit-and then launch
a single stage lunar rocket from
above the earth's atmosphere
where not as much thrust is
needed.
The use of an oft-fired rocket
gives the Soviets a booster reli-
ability advantage. The Saturn 5
has not yet flown, and troubles
could develop.

However, some U.S. officials
believe that ground firing tests
have demonstrated the Saturn 5
first stage will work-and they
feel that by the fourth flight,
scheduled in 1968, the rocket could
be used to send three Apollo astro-
nauts to the moon. Less optimistic
officials believe six or seven de-
velopment flights will be required,
pushing the manned landing on
the moon off until 1969 or 1970.
Recent statements by Russian
cosmonauts indicate 1969 is their
target.
Another U.S. worry is the be-
havior of liquid hydrogen, the
high-energy fuel that has been
selected to power the two upper
stages of Saturn 5. In test flights
it has proved a tough fuel to tame.
It will receive a major test in
July when a Saturn 1B rocket is
to hurl a satellite full of liquid
hydrogen into orbit to study its
effectiveness in weightlessness.
This high-energy propellant pro-
duces 40 per cent more punch

than liquid rocket fuels now be-
ing used. Russia also reportedly is
developing hydrogen, as a rocket
fuel.
The Saturn 1B, whose eight-
engine first stage powerplant pro-
duces 1.6 million pounds of thrust,
will be used to lift manned Apollo
ships into earth orbit in a series
of rehearsals for the moon trip.
The first unmanned Apollo
flight with a Saturn 1B was suc-
cessful in February. One more
unmanned launching is scheduled
in August and its success could.
lead to a manned flight late this
year.
Before then, the four remaining
Gemini shots are to further de-
velop the procedures explored in
the earlier flights.
While its manned rockets have
been idle, Russia scored two im-
portant firsts this year by soft-
landing a payload on the moon
and orbiting one around it.
Both provided valuable informa-

lloon
tion on the strength of the lunar
surface and the environment sur-
rounding the moon. Ironically,
they provided the United States
with confidence to move ahead,
with the knowledge that the sur-
face will support a manned land-
ing.
Before the summer is out,
America hopes to soft-land two
Project Surveyor space craft on
the moon and send two Lunar
Orbiter ships into orbit around
it, placing the latter as close as
28 miles in their orbital path to
photograph potential astronaut
landing areas.
One thing seems certain. Wheth-
er astronauts or cosmonauts get
there first, the world at that
moment will enjoy one- of its
greatest thrills-for both nations
have the capability of recording
man's first footstep on the dusty
lunar landscape and relaying it
live to television sets around the
world.

E

I

duces 40 per cent more punch Both provided valuable informa-

world.

U.S. Troops
'In Europe
May Dwindle
Senate Backing Seen
For Slow Reduction
In Ground Forces
WASHINGTON (P)-The John-
son administration apparently
will have substantial Senate back-
ing for any negotiations which
might lead to gradual reduction
in U.S. ground forces in Europe.
This was the clear indication of
a canvass by the Associated Press
which disclosed that 44 senators
would support a thinning out of
the six U.S. divisions now deploy-
'1 ed h.. Europe.
However, only 15 senators m
this group willing to take a stand
on the issue supported a proposal
by Democratic leader Mike Mans-
field of Montana to cut the U.S.
commitment to a token level of
one division.
Maintain Strong Defense
An equal number indicated they
feel the United States must main-
tain a strong defensive stance on
the Continent.
The issue will be affected by
efforts to revise the North Atlan-
* tic Treaty Organization setup be-
cause of France's forthcoming
withdrawal of its forces from
NATO command.
Asked whether he would ap-
prove of a reduction of U.S. forces
to the token level suggested by
Mansfield, Republican l e a d e r
Everett M. Dirksen of Illinois
pointed to the NATO problem.
'Fluid Situation'
"This troop question is difficult
because the NATO situation is so
fluid-we don't know to what
length French President Charles
de Gaulle will go," he said.
"Western European countries
ought not to depend on us entirely
for troop support and we should
reduce the number of our troops
as much as reasonably possible.
"But we have assumed free
world leadership and there is a
question of how much this calls
on us to do."
Opinion Survey
Sen. Frank Church (D-Idaho),
who surveyed European opinion
for forthcoming Senate Foreign
Relations Committee hearings,
i~ said he is against leaving on a
token force in Germany.
"However," he said, "I do feel
that a prudent reduction should
be made when the time is ap-
propriate. Coming now, at the
moment of the De Gaulle defec-
tion, would seem to me to be an
4 inappropriate time inasmuch as
it might convey to the Russians
an impression that the Western
alliance is fast coming unstuck."
Sen. Paul Douglas (D-Ill) said
that if U.S. troops are pulled out
of France, "We must demand full
compensation of the $2 billion to
$2.5 billion of construction and
equipment we have put in France
for NATO."
Unanswerable Question
Sen. Karl E. Mundt (R-SD), a
F o r e i g n Relations Committee
member, said he doesn't believe
4 the troop question can be an-
swered now.
"I believe that the preferable
solution to the situation in West-
ern Europe is for us to take the
leadership in the reconstitution of
NATO, with the new NATO head-
quarters located outside of
France," he said.
"I would hope that in such a
reconstitution that the number

of U.S. troops stationed in Europe
could thereby be reduced."
A (YM IPIF O~F COURSESFC. THEJ

LBJ Says U.S. Cannot Condone'
Perpetuation of Racial Injustice

ELECTION NEXT WEEK:

Dominican Political Split Exposed

WASHINGTON ({P) - President
Johnson told an African-oriented
audience last night that the U.S.
government cannot "condone the
perpetuation of racial or political
injustice anywhere in the world."
Guiding American policy toward
Rhodesia, as it has from India to
the Philippines and Viet Nam and
Pakistan, Johnson said, is a na-
tional tradition of supporting self
determination and an orderly
switch to majority rule every-
where.
The President reaffirmed a uni-
ty of purpose with African na-
tions and an intention to work
with others "to help you build a
modern Africa."
OAU Anniversary
Johnson's speech, his first ma-
jor address on African-American
relations, was prepared for a White
House reception celebrating the

third anniversary of the Organi-
zation of African Unity.
"The United States," Johnson
said, "has learned from lamentable
personal experience the waste and
injustice that result from the dom-
ination of one race by another.
Just as we are determined to re-
move remnants of any inequality
from our own midst, we are also
with you-heart and soul-as you
try to do the same.
"Wedbelieve, as you do, that de-
nial of a whole people's right to
shape their national future is mor-
ally wrong.
"We also know it is politically
and socially costly. A nation in the
20th century cannot expect to
achieve order and sustain growth
unless it moves-not just steadily
but rapidly-in the direction of
full political rights for all its peo-
ple.

"It has taken us time to learn
this lesson. But having learned it
we do not intend to forget it."
Turning to Rhodesia and its
troubles with Britain over racial
problems and the question of in-
dependence, Johnson said the
United States is encouraging and
supporting efforts of the United
Kingdom and the United Nations
to restore legitimate government
in Rhodesia.
Only when this is done, he said,
can there be steps toward open-
ing the power and responsibility
of nationhood to all the people of
that country-not just six per cent.
This was a reference to the white
population.
Colonies IncludedI
A White House official was ask-
ed whether Johnson's assertion
that the United States cannot
condone racial or political injus-
tice applied to South Africa and
Portuguese colonies as well as
Rhodesia. He said they would be
included. Johnson only named
Rhodesia.
Officials said the President'sI
speech "doesn't get out ahead of
what the Africans are doing" but
throws his support behind their
efforts. The contents of the speech
were described as a pulling togeth-
er of previously announced poli-
cies into a coherent package.
The United State, the President
said, is ready to help regional eco-
nomic communities in Africa with
technical aid and financing.

SANTO DOMINGO, Domincan
Republic (P)--The campaign for
next Wednesday's election is ex-
posing small but eloquent signs
that the political cleavage which
split this city into warring camps
during the 1965 revolution still
exists.

Santo Domingo remains a poli-
tically divided city.
The central part of the city, an
area of less than a square mileI
was in the hands of the constitu-
tionalist forces during the rebel-
lion. The greater part of Santo
Domingo, and the country, were

World News Roundup

Despite long, costly and occa- I controlled by the civilian military
sionally successful reunification junta. Units of the inter-Ameri-
efforts which followed that revolt, can peace force stood between the
Indonesia, Malaysia Talks
To Begin with High Hopes
KUALA LUMPUR, Malaysia OIP)! initiated by Indonesian President
-Deputy Prime Minister Tun Ab-I Sukarno when the Malaysian Fed-
dul Razak of Malaysia expressed eration was formed three year~s
ago.
confidence yesterday that talks " mcnietta ewl
he will have with Indonesian of- be altcofduetresults,"wil-
facials this weekend will "roueZabbltoproducereut, a
results" toward settling differencesza said. "The talks will be straight
between the two Southeast Asian between myself and Adam Malik.
neighbors. ''We will meet straight away
because we are satisfied" about
Razak told newsmen he will Indonesia's intentions, he said.
leave for Bangkok, Thailand, to-I Razak added: "The talks will be
morrow with an 18-man delegationIonedgcnfntinadnth
for negotiations with an Indones- oning cttinndnoh
ingele.
ian delegation headed by Foreign Razak saw newsmen after re-
Minister Adam Malik. turning to Kuala Lumpur from
Razak said "it now appears that the mountain resort of Cameron
Indonesia is very serious and sin- Highlands where he and Thai
cere" about ending the armed and ~ leaders completed arrangements
frequently violent confrontation for the talks.

two sides. Barbed wire and barri-
cades marked a crude-shaped
boundary separating the bellig-
erent zones. The barricades were
removed last October.
Juan Bosch, presidential can-
didate of the Dominican Revolu-
tionary party and the inspiration
behind the April revolution, is the
acknowledged , favorite in what
was the constitutionalist area of
the capital. The preponderance of
pro-Bosch signs painted on walls
attests to this. Only a few pro-
claim the candidacy of Dr. Joa-
quin Balaguer, the other major
presidential contender.
On the other hand, pro-Bala-
guer signs outside the constitu-
tionalistarea far outnumber those
proclaiming Bosch. But this can-
not be taken as indicative of the
voting mood in the capital. For
one thing, even today some anti-
constitutionalist leaders dare not1
go into the downtown district for
fear of reprisals from the young
constitutionalists who hang around
the stores and coffee shops along
the main business artery. Although
Balaguer and his party were not
involved in the April revolution, it
is doubted the young Bosch parti-
sans would tolerate propaganda
against their leader in the down-
town zone. Balaguer, who has
campaigned through most of the
country, has not done so in the
downtown district.

When Bosch lived in the cen-
tral part of the city, after his
return to the country last Septem-
ber, he was a frequent stroller.in
downtown streets. But now he is
a virtual prisoner in his suburban
home because of fears for his life.
The election contest in the NA-
tional District, or Santo Domingo,
between Balaguer and Bosch may
key, the national outcome. Bosch
crushed his main opponent, Dr.
Viriato Fiallo, 152,404 votes to
33,376, in the 1962 election.. The
expectation is that he will win
again in the National District, but
not by that much.
A prevailing view is that if
Balaguer holds Bosch in Santo
Domingo, Bosch may be in trouble.
Balaguer is believed to hold an
edge in the interior.
While the intensity of the poli-
tical campaign is reflected in wall
signs, they also indicate the lack
of any real election issues. Pro-
Balaguer propaganda stresses that
with the reformist party candidate
Dominicans will enjoy "las tres
calientes"-three hot meals. Bal-
aguer promises more rice, more
cooking oil and also emphasizes
that he is the "candidate of
peace."
Most of the campaign signs for
Bosch and the third presidential
candidate, Rafael F. Bonnelly,
carry no promises or messages.

By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON - President
Johnson cited figures yesterday
indicating he questions the wis-
dom of an anti-inflation tax in-
crease at this time.
Johnson said the federal govern-
ment expects to siphon out of the
economy an additional $13 billion
this year through changes in tax
law and an anticipated increase of
$1.5 billion in sales of savings
bonds.
"Maybe we should take out
more," the President said. "I wish
I knew."
But he quickly added, "We are
concerned that we don't go too
far too fast."
Since he volunteered the $13
billion figure for the first time, his
remarks were interpreted as evi-
dence that, at least for the mo-
ment, he sees no need for a tax
increase.
WASHINGTON -- The House
passed yesterday a bill that would
increase the minimum wage to
$1.60 an hour in 1969, a year later
than originally proposed. It is now
$1.25.
The bill, which must still be act.

ed on by the Senate, would provide
an interim increase to $1.40 next
Feb. 1, and bring approximately
7.2 million more workers under
minimum wage coverage.
** *
GEORGETOWN, Guyana--The
national assembly of Guyana, an
independent nation since mid-
night, held its historic first ses-
sion yesterday, and the opening
debate foreshadowed a stormy po-
litical future for the former Brit-
ish colony.
Marxist opposition leader Ched-
di Jagan, in a fiery speech, de-
nounced the new constitution
which he said "entrenches minor-
ity rule," and he declared: "Real
freedom is the prize still to be
won and win it we will."
"He is able also to save them
to the uttermost, who comes to
God by Him, seeing He ever
livth I."
---Hebrews 7:25
CHURCH OF CHRIST
530 West Stadium

Oleg Cassini's banded look
hits the sunny shores.. .

r-

1I

PAID PSYCHOLOGICAL
SUBJECTS WANTED
at Mental Health Research Institute
Call Miss Basis at 761-2114

I

i _

8 a.m.-5 p.m.

p

1

Found:

After 11 years of looking,
Timothy Glancy Finney
finally found a beer
he-and his growing
circle of friends -
could really rally 'round.

. ty.l, .. -yip .

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