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April 23, 1961 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1961-04-23

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Seventy-First Year
Truth Will Prevail" STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

Regents Must Not Retreat
From Firm Stand on Tuition

N WORDS AS unequivocal as could be asked
of a public body, the Board of Regents Fri-
day served notice on the state Legislature that
it intends to maintain the quality of the Uni-
versity without resorting to educationally un-
sound methods.
Specifically, the body ruled out a boost in
tuition. The resolution approved by the Board
states: "Sound educational policy also requires
that additional student fee increases be avoid-
ed as certain to restrict the educational oppor-
tunities of well-qualified and deserving young
men and women." President Hatcher confirm-
ed that "The Regents are not contemplating a
tuition increase."
Rather than raising tuition to fill in deficien-
cies in the state appropriation, the Regents pre-
ferred to find ways of operating within the giv-
en budget. They directed President Hatcher to
study the feasibility of freezing-or even re-
ducing-enrollments, incurring a deficit, or
cutting back service and maintenance.
T ) SOME EXTENT, the resolution may have
been tactical. As it noted at the outset, the
final appropriation has not been approved, and
occasional gestures of conciliation have been
noted in Lansing. By taking a firm stand
against tuition increases, the Regents are
making it clear that any omissions from the
final appropriations will show up directly in
the University's operating budget.
More significantly, the Regents have spelled
out in some detail the alternative courses of
action available if an austerity budget is ap-
proved. None of these alternatives could be
very pleasing to a legislator who is at all re-
sponsive to the voice of the public. If services
and maintenance are cut and equipment buy-
ing curtailed, University employes will lose
their jobs and University suppliers will lose
their customers-and will probably blame the
Legislature. If enrollments are frozen or re-
duced just as our population wave is cresting,
there will be outraged cries from parents of
applicants who didn't make it-and the Legis-
lature will bear the blame. Finally, if the Uni-
versity should incur a deficit, the Legislature
would have little recourse except to make
supplemental appropriations.

BY THUS POSING the alternatives to in-
creased fees, the University doubtlessly
hopes to apply pressure in the final stages of
the appropriations battle. Nevertheless, one,
must accept that its present firm stand re-
flects a genuine alarm that the recent history
of legislative action has shown tendencies
which could seriously damage the whole char-
acter of higher education in Michigan. Tui-
tion in the last ;five years has risen over 50
per cent, while state support has gdne up only
14 per cent. As the Regents emphasized Friday,
the state is moving away from those princi-
ples of free public education which have made
Americans the most literate and schooled peo-
ple on earth.
The tragedy is that the Regents themselves
have allowed this tendency to make headway.
Their declaration, admirable though it be for
its high principles and unequivocation, is five
years too late. A firm posture is difficult to
assume after a long period of vacillation, and
may not be taken seriously by those toward
whom it is directed.
By conscientiously limiting enrollment to
those who can be educated without sacrificing
quality, the Regents would risk entering a
long, descending spiral, in which enrollment
reductions beget further cuts in appropriations.
Such a process, if long continued, would nec-
essarily diminish the quality of the institu-
tion, as much of its greatness derives from
its size and diversity. On the other hand, if
the Regents refused to control enrollment there
would be an immediate shortage of money for
salaries, with the attendant loss of faculty
and damage to the University's quality. The
only solution would be an increase in tuition.
Their resolution has placed them on rec-
ord as squarely opposed to tuition increases.
Given their past record of submission, one
may well doubt that the Regents' present
statement will be regarded with any real belief
in Lansing. But it is important that there be
no further retreat. The vacillation of the past
must end if the' Regents of the University of
Michigan are to retain any control over the
future course of higher education in this state.
Acting Editor

is the seve
Daily's seri
sity's Grea
Swanson is
sociology d
ing anx
pus. It exp
the Univers
it is not de
and moving
skill and de
the anxious
gans grow
lence or th
mester plan
'r fear. As of
people arer
vague but a
are affecte
What fever
The strenr
ty's cohere
more diffic
that of ma
tions. This
versities are
ily under a
times a uni
dent or oth
usually gif
the institut
the time an
ideas intoc
tines. Suc]
lsharpen the
at their i
must not le
ure of a R
Charles Eli
Angell obse
Chicago, H
gan were g
fore them
after their
the most s
has but a
his institut
pull requir
ized proced
headed by
what are V
North Wh
quentyl of
the Univer
"The 1
ford ma
many wa
d e f ie i
served o
'a beside w]
detail a
duced b
who trea
alone, n
And, he
inative tre
is the defir
those issu
lic policy
on which
i of a hostco
h: It is sig
head's re
the openi
Business A
"At n
sities b
pure ab

yers, eng
now a h
ed vocal
into the
But the pe
the univer
ly intellec
The "gift
has to off
If the r
versity is
mental in

he University-a Headless Wonder?

8 NOTE: Following
nth article in The
es on "The Univer-
test Needs." Prof.
a member of the
A vague but chill-
iety on this cam-
resses a fear that
ity is adrift, that
ining its objectives
toward them with
cisiveness. Much of
talk about Michi-
ng size or excel-
dangers of a tri-
and much student
originates in this
ten happens when
preoccupied with a
larming issue, their
on other problems
d, becoming some-
ed, irrational, and
igth of a universi-
nce and purpose is
tlt to gauge than
ny other organiza-
is so because uni-
e organized primar-
*n ideal, not under
it is true that some-
versity has a presi-
er senior officer un-
ted in formulating
ion's relevance for
id in translating his
organizational rou-
h administrations
efocus of work done
stitutions. But we
t the occasional ten-
Robert Hutchins or
ot or James Burrill
cure the fact that
arvard, and Michi-
reat universities be-
and continued so
presidencies. Even
timulating executive
transient impact on
ion. What the long
es are institutional-
ures that insure ex-
* . *
AT universities are
ideals, not men,
those ideals? Alfred
iitehead spoke elo-
them in eulogizing
sity of Oxford:
University of Ox-
y have sinned in
ys. But, for all her
encies, she has
ut the ages pre-
ne supreme merit,
hich all failures in
re as dust in the
for century after
. she has pro-
ands of scholars
ted learning imag-
. For that service
o one who loves
can think of her
continues, an imag-
matment of learning
iition of fundamental
and of that new
essential to their so-
is the resolution of
es, whether of pub-
or of abstract theory,
depend the solution
f more limited prob-
nificant that White-
narks were made at
ng of a School of
dministration. As he
o time have univer-
een restricted to
stract learning .. .
ties have trained
medical men, law-
gineers. Business is
ighly intellectualiz-
tion, so it well fits
culiar competence of
sity is not to provide
i education for "high-
ctualized vocations."
which the University
fer is the old one of

on . ., "
mark of a great uni-
attention to funda-
tellectual issues-lo-

Humphrey's Justification Fails

As numerous studies have
shown, the proportion of an
organization's resources devot-
ed to administration increases
more rapidly than the organi-
zation's total size. This trend
is especially pronounced when
"size" represents the number
of different activities an or-
ganization performs (e.g., the
number of departments in it)
and not merely the number of
people involved. Such a dispro-
portionate growth in adminis-
tration and record-keeping is
not size. Such a disproportion-
ate growth in administration
and record-keeping is not a
product of bureaucratic im-
perialism. Administrators co-
ordinate. The number of pos-
sible and actual relations re-
quiring coordination rises more
rapidly than the increase in
people and functions. Thus
there are six possible relations
that may need coordination in
a group of three, 25 in a group
of four, 301 in a group of six,
and 966 in the group of seven.
The rapid growth of univer-
sity size since World War II
has brought a vast increase in
the proportion of its resources
devoted to administration. This
is not simply a matter of great
expansion in the Central Ad-
ministration. It involves the
penetration of the University's
schools and academic depart-
ments by admiinstrative tasks
and requirements. No longer
can an enlarged department fill
its Chairmanship by the leis-
urely rotation of that office
among senior men, each tak-
ing a trick at the wheel for
three or four years. Such rap-
id turnover becomes disruptive
of the development of the long-
range plans that now are re-
quired for departmental opera-
tion. More than this, adminis-
trative problems have become
so great that it takes a man at
least two years to learn the
job. Large and busy depart-
ments must find some member
who finds the problems of
administration c h a 11 e n g ing
enough to lay aside his research
and teachings.
* * *
also require more administra-
tive time from all their profes-
sors. By a very conservative
estimate, the average member

SEN. HUBERT HUMPHREY came here yes-
terday and took it upon himself to defend
the administration's Cuban policy. But he
shouldn't have bothered.
He had three points:
1) That Castro's expropriations were thiev-
ery. (He mumbled, in response to a question,
that Castro's offer to recompense the owners
with bonds was "inadequate." Did Humphrey
expect Castro.to give businessmen the money
out of his pocket?)
2),The fiery denunciation of the United
States in the Cuban television, radio and press
was irritating.
3) The tyranny of the Castro regime and'
the moral case of the rebels in Miami forced
us to intervene.
Now the first two points are valid reasons
for the Senator to dislike Castro, but they are
ridiculous as reasons to finance the overthrow
of his government..,
The third point is the only important one,
because it and it alone could justify the Ken-
nedy policy.

But, if our position is really to help subvert
undemocratic regimes, why aren't we working
in Spain, in the Dominican Republic, and in
South Viet Nam?
So it appears that we are only interested in
overthrowing socialist dictators.
Why is it that when there is a nice fat
Fascist dictator like Trujillo or Batista we are
loud about non-intervention in internal poli-
tics? It's with the Arbenz's and the Castro's
that we decide we must intervene.
Again, if we are interested in the moral case
of the rebels, why do we give our aid to the
former Batista followers, and advance them to
prominent positions in the rebel ranks?
There is no moral case for the United States
in its battle to destroy Castro, because we
have deserted all ideals except a blind anti-
-And anti-Communism, for the uncommitted
nations, if not for us, cannot serve as an excuse
for aggression.

growth has stopped, where it
appears promising, and the rel-
evance for these matters of
present and projected efforts.
As is common in administra-
tion, these surveys are fruitful
to the extent that all relevant
persons participate in them, to
the extent that administrators
and faculty are made aware of
important disagreements among
those who make the assess-
ments, and to the extent that
reports include comparisons
with work being developed at
other major institutions.
2) Several universities em-
ploy the device of including at
least one person from another
department on any departmen-
tal committee proposing can-
didates for tenure appoint-
ments. This "outside"man has
the special responsibility for
urging that the post to be filled
is defined in a fashion most
relevant to the basic concerns
of the field in question, and
that the, candidates recom-
mended are the best available.
His independent appraisal of
the situation goes directly, to
the responsible Dean.
3) A few universities have re-
quired that special Institutes,
Centers, and Programs make
searching reviews of their work
at regular periods and have
terminated support for those
efforts that no longer seem
fruitful. Satisfactory control
over such operations seems to
require that their leadership
be subject to the same evalua-
tion and rotation currently em-
ployed with department chair-
men, that their' programs be
designed to support and com-
plement those of the universi-
ty's schools and departments,
and that independent evalua-
tions of their programs are
prepared by the basic science
departments most closely re-
lated to their work.
4) Several colleges as well as
universities have decided that
the outstripping of suitable fac-
ulty by enrollment requires
that they limit their size--size
meaning the number of ancil-
lary programs as well as num-
ber of students enrolled. In a
state educational system, this
presumably implies something
like the California decision to
produce a division of labor
among several institutions with
Berkeley, although continuing
to have a vigorous undergrad-
uate division, becoming the
senior center for graduate edu-
cation and especially for the
emerging programs of training
and internship beyond the doc-
5) Several institutions ask the
opinion of outside experts in
selecting chairmen of depart-
ments. The outsider seems espe-
cially helpful in judging wheth-
er a candidate knows the de-
velopments and trends in the
area he is to administer and
understands its basic intellec-
tual problems.
*. .
am not making one of those
familiar outcries against size
and specialization. Aconsider-
able measure of both is re-
quired for the development of
a first-rate institution. More-
over, an adequate system of
representative government will
counteract many faculty com-
plaints about the strains that
size now places on our system
of direct democracy. The issue
for the future is not whether
a representative system of fac-
ulty government is viable but
the interests it will represent.
I ain saying that a university's
greatness requires that it be di-
rected toward developing fun-
damental knowledge and to-
ward training in.it. I am urg-
ing that the University of
Michigan move with vigor to

install organizational routines
that will maintain the leader-
ship of this ideal in the face of
threatening new developments.

ties. Men are diverted from the
advancement of knowledge and.
the development of instruction-
al excellence to the problems
of maintaining the organiza-
tion. They are rewarded for
these new activities.
Now it happens that a dis-
proportionate number ofthose
persons who are most readily
diverted in this fashion are
what one sociologist, Robert
Merton, calls "locals" rather
than "cosmopolitans" in ori-
entation. They are more' con-
cerned with maintaining their
institution's inner operations
than with meeting the needs
it is designed to serve or ad-
vancing some field of knowl-
edge. Under their influence, the
institution's atmosphere be-
comes progressively less stim-
ulating. Fewer risks are taken,
fewer novel ventures begun,
fewer original intellects are
attracted to the campus, and
fewer of those now present re-
main. Certain words a n d
phrases take on a sacred qual-
ity; soundness, orderly proced-
ures, thorough exploration, es-
tablished precedent and clear
definitions. Obviously all of
these represent desirable quali-
ties. Difficulties arise as they
become a university's major
criteria of accomplishment.
* * *
fluence of local orientations is
not the only hindrance to a
university's work. The number
of really first-rate scholars and
scientists has not grown as
rapidly as the universities' re-
quirements for faculty. Rapid
expansion can easily dilute the
proportion of a faculty vigor-
ously engaged in the develop-
ment of fundamental knowl-
Again, to some extent in all
fields but especially in the sci-

are clear differences in the de-
gree to which individuals are
committed to a career as tech-
nicians. The problem is how to
obtain vital technical services
without being dominated by
tools instead of, intellectual
problems-by means instead of
As the number of technicians
grows in the University's de-
partments and colleges, and es-
pecially in its multiplicity of
Institutes, Centers, and Pro-
grams, so does their voice in
policy. Given present trends, it
is inescapable that their inter-
ests will predominate in more
and more areas. Because Insti-
tutes, Centers and the like have
special resources for the per-
sistent development and pre-
sentation of their interests to
the Central Administration, we
may expect persistent pressures
on University resources for the
support of technical concerns.
* * *.
these pressures are unique to
the University of Michigan.
Perhaps they affect all major
universities? Indeed they do.
One gets the impression, how-
ever, that some of the others
have found methods for. con-
trolling their force. I should
like to list some of those meth-
ods, not as cures for our ills,
but as measures that deserve
examination and that may
prove suggestive of devices even
more appropriate to the Michi-
gan scene.
1) Some institutions seek to
keep planning in touch with
the great purposes of the Uni-
versity by requiring that the.
development plans of depart-
ments and colleges include a
brief survey of major intellec-
tual areas for which the unit is
responsible, together with an
indication of the points where

The Lessons of Cuba

POST-MORTEMS ARE often painful, but
they are necessary in military and political
affairs and they can be salutary. No one can
have any doubt today that there has been a
great deal of miscalculation, misunderstanding,
wishful thinking and underestimation *of the
factors involved inside and outside of Cuba.
It is now common knowledge that the United
States played a considerable role in the prepa-
rations for the episode and that specifically the
Central Intelligence Agency masterminded the
operation for the American Government, first
during the Eisenhower Administration and then
under President Kennedy. This involvement
does not contradict the statements made by Mr.
Kennedy and his spokesmen that no North
Americans would take part in an invasion of
Cuba, and that the conflict on the island was
between Cubans. But our support for the anti-
Castro. anti-Batista elements has been clear.
and has extended to more than mere expres-
sions of goodwill.
N CALCULATING WHAT went wrong, one
. must consider that three major elments
were involved: the Castro regime, the Cuban
exiles and the United States. Of these, it ought
surely to be obvious now that the most mis-
understood was the internal Cuban situation,
-4 . Sw... '[1 it.. -1a ww'.4,- - . .

a dictatorial, powerfully centralized equivalent
of a police state. In this emergency, therefore,
those who might have wanted to revolt could
not, and those who supported the regime could
and did help to quash the underground and
repel the invaders.
0 FAR AS the Cuban exiles were concerned,
their bravery and passionate convictions
could not be backed by adequate strength. They
believed the people of Cuba would rise against
the regime, and thought their information was
better than it was. They had no magnetic
leader and they were not truly united.
On the American side, as is now clear, basic
and inexcusable miscalculations were made by
the C. I. A. The latter was badly and iade-
quately informed about the situation in Cuba
from the beginning, perhaps with some un-
conscious preconceptions, and consequently it
underestimated the magnitude of the problem
and presumably gave poor advice to the White
House and the State Department. It con-
tributed to the division among the exiles by
backing the Democratic Revolutionary Front
almost exclusively and shouldering aside the
M. R. P. (Revolutionary Movement of the
People) which had the best underground
organization in Cuba.


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U.S. Demonstrates Ambivalent Policies

To the Editor:
.HERESEEMS TO be a pecul-
iar ambivalence evident in our
government's policy statements re-
garding "free peoples" and "free
nations". Interpreted in Laos, this
means Russia must cease armed
support of the Laotian Rebels
(ostensibly Communists with in-
sidious designs to subjugate a
"free" people), and in the Congo,
this means civil war must be held
in check and "peaceful" solutions
But now that trouble has
erupted on our very doorstep we
claim extenuating circumstances
and reverse precedents established
in both Laos and the Congo.
FIRST, a counter-revolutionary
force arms itself in this country,

endorses the right of Cuban revo-
lutionaries to organize here with-
out intervention by the U.S. Yet
our government has vigorously
supported UN intervention in the
Congo's civil strife, in which case
the UN has achieved little, spent
much and proved how ineffective
it can really be, given the oppor-
Certainly the United States of
America is able to be more con-
sistent when it comes to backing-
up a philosophy it proclaims with
so much sincerity, especially since
we occupy a position on the right
hand of God .. .
-G. A. Zahler,'61
Freshman English . .
To the Editor:

of a multiple choice, machine-
scored portion on grammer, vo-
cabulary, and comprehension. In
addition, three instructors inde-
pendently graded a short essay
written by each student.
SECTIONS OF three different
levels run simultaneously to per-
mit switching students from course
to course during the first three
weeks of the semester. In that
way misevaluations arising from
the testing method were corrected.
To the best of my knowledge,
the system is still in successful
operation, although the remedial
course has been dropped, and the
students must sink or swim in a
college-level course. In my opin-
ion, the rigorus courses there could
well provide models for raising

Latin American countries which
also have dictators.
The authors of this editorial
criticize the U.S. Government not
on the grounds of the moral right
or wrongness of U.S. aid to the
Cuban rebels but on the. ground
that, thehelp is inconsistent with
our previous (erronious) actions.
In other words, while it was very
bad for us not to aid anti-dictator
rebels in the past, it is morally
unforgivable to change our ways
since this is inconsistancy in its
most horrid form!
* . s
is just another form of the old
saw of the Latin American coun-
tries that the U.S. owes them a
living and should bail them out of
all their follies. It's time that the
.atin American cnmtries realize

By All Means ...
To the Editor:
R. FARRELL'S editorial on the
two types of students to be
found at colleges and universities
certainly showed a truly educated
and*intelligent approach to living
with one's fellow man. By all
means, let's have rioting for the
sake of rioting and radicalism for
the sake of radicalism.
The students seriously dedicated
to helping man live more happily
and peacefully in this troubled
world, for instance, the applicants
to the Peace Corps, just don't have
the right spirit. Constructive ideas
and an idealistic hope for a better
world are "more in line with the,
usual standards." The idealistic

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