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April 16, 1961 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1961-04-16

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Seventy-First Year
_ EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
e Opinions Are Free UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
uth Will Preva"il " STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. O ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
ditorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

The'U'and International Education

'Ballad'

ARY 16. 1961

NIGHT EDITOR: HARVEY MOLOTCH

Quad Conference Fails
To Raise Basic Questions

|STERDAY'S INTER-QUADRANGLE Coun-
cil's Conference on the problems of the
is residence halls missed the point. Al-
igh the meeting could prove to be the basis
improved student-administration corn-
zication, the conference unfortunately
led to dwell on matters that will make
difficult, if not impossible, to formulate'
tions applicable to the most pressing ques-
s facing the quadrangles.
he discussion groups often failed to dis-
iinate cause from effect and dwelt on
erficialities for long periods. The most.
aral problems facing the quadrangles arose-
occasionally and momentarily. The data
iered by participants will prove difficult to
,hesize into a coherent whole.
here was an overwhelming concern of the-
ous discussion groups for parts rather than
le. Complaints over food, drinking, and
ciaries figured prominently; but no group
cerned itself with the questions dealing
1 the system as a whole. Is there basically a
le problem facing the residence halls? Do
particular complaints stem from the wide-
ad feelings of helplessness?
DURING THE forthcoming meeting of
iscussion leaders, the participants do not
i their preconceived definitions of the prob-'
the project's total accomplishment will
e been a general discussion without any
ibility of applicable solutions. There will
an outcry for better food, tightening or
ening of dress regulations, staff men who
friendlier or more aloof-but at the end
he year, the'usual crop of, one-year resi-
s will leave the quadrangles, still remem-
ng thelu as uninspiring and cold places in'
ch to live.
he only way to avoid such an outcome is
valuate all the data collected in its proper.
pective. Problems of food, dress regulations
staff men can only be understood as a
.of a whole rather than as isolated con-
S. -
hen viewed separately, only the effect and'
the cause is seen Out of context, the ef-
becomes so removed from the cause that
relationship is completely obscured.

each of them is far broader than any. of those
considered at the conference.'',
To make superficial changes cannot give
fundamental help to the system. When there
are basic faults, as indicated by the widespread
dissatisfaction expressed in the Scheub report,
it seems that the goals of having residence
halls have been lost or- perverted. Why have
residence halls at all if they are going to be
an unpleasant experience? Obviously, the men
who formulated the original plans for quad
living and, who eventually required freshmen
to live in dormitories had certain educational
purposes in mind.
ARE THE QUADRANGLES fulfilling these?
Do students actually, come to know and
appreciate the views of others who have dif-
ferent backgrounds and experiences? Or do
they quickly retreat into cliques, joining those
with similar views? What impact does the
fraternity system and the possibility of inde-
pendent living have on residents? Do the
quadrangles allow enough personal freedom
and privacy to avoid having students feel as
though they are living in the midst of bedlam?
The answers to these questions depend
largely on a constant,, honest flow of informa-
tion from administration to students. This
took place at the conference. However, there
is still the question of whether or not the
areas covered were the proper ones to reach
a solution of the problems involved; there
was no discussion of overall student attitudes
toward the residence halls; nor was the prob-
lem 'of administrative attitudes or of student
administration communication considered. Each
of these areas was abstracted and discussed in
part; but such a division misses the point and
makes it more difficult to reach broad solu-
tions later.
ARBITRARILY LIMITED AREAS tend to
to'obscure the concepts by which the ad-
ministrators and students are operating. The'
two groups have different attitudes as to what
the quads ought to be; if they operated on the
same' desirable assumptions there would be
no distaste for residence hall living.
To what degree is the administrator respon-
sible for enforcing middle class morality on
the quadrangles? This could not be answered
from a discussion of specific sources or irrita-
tion but only from an incisive study into the.
philosophy behind the rules The reason for
having women's hours at all is a far more
revealing inquiry than their extension by ten
extra minutes twice a month. Such localization
of inquiry will hinder IQC in formulating any
but the most minor revisions. and it will by
no means furnish anything resembling a solt-
tion to the troublesome sore spots.
In spite of its limitations, the conference is
potentially very useful. Though IQC will.,.prob-
ably find itself unable to formulate a workable
plan for changes from the narrow scope of
the exchange of informatoi that took place,
this effort could serve as the rudiment for
future communication, and perhaps future con-
ferences will plan more pointedly toward their
ultimate objectives.
-DAVID MARCUS

(EDITOR'S NOTE: Following Is
the final article in a two-part
analysis of the University's interna-
tional education programs and the
Peace Corps.)
By FAITH WEINSTEIN
Daily Staff Writer
Yr E UNIVERSITY has a stake
in the future of the world.
The quality and extent of our
generation's awareness of the
world may destroy the earth or
keep it whole. It is; therefore, the
obligation of the University to
give its students the knowledge
they will need to make the right
choices for the future, and the
knowledge to understand the com-
plex world they will inherit
Currently, the University's re-
sponsibility lies in the field of
international study, and in train-
ing for foreign public service. The
recent furor over the Peace Corps
has focused attention on the world
as no other single issue has in
many years. In short, students
have finally become interested in
the cultures and the problems of
the world.
The demand for support of new
kinds of foreign culture study is
rising, and the established centers
are begging, and getting, funds to
strengthen and expand their pro-
grams. Columbia University re-
cently appointed a Co-ordinator of
Intjernational Studies. Michigan
State University has had a dean
in a similar position for a couple
of years. Other institutions are
following suit.
* * *
THE MORRILt REPORT, re-
cently issued by the Ford Foun-
dation, and treated as gospel by
many experts in the field of for-
eign study, has its own concept of
the role of the universities: "At
the center of these new educa-
tional demands, all the more
'pressing because they often coin-
cide with the policy goals of our
government, stands the American
university.,
"It is challenged to meet the1
needs of our own people for a far
better knowledge and understand-
ing of others. It is challenged at1
the same time to help meet the
needs of emerging nations for the7
creation and rapid improvement
of whole educational systems."
In another document, R. Sar-
gent Shriver, head of the Peace7
Corps, says: "The Peace Corps is
in fact a great venture in the
education of Amercans and of
people in newly. developing na-1
tions. As a high educational ven-]
ture, 'its proper carriers are our
traditional institutions of higher
education."1
These two quotes bring up the
essential challenges in the area of
international education: the chal-
lenge to improve our scholarship
and the challenge to improve our
service. .
* * *
THE UNIVERSITY must accept
these challenges and meet them
with courage and conviction, or;
give up its place as a nationalI
leader in education. And the timet
to act is now, while the subject
is still controversial.1
University administrators are
aware of the educational ferment
-"There is a bursting awarenessj
of international studies and af-
fairs on the part of the universi-
ties," Marvin Niehuss, vice-presi-
dent and dean of faculties, says.
But the University has taken only
the most conservative, tentative
steps, building and strengthening
the programs it has, rather than_
plunging into anything new.
There is something commend-
able in this-almost all depart-
ments and all area programs can.
be strengthened, and Washington
has unofficially commended thel

University for its cautious stand
on the Peace Corps projects. But
a time for caution has its limits,
and is soon replaced by a need
for action.
The first action will be in the
academic rather than in the serv-
ice realm. The University already
has several excellent area pro-
grams and disciplines dealing with
the non-Western world. These can
be supplemented in several ways.
* * *
FIRST, THE UNIVERSITY is
obliged to press its students hard-
er towards learning about the
world. Faced by hide-bound coun-
selors who will ask the student if
he ,wants to take more French lit-
erature, but rarely encourage him
to try a course in "The Mind of"
Modern China," the area programs
and the intercultural courses have
had an uphill fight.
The battle to institute the fresh-
man-sophomore Asia .course was a
hard one, but it has proven very
successful and must be followed by
other inter-disciplinary courses.
Once solid, well taught, inter-
disciplinary courses are created, a
course in a foreign culture can
be made a distribution require-
ment for all undergraduates.
The growing awareness of the
world and its cultures makes this
kind of course necessary for any
undergraduate. "Study of the
world has become as important
today as study of Europe was 30
or 40 years ago," Niehuss said.
* * *
THIS CERTAINLY implies that
a series of courses be developed
and offered to today's undergrad-
uates, just as required courses in
European history traditionally
have been. If the world is expand-
ing, the University and its course
structure must expand with it.
Next, the University needs cen-
ters for each of its area programs
-a place for research and inde-
pendent study, devoted primarily
to teaching, which can be separ-
ate from the area departments. If
we are to build our strength in
the Far East, a Chinese Center
must be instituted close on the
heels of the established Japanese
Center, and others must follow it.
"We have been moving strong-
ly forward in this direction," Nie-
huss reports. He spoke wistfully
and hopefully of a future Latin
American studies program, com-
menting, "I'm distressed to find
there are no solid programs on
Latin America anywhere in the
country. A few started out sev-
eral years ago, but they all seem
to have petered out."
* * *
THE UNIVERSITY has follow-
ed a policy of hiring area special-
ists for several years, Niehuss
said, which should strengthen
both teaching and research in for-
eign studies.
"When we see an opportunity to
get a man in a certain field who
specializes in an area, we take it,"
Niehuss said. Dean Roger Heyns
of the literary college added, "In
economics, for example, we haven't
hired a man without a special
area in mind for a couple of
years." Niehuss points with pride"
to a recently hired economist who
specializes in Chinese economy.
There are two basic modern
education trends in cultural areas:
the disciplinary and the area pro-
gram. Near Eastern studies is a
discipline, offering a doctorate in,
the humanistic studies of an area
-language, literature or history.
This is the kind of program, Prof.
John Hall, director of the center
for Japanese studies, says, which
developed during the war, in the
course of the first great surge of
public interest in world affairs.

When the allies realized, in
1945, that their liberating forces
knew nothing of the countries
they were to occupy, crash pro-
grams began on the peoples and
cultures of Europe and the Far
East.
. * * *
FOUNDATIONS, government
and private sources poured money
into new centers and started
unique programs. An idea for a
foreign policy research study and
conference center to be named
after the late Sen. Arthur J. Van-
denberg was suggested and ap-
proved by the Regents in 1951,
but nothing ever came of it-pri-
marily due to lack of funds.
"The Vandenberg Center would
be a major undertaking-we would
need money and buildings-it is
never -easy to start from a seed,
and hard to raise money on a
name alone," Niehuss said.
"We cannot build strength in
all areas," he adds quite accur-
ately, "and it has been our gen-
eral policy to identify those areas
in which we have the opportunity
to excel, and to build exceptional
strength in them."
The University is building its
academic staff in the area pro-
grams particularly-since this
seems to be the coming mode of
the day. An area program is "mili-
tantly interdisciplinary"-drawing
on men from various disciplines
who specialize in specific areas
of the world who combine in a
program to train people in the
various problems of an area. These
programs rarely give the Ph.D.,
and are generally background for
students who plan to go into a
single discipline with an area bias
for the doctorate,
* *
A DISCIPLINE, like, the Near
Eastern Studies department, con-
siders itself a single unit of study
and merges its interdisciplinary
lines, and grants its own doctor-
ates.
The area studies programs tend
to be harder to keep well-staffed,
as the individual department has
to look after its general and more
parochial needs, and are therefore
getting more attention as money
comes in.
But with severely limited funds
and a fast-moving field of com-
petitors, the University is sorely
taxed to keep up its position-like
the Red Queen, it mustkeep mov-
ing in order to stay in the same
place. Niehuss sees the University
of the future strengthening and
adding to the area programs and
to the centers, improving them as
much as possible, .and, above all,
maintaining the University's fine
reputation in the international
field.
Dean Heyns has quite a differ-
ent dream. He sees a day when
area programs involving Chinese
economics will no longer be nec-
essary because regular courses
will involve the economics of the
world-"giving a broader view of
the .disciplines," he says. "Sociol-
ogy, for example, should not be
limited to the Western world, nor
should any of the social sciences."
* * *t
THE SECOND major project is
to meet the new need for educa-
tion in world service. The Peace
Corps will need a staff of highly
trained administrators to supple-
ment the willing, but sketchily
trained corpsmen,
Ambassadors and diplomats who
know nothing about the language
or country in which they serve
are rapidly, and thankfully, going
out of style. The whole country is
caught up in international aware-
ness, and the insufficiencies of the
American diplomatic s e r v i c e

abroad have been exposed again
and again in glaring detail.
The nation desperately needs
trained men and women to serve
abroad, and with the advent of
the Peace Corps, this want final-
ly seems close to being fulfilled,
Yet, at present, none of our
area programs are specifically
service-oriented. The young M.A.
in Far Eastern studies is fully
prepared-to go out and earn a
doctorate in a specific field with
a Far Eastern bias. It gives one "a
minimum language capacity, a
broad understanding of the area,
and training in means of finding
out more about the area," Prof.
John Hall, director of the Cen-
ter for Japanese Studies, says.
* * *
"IT'S THE BEST briefing for
going abroad that we have," he
added, noting that the State De-
partment used to send foreign
service candidates through a'Jap-
anese studies program which in-
volved very little modification in
the regular academic schedule.
Since the area programs can
be relatively easily re-oriented to-
wards training people to go into
overseas service, the University
has within its present structure
the seeds of a major project.
The University could set up a
two-year program in "Area Serv-
ices" which would lead to a mas-
ter's degree, and, hopefully, to a
fruitful career overseas.
"If you're going to train peo-
ple for public service on a major
scale, modifications will be need-
ed," Prof. Hall said. He suggest-
ed a two year program, the first
year devoted to the regular area
studies projects-a primarily aca-
demic orientation-and the sec-
ond involving certain specific pub-
lic service courses, designed to
train people in the specific prac-
tical problems they are likely to
meet abroad.
* * *
DURING THE FIRST year, the
student would study within the
confines of the area program -
learn the essentials of language
and culture.
In the second year he would
leave his specific area program
and take a general course, In a
special center with students from
all other areas. The course would
deal with general problems-agri-
culture, sanitation, public health,
English teaching, public adminis-
tration, and a basic course in
American culture, designed to
meet embarrassing questions. Stu-
dents who will specialize in all
areas of the world. could .meet
here and exchange ideas, problems
and solutions.
The center could be a coopera-
tive venture, pooling the knowl-
edge of -the University's experts
and experts from Michigan State
and Wayne Universities in order
to create a broader and deeper
study of the problems involved.
This center could be tied in with
the proposed Vandenberg foreign
policy' institute, or it could be
created under other auspices. The
government might even help. But
at any rate, it could and should
be done.
* * * .
THE GRADUATE would be
ready to earn a doctorate in a
single discipline, or could ,go
straight into service in the area
he has studied. "If he goes on for
his doctorate, he has an area on
which to build a specialty," Prof,
Hall says. And special area teach-
ers are in high demand today,
since centers and area programs
across the country are crying for
new and expanded staffs.
No doubt the. University is the
best place to set up this kind of
program. We have the public re-
sponsibility, and possibly the pri-
vate funds; we have the faculty
and the specialties to offer and
people interested in teaching

them.
The typical service program has
been developed by the school which
has-Just entered the field of in-
ternational education, Prof, Hall
says.
"They just don't have the per-
sonnel for a full-scale academic
program," he says.,
* 0 *
THERE ARE many problems in-
volved in an idea of this scope..
There is difficulty in raising funds
for building and staffing a ma-
jor center; there is',uncertainty
in the amount of monetary reward
to be; expected for the graduates.
"Many young people I speak to
seem interested in serving abroad,"
Niehuss says. "But the channels
for employment are not sufficient-
ly clear yet-they have no secur-
ity for reasonable financial suc-
cess in foreign service.
"The State Department is in-
terested more in 'good solid Amer-
icans' who know their own coun-
try, on the theory that they'll
learn what they need to know
when they get there," Prof. Hall
concurs.
But the combination of ex-
panding interest in foreign affairs,
the rise in interest in foreign ed-
ucation, and the final impetus of
the Peace Corps, have made us
aware, and ready for experiments'
in finer international education.
P hi, -at'm.

Triumphs.
"BAI AD op A Soldier," at the
Campus theatre, is an over-
whelmingly beautiful film. It pits
two worlds against each other-
the innocence and beauty of
youth, and the pitiless desolation
of life and war.
The entire movie, the latest of
the Russian film exchange pro-
gram, is devoted to the inter-
twining of these two themes. The
plot line is simple-a young sol-
dier becomes somewhat incredibly
a hero, and is allowed to go home
to see his mother on a two-day
leave.
He sets out on a train, through
the war-desolated country of
World War II Russia, a beautiful
and singularly pure Odysseus com.
ing home apparently to glory. His
travels are interrupted by ,all the
snares of life-he helps a crippled
soldier get home to his wife, he
takes a package of rationed soap
to the wife of another soldier,
only to find that she is unfaith-
lul.
Best of all, he finds love-in a
grimy railroad car-love for a girl
as innocent as himself The two
wander through the world in a
cloud of their own purity--losing
each other in the mazes of the
world - symbolized by the slow
and crowded trains -- and then
finding each other again, only to
be permenantly lost.
The film is dominated by a sense
of doom-one is told at the be-
ginning that the story will be of
a soldier who was a hero, "who
lies in a far part of the country,
where strangers put flowers on
his grave." The mood of doom
combines with the facts of war to
control, and eventually to destroy
the love briefly shared.
All of this could be very maud-
lin, and very corny, but it is
directed with such skill and tim-
ing, acted with such depth, and
simplicity that a theme which
could have led to disaster is trans-
formed into the background of a
triumph.
-Faith Weinstein

°I

RELATED TO one
blems will take on a
f them will disappear'
clear.

another, these
new meaning;
as their basis

C shduld ask: are regulations bad in them-
s or does the student feel hamstrung in
lter of rules? Coildthe problem underly-
nany of the superficialities be that stu-
s are told they are men and then treated
boys? Could it be that the student feels
the administrationdoes not care about
onsiderations or what he thinks? Could it
iat administrators have listened to super-
, complaints so long that they, too, have
sight of the broader motivations involved
em?
y one or a combination of these possi-
es could be the answer to many of the
totis 'facing the residence hall system, but

Splinter Parties Hinder Democracy
IS HAS BEEN a week of political splinters. scope for the party would be just as frighte
In New York City, labor leaders represent- ing as an organized voice for Birch-ism.
one million unionists have set up a com-

Projectiles

;en-

DAILY
OFFICIAL
BLLETIN.
(Continued from Page 2)
Clawson, Mich.-Elementary; Jr. HS
Couns.
Greenville, Mich.-Elemn; Jr. HS Girls
PE, Arith, 'ng/Lit; ES Math, -Eng,
Biol, SS. Latin;' Elem. Music.
Inkster, Mich. (Dearborn Dist. No. 8)
-Elem., vocal; Jr. HS Library, Eng,
Math, Se, Couns; S Girls PE/Aquat-
ice, Pi ys Set. Math, Eng, Journ,.Ind
Arts; Ment Ret, Sp Corr, Visiting Tchr.
Rochester, N.Y.-Elem; Spec Educ;
Girls PE, Math, Sat Voc Mus, (Will talk
to any field).
Royal Oak, Mich.-Elem, Vocal, Art,
Mont Ret, Sp Corr; ES Eng, Hlst, 56,
Math, Set.
WED., APRIL 19-
Bakersfield, Calif.-Elementary (K8).
Berkley, Mich.-Elem; Jr. HS Bug,
Math, Sei, Mach Draw/Graphic Arts.
~ Clo, Mich.-Elem; Math/Sci, Typing/
Eng, Math, Home Ec/Gen Sci, Chem/
Gen Sel, Eng/Speech.
Grand Rapids, Mich. (Kentwood Sch)
--lem; Set, Comm, Pre, Math, Shop,
Home Ec, Art, Phys Sei; Music, Type A.
GrassLake, Mich. - varsity Bskt/
Span/Eng or Span/Eng/Sth Gr., 5th
.Or/Var Bskt.'
Mt..Clemens, Mich. (L'Anse Cruse)-
Kleim; Spec Ed; Jr. HS Math/Scl; Read.,
Home Ec, Math, Ind Arts, Eng/Journ &
Latin. Math/Pract or Phys Sc.
THURS., APRIL 20-
Algonae, Mich.-Elem, El Vocal/Hs
Chorus; Jr. HES SS; S Eng, Comm.
Almont, Mich.-Elein; Basketball, sOci/
Math, Math/Phys, Comm,, Eng/Latin,
Agri.
Campbell, Calif.-All Pields.
Inlay City, Mch.-SS/Coach Footba1l,
Voc Mus; Kdg, 8th Or.
Walled =Lake, Mich.-Elem; Spec. Ed
Visiting Tchr, $p Corr, Ment dcp.;
Jr. HS SS, Eng/SS, Ind Arts, Math/Scl,
Span/Pre, Home Ec; HS Math, Zug.
Willoughby, O.-Elem; Jr. HS Eng,
SS, Girls PE, Math, Ind Arts, Home Be,
Sci; HS Eng, S, Si, Math, Id Arts.
Latin, Germ, Pro, Russ, Span, Art, 'Home
Ec, Guld, $p Therapist, Library, Sight
Saving, Deaf, Slow Learners.
FRI., APRIL 21-
Fowlerville, Mich.-Jr. S Eng; HS
Library, Latin/Span; Elem.
Mt. Clemens, Mich. (Clintondale Sch)
--lem; S, Math, Eng, Couns, Sd,
Shop.
St. Clair Shores, Mich. (Lake Shore
Schools)-Elem.; Jr. HS Math; ES Math,
Eng, Se, S, Girls PE, Span, Vocal;
lem Library, SpCorr, Art, Music, PE;
Typo A, Visiting Tchr.
Three Oaks, Mich. - Elem: Jr. HS
Math, SS, Bng, Home Ba, For. Lang,
Instr Mug, Math/S$, Head Bskt, eci/SS/
Head Ftb/Track; HS Biol/Chew, For
Lang, Eng/SS.
Trenton, Mich.-Eng, Couns/Math or
Eng or Comm; Comm/Gen .Sc, HS
Math.
For any additional information and
appointments contact the Bureau of
Appointments, 3528 Admin Bldg., NO
3-1511, Ext. 489.
PERSONNEL REQUESTS:
Auto Mfgrg. Concern in Southeastern
Mich.-Employment Interviewer-Person-
nel Dept. 1 or 2 openings. To inter-
view men on all levels, administer
benefit programs, public relations,
trng., recreation programming, etc.BA
or MA in Lib. Arts or Bus. Ad. No
exper. necessary.,
Eaton Chemical & Dyestuff Co., De-
troit-Sales & Mgmt. Trainees-2'or 2
openings for Det. area including south-
eastern Mich. to Toledo, Ohio. To call
on all' kinds of mfgers. -- distribute
chemicals for all big chem. infgrs. &
users. BA-LS&A or Bus. Ad. All trng.
done thru Sales Div.-trng. may lead
into Purchasing, Mgmt., etc.
Wisconsin Civil Service-Public In-
struction Supervisor-Business Mgmt. &
Stastistics. (State Dept. of Public In-
struction, Madison). MA in School Ad-
mn. or Business Educ. & 5 yrs. exper.

ee to study formation of a third party to
ctive not only in city but state and national
ions.
id in the nation's number two metropolis,
ago, brethren of the right met to form
her party of dissent on a national basis,
: by a founder of the now-famous John
hi Society.
Dances are that these two latest efforts
fade into nothingness like their many
ecessors. However, though conservatives
been grumbling for years and even man-
I to run rightist T. Coleman Andrews for
ident in 1956, the labor move represents a
dissatisfaction which could have large
ications even if it meets only a very
erate response.
DENT RIGHT-WINGER Sen. Barry Gold-
vater and dedicated unionist Walter Reu-
have preferred to work through estab-
d parties rather than form schisms. Work-
n the manner of the Puritan, rather than
Separatist, both men have achieved cer-
political -ains.
is a little disturbing to hear the labor'
ers say ,"we are sick and tired of being
n for granted, of being handed candidates
ave to take without consultation and of
i ignored once the balloting is over.
t we are against is the notion that we are
nch of idiots, with no worth-while ideas,
n the politicians can push around without
yang about the consequences."
rhaps labor in New York City has reason
eel it is being ignored, but a national

P AGMENTATION OF OUR party sti ucture
will not enable such groups to achieve their
goals, and at the same time the effects of
such groups will hurt the established parties.
The Republicans and Democrats can use the
stimulating disagreements of such groups in
formulating their programs. With these broad-
based parties which include so many varied
groups in the population, labor or conservative
factions can have as much say as they would
have on their own, and at the same time they
emulate the sort of compromise which makes
the gears move in a huge and heterogenous
democracy.,
As John C. Calhoun wrote over a century
ago, "when splinter groups use independent
action, each faction, in the struggle to obtain
the control of the government, elevates to
power the designing, the artful, and unscrup-
ulous who in their devotion to party-instead
of aiming at the good of the whole-aim ex-
clusively at securing the ascendency of party."
PERHAPS THIS IS overstating the present
case, but the fact remains that there is
much room for action in our two parties with-
out creating such "special interest" parties
which weakened the French Fourth Republic
and eventually caused its destruction.
If the new conservative party espouses Birch-
ism, it can be condemned on the basis of its
ideas.
The labor party's program could be any
number of things, but we can ask, as the New
York Times asked this week, "Does organized
labor really have a political mission differing
from that of the public at large, whose ob-
3ective is or should be +he imnrnmAmmf of

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