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March 29, 1961 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1961-03-29

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Seventy-First Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
Where Opinions Are Free UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
Truth Will Prevail" STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG: 0 ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

FRAGMENTATION UPSETS REDS:
The African Jigsaw Puzzle

Al

ti.

11.

OFFICIAL
BULLETIN

Y, MARCH 29, 1961

NIGHT EDITOR: PAT GOLDEN

Music School Construction
Synmbolizes U' Pragmatism

AFTER YEARS of almost begging and ac-
cording to one faculty member $180,000
worth of planning, it still seems quite unlikely
hat the music school will get any new build-
ngs.
Though this construction heads the list of
capital improivements to be made at the Uni-
rersity, the projected North Campus fine arts
center seems likely to fall the victim of prag-
natism which may undermine the purpose of,
the University. If, as last year, money is ap-
propriated to build research facilities, the Uni-
versity will have made a further move toward
vocational education, toward a school solely
oriented to producing those whom the dic-
tates of society say pre needed.
MEANWHILE, enrollment at the music school
school has declined'in the last five years;
those who come here are condemned to study-
ing in what is literally a firetrap; and' both
students and faculty are dismayed by the ap-
parent lip service paid to their needs.
The actual condition of the school is notor-
ous. 'Harris Hall is decrepit. Classes are held
in Burton Tower, a place never intended for
such use; and described by a faculty member
as a "horrible place for classes." The library
is spread between Burton Tower, the general
ibrary and -the Undergraduate Library, mak-
ng its use almost impossible.
By neglecting the music school the Univer-
sity has shirked its basic responsibility. By al-
locating these funds solely to one area com-
pounds the neglect. The University should be
concerned with producing students versed in
as many areas as the University can afford and
the students wish to study. By denying proper
facilities to..one area, there is an implied lack
of emphasis and-importance placed on it; by

continued denial there is the definite stamp
of inferiority placed upon it.
HOW CAN SUCH a value judgment be made?
To one dedicated to music, is physics or
engineering more important? Simply because
society has an immediate need for one, can it
say that one does more to give meaning to and
enrich life more than the other? If there were
no musicians, only physicists, or vice versa,
which would be the greater loss? It is impos-
sible to say.
However, by presuming to emphasize the
immediate, the material, the pragmatic, the
University is causing the decline of an area
of study. It is in fact saying that the momen-
tarily material is of greater magnitude than
art.
BESIDES, THOSE WHO are the best in this
art, those who could do the most to enrich
it here at the :University are more andmore
tempted to go elsewhere, to seek a place where
music is regarded, more as it should be. They
can seek Wayne State University where a beau-
tiful new center has arisen for ;them. Similar-
ly, schools such as Indiana'or Eastman Roches-
ter have in recent years taken many of the best
musicians who might otherwise have considered
the University.
If the University is to maintain its obliga-
tions to its students, it must recognize the im-
portance of all areas of study. By presuming
the importance of one over another, the final,
sufferer will be the University as a whole. It
will become one-sided, too easily moved by
factors irrelevant to its real purpose, and will
miss the opportunity to make contributions to
society that are in the long run every bit as
important as those made in any other field.
-DAVID MARCUS

(EDITOR'S NOTE: Mr. Evans is
African Correspondent for the Wall
Street Journal, from which this
article is reprinted.)
By JOSEPH E. EVANS
BRAZZAVILLE, Congo Republic
-The political groupings and
gravitations of the new African
states make a weird jigsaw puzzle.
And how the pieces eventually fit
with each other may be more im-
portant, some believe, in deter-
mining the direction of the con-
tinent than African strategies
hammered out in either Moscow
or Washington.
There is, to begin with, an
incipient grouping along lines of
political ideology-particularly in
the vast belt of tropical Africa
where so many new states have
been tumbling into independence.
On the political left are Ghana,
Guinea and Mali. with close ties
to North Africa's United Arab Re-
public. Tending to the center or
right are most of the former
French colonies like this one, the
Brazzaville Congo across the river
from the former Belgian Congo,
Nigeria, and some others.
But the jigsaw is considerably
more intricate than that oversim-
plification suggests. For two con-
tradictory tendencies are also in
collision-the one toward union or
federation, the other toward Bal-
kanization or fragmentation.
The Balkanization trend is most
notable in the French-speaking
areas, where some 15 are now in-
dependent nations. Some are ab-
surdly small; the Central African
Republichas a population of little
over one million, the Brazzaville
Congo three-quarters of a million,
Gabon well under half a million.
* * *
A CERTAIN amount of unity
nonetheless remains.,Most of them
are members of the so-called
French Community, which, among
other things, means they are
heavily subsidized by France.
Speaking of the Brazzaville
Congo, a political expert here
says: "These people are poor as
church mice, yet the leaders feel
the urge to go in for prestige pro-
jects to keep up with the African
Joneses. If:France ever decides it's
had enough of supporting them,
I don't know what they'll do."
Two of them, Senegal and Mali
(the former French Sudan). tried
actual union. But that blew up
last summer.
The former Belgian Congo,

whose capital of Leopoldville is
handsomely visible from here, is
itself an illustration of the clash-
ing trends of unity and divisive-
ness. Left a unit when the Bel-
gians abruptly granted independ-
ence last July, it has been noisily
and choatically splitting itself into
separate states ever since. Now the
Congolese leaders, with the sizable
exception of pro-Communist An-
toine Gizenga, have agreed on a
confederation or loose association
of practically autonomous states..
Naturally, fingers are crossed as
the the fate of this experiment.
Tropical Africa's most out-
spoken' opponent of Balkanization
is Ghana's President Kwame
Nkrumah. This Pan-Africanist par
excellence calls Balkanization the
greatest danger to Africa. He says
he wants a United States of Africa,
meaning full economic and politi-
cal union rather than shilly-
shallying With gradual steps in
that direction.
Many African experts agree with
Nkrumah on the danger of ex-
treme fragmentation. However,
his position gets him into a cer-
tain inconsistency, for he must on
one hand glorify Ghana's own
nationalism and on the other plead
for a set-up that would submerge
it. And many Africans are deeply
suspicious of Kkrumah both be-
cause of his pro-Communism and
what they regard as his personal
ambition to be a king of a U. S.
of Africa.
Within Ghana his political op-
ponents-those that are still out
of jail-disagree with him about
the U. S. of Africa. Says one:'
"We should have close, friendly
relations with other African states,
but we should think first and fore-
most about Ghana. Union now is
nonsense."
A Nigerian government official
agrees: "It's a dream, as much or
more of a dream as a full-blown
U. S. of Lurope. We aren't having
any truck with the union-now
line."
Nkrumah's own starts at union
are not making rapid progress.
First he "united" with heavily
Red - subsidized - and - influenced
Guinea, a nearby but not -adjoin-
ing West. African nation which
was the only French area to break
completely with France. Then Mali
was brought in, the same Mali
formerly united with Senegal. But
it isn't much of a union. For one
thing, there is rivalry between
Nkrumah and Guinea's Sekou
Toure, who also 4 has ambitions.

Such rivalries, of course, are like-
ly to prevent a real union of Af-
rica for a long time. "Too many
messiahs," grumbles a cynic.
In addition, practical difficul-
ties beset the Ghana-Guinea-Malii
union. For example, they talk
about a common currency; yet
Guinea's francs are utterly worth-
less outside Guinea while Ghana's
pounds are still at par with ster-
ling. "A common currency is a
long way off," admits Ghana's
Finance Minister K. A. Gbedemai.
Meanwhile Nkrumah's other
ventures at union or, as his critics
put it, empire-building have been
somewhat frustrated. He had an
understanding with Lumumba to
bring the Congo in, but it dida't
quite work out. This is why he
waxed so furious and turned his
press more screechingly anti-
American than usual during the
Congo crisis. Will he now be able
to "unite" with Lumumba's would-
be successor, Gizenga, and still
get at least Oriental province?
Nobody knows;. but even if he
could it is not certain it would be
much help.
Then, to add to his woes during
the Congo crisis, potentially-
powerful Nigeria, the most popu-
lous nation on the continent, be-
came independent. Now Nigeria
and Ghana, both former British
colonies, are rivals for becoming
the dominant voice in tropical
Africa.
Some people think that Nkru-
mah, seeing that his dreams of
union is not likely to materialize
in his lifetime, may calm down
and more or less content himself
with what he has. The danger,
though, is that his frustrations
may lead him to even closer ties
with the United Arab Republic
and that nation's sponsor, the
Soviet Union.
Nigeria, Nkrumah's newest rival,
is itself a federation in which the
individual provinces have consider-
ably more "states' rights" than
are obtained in the Federal Repub-
lic of the United States of Amer-
ica. The prevailing view is that
Nigeria's regional character gives
it a built-in political stability, but
some Nigerians wonder how se-
curely built-in the stability really
is.
* * *
HERE IS HOW Ayo Agunsheye,
Director of Extra-Mural Studies at
University College, Ibadan, ex-
presses some of the doubts: "Not
all groups in Nigeria are recon-
ciled to the federal idea; they
think it's tribalism entrenched.
This is going to be a big issue in
the next few years."
In any case, Nigeria, while not
prepared to consider uniting with
anybody else now, is getting chum-
mier with some of the French-
speaking states, odd as that might
at first appear. The President of
Senegal, Leopold Senghor, recently
visited Nigeria and made quite a
hit.
Senghor is not only a statesman
but a scholar-one of the world's
leading authorities on the French
language. Nigerians apparently
thought this is the type of black
African that best represents the
"African personality," rather than
Nkrumah and his'extremism.
The Senegalese President and
his Nigerian government hosts
talked about "very broad coopera-
tion" in economic, social, technical
and cultural matters. They said
their countries were interdepen-
dent and should have closer re-
lations-for example, as a practi-
cal step, teachipmg English in the
schools of the French-speaking
areas and vice versa. Here, then,
is the beginning of a grouping.

So goes, all the way across the
huge continent, the conflicting
pattern of unity and division, cut-
ting across language barriers and
much else. In Central Africa, one
union, the Federation of Rhodesia
and Nyasaland, appears to be
heading toward disintegration
while the Congo Confederation is
trying to come into being. At the
same time the outlines of an East
African federation are visible.
This would be the federation of
Kenya, Tanganyika and Uganda,
all still under British rule but
fairly rapidly approaching inde-
pendence. Kenya is not a rich
country, being almost wholly agri-
cultural, but with Tanganyika and
Uganda it would make a sensible
economic unit of over 20 million
people.
Large question marks hang over
this proposed grouping. One is
what is going to happen in Kenya
-the uncertain future of. the
white settlers, whether Mau Mau
leader Jomo Kenyatta is going to
achieve power and deliver Kenya
to Communism or chaos. Another
is Uganda, where tribal chiefs are
reluctant to relinquish any of their
powers.
Still, the structure of federation
is to a large extent in existence,
in the form of the East Africa
High Commission. Theborigins of
this organization goback more
than 40 years, though the High
Commission by that name dates
from 1948.
THERE IS A common currency
for Kenya, Tanganyika, Uganda
and the Protectorate of Zanzibar.
The High Commission administers
such inter-territorial services as
income tax department, customs
and excise department, railways
and harbors, posts and telegraph,
civil aviation, research and scien-
tific services, defense, and eco-
nomic coordination and general
services.
And Tanganyika's chief minister,
Julius Nyerere, is reportedly think-
ing beyond a federation of Kenya,
Tanganyika and Uganda to. a
larger grouping including part of
Rhodesia and perhaps the Congo.
What most people of good will
toward Africa would like to see
is not an unrealistic pan-African
union but further development of
the federation approach in dif-
ferent areas, providing they are in
the right hands. That is, an East
African Federation, a Central Afri-
can Federation and a partial West
African Federation dominated by
a moderate Nigeria. If such is the
way things are gradually moving,
then the new Congo Confederation
could fit the pattern.
No one, plainly enough, can be
sure the forces of integration will
prevail over the forces of disinte-
gration. But as the puzzle looks at
present, a couple of moderately
encouraging signs emerge.
One is that, save for the troubl-
ed Congo, there seems little cur-
rent disposition on anybody's part,
to go to war in pursuit of empire-
building-at least if the Com-
munists can be checked in their
meddling and troublemaking.
The other is that the very in-
tricateness of the puzzle may help
check the Communists. They have
their base in Guinea and help from
Ghana, but it does not' auto-
matically follow that they can
easily move on to control all tropi-
cal Africa.
On the contrary, there are so
many pieces, so much political
movement in so many ways, that
the Communists are going to have
a tough time forming this African
jigsaw into a completed picture of
Red domination.

I

1'

The Daily Official Bulletin as an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
MichiganDaily assumes no editorial
responsibility.' Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3519 Administration Building,
before 2 p.m., two days preceding
publication.
WEDNESDAY, MARCH 29
General Notices
Schools of Business Administration,
Seniors: College of L. S. & A. and
Education, Music and Public Health:
Tentative lists of seniors for June
graduation have been posted for J
graduation have been posted on the
bulletin board in the first floor lobby,
Administration Building. Any changes
therefrom should be requested of the
Recorder at Office of Registration and
Records, window Number A, 1513 Ad-
min. Bldg.
Seniors-Order your graduation an-
nouncements now. On sale at the Stu-
dent Activities Building; March 22-31
and April 11-13. Sales from 1-5 each
day, except March 25 from 9-12. Price
is 12c each.
Library hours during Spring eceus
The General Library the Undergraduate
Library, and divisional libraries will
be open on regular schedules until
noon on Sat., April 1. The University
Libraries will be open on short sched-
ules from Mon., April 3,thru Fri., April
7. Libraries will be closed Sun., April2
and April 9, also Sat., April 8.
!rThe General Library and the Unde-
graduate Library will be open from s
a.m. to 5 p.m., Mon. thru Fri., April 3
thru April 7. The Audio Room in the
Undergraduate Library will be closed
during the spring recess. Vacation hours
for divisional libraries will be posted
on the doors of each library.
All libraries will resume regular sched-
ules, Mon., April 10.
students who expect to receive Edu-
cation and Training allowance under
Public Law 550 or 634 must (1) sign
Monthly Certification (IBM) card for
March in the Office of Veterans' Affairs ,
142 Administration Building before 5
p.m., Fri., March 31. (2) turn in Dean's
Monthly Certification for for March,
signed by all instructors, to the Dean's
Office by 5 p.m., Fri., March 31. Office
hours, are: 8:00 -12:00 a.m., 1:00 -5:00
p.m.
Doctoral Candidates for the Degree 11
Linguistics: The preliminary examina-
tions for the Ph.D. in Linguistics, for
the Spring semester, 1960-61, !will: be
given on Fri., May 12 and sat., May
13. Students planning on taking the
examinations this Spring must notify
the secretary of the Committee in
Linguistics. Prof. "Chavarrla-Aguilar,
1625 Haven Hall, in writing, not later
than Fri., April 14. of their intention
to do so.
Approval for the following student
sponsored activities becomes effective
24 hours after the publication of this
notice. All publicity for these events
must be withheld until the approval
has become effective.
Mar. 27-29 Political Issues Club,.C1o-
lection of signatures for Linus Puling's
petition on disarmament, Fishbo w,
9 :00-2 :00.
Apr. 15 Inter-Quadrangle Council,
'Student-Faculty-Administration Con-
ference, Union, 9:00-5:00.'
May 18 internfraternity Council, "In
terfraternity Council Sing," Hill Aud,
7:00-11:00 p.m.
Events Wednesday
Logic seminar: Lecture on "'Measur-
able Cardinals" by Prof. Dana scott,
University of California at Berkeley,
on wed., March 20, at 4:10 p.m. in
3017 Angell Hall.
Doctoral Examination for Berkley
Branche Eddins, Philosophy thesis:
"The Role of Value-Judgments in the
Philosophies of History of,, Oswald
Spengler and Arnold J. Toynbee," Wed.
March 20, 2200 Angell Hall, at 3:15
p.m. Chairman, A. S. Kaufman.
Events Thursday
Tomorrow at 4:10 p.m. the Depart-
ment of Speech will present Maurice
Maeterlinck's "The Death of Tinagiles"
in the Arena Theatre, Frieze Bldg. Ad-
mission will be free.
Linguistics Club Meetng: Dr. Pavle
Ivic, University of Novi Sad, Yugoslavia,
will speak on "Prosodic Structures in
serbocroatian" on Thurs, March 30 at
8 p.m., 4th floor Assembly Hall.
(Continued on Page 6)

'4

N

Student Action Riots or Talks.?

STUDENTS RIOTED in Fort Lauderdale Mon-
day. They stormed through the business
district of Bowling Green, Ohio, overturning
cars and doing a great deal of other property
damage. They held what was described as "a
minor spring riot" at Notre Dame University.
Other students, representing c o l1 e g e a
throughout the nation, will meet in Washing-
ton today through Friday to discuss the idea of
the Peace Corps and present their viewpoint
to, the administration.
They will be sober, industrious and, as one
delegate said, "will strive to give careful, seri-
ous consideration to the corps and reach re-
spQnsible conclusions which will be presented
to tle administration and Congress."
AS VARIOUS DELEGATES pointed out, they
will have to counter the impression of
American ,students gained from incidents like
the nationally publicized Fort Lauderdale riots.
Fifty-six students were jailed as a result of
these disturbances in which about 4,000 to
5,000 took part. The rioting was over police
closure of a favored beach north of the city.
At Bowling Green State University, 2,000
students besieged the home of the university
president, calling for him to come out and dis-
cuss their grievances. He did not appear.
THE RULES PROTESTED included require-
ments for signing in and out at dormitories
and a 10 p.m. curfew on women. Other restric-
tions protested included a ban on couples hold-
ing hands on the campus and a ban on men
kissing their dates goodnight in front of the

circling one of the (by then locked) dormitories
of the nearby Saint Mary's (girls') College.
These illustrations certainly pose a two-sided
view of the American student: Is he sober and
industrious, interested in the Peace Corps, or
is he wild, unruly and interested only in over-
throwing the authorities that impose what he
feels are unneeded restrictions on him? And
which should he be?
IT CERTAINLY SEEMS that students of both
types exist. But to this writer, the rioters
are much more admirable than the conference
delegates.
The demonstrators believe in what they are
doing, and will not compromise with anything
but overpowering force. This is true even if, as
is true in many cases, their only goal is an end
to boredom and a certain amount of enjoyment
in mob activity.
The others are more in line with the usual
standards. They are also probably more ef-
fective at reaching their goals. They believe in
compromising with the forces that be in order
to gain what they consider the major points
of their desires. What happened to the idea
that the Peace Corps should be under the,
United Nations-Did anyone refuse to serve
when it was created under the government?
'No. There are already thousands of applicants
for the corps.
THIS KIND OF PEOPLE have ideals, but
somewhere along the line half of them'
seem to get lost so that the other half may be
enacted.
Personally, I would like to see more and bet,.
ter riots and rioters.
-ROBERT FARRELL

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR:
Candidate Interviews
Favorably Received

The Notre Dame riot
dent springtime demon
TIME:Tuesday,A
PLACE: Washi
Court
CASE: The E
Law Revie
Faculty,
Here we have an In
gation which could wel
tory of legal proceedingE
gan.
The Editors of the Mi
been enslaved all these
tion by those wicked tyr
rider, Prof. Marcus Plan
gree (who he?).
And all these many
has been a disgrace to
in the eyes of its perpet:
shame of this scourge on
faculty 'has condescen
fledgling exist.
AND NOW, the editor
up, damning their
own fumbling, bumbling
They have formed a c

was a more typical stu-
lstration involving en-

To the Editor:
PLEASE, let me thank you for
the courtesy newspaper ex-
tended to me in arranging the in-
terview which appeared in The
Daily March 25.
Mr. Ostling, I think, did an ex-
cellent job of "putting down on
paper" an interview which roamed
over many topics concerned with
city government and managed to
extract the essence of my views,
with real skill.
-Dorothee S. Pealy
Candidate for Mayor
Omission . .
To the Editor:
JWISH TO commend your Rich-
ard Ostling on his fine article
in Sunday's Daily about Mayor
Cecil O. Creal, who is standing for
re-election on April 3, next Mon-
day. I don't believe I ever read a
better-written interview in The.
Daily, but there was one glaring
omission that I'm sure was unin-
tentional: he failed to mention
the not-too-well-known fact that
an Ann Arbor Mayor is paid only
$600 a year!
I understand that this is the
figure that the charter calls for,
so maybe the City Council can do
nothing about it; I feel that a
trust fund or a foundation or
somebody should do something
about it. I'd say double his sal-
ary to $1,200 at least, and the
firemen of this city should be
among the first to second the mo-
tion, surely.
I'd like to make this suggestion
too: he should interview our for-
mer Mayor Brown, who, appar-
ently, initiated the construction of
the triple-deck type of parking
lots which have been so helpful;
Mr. Brown was for many years
associated in business with Earl
Cress; Michigan would never have
had it so good were it to have one
of the three, Creal, Brown, or
Cress, as our next Governor!
-Lewis C. Ernst
Challenge .
To the Editor:
THE PRE-COLLOQUIUM semi-
nars on the "Challenge of the
Emerging Nations" presented on
the campus have been verywin-
formative and purposeful. How-
ever, as a foreign student, I would

gratifying that the foreign stu-
dents are welcome to these open
seminars as they get a chance to
know their own problems viewed
from, the American angle. Their
role should, therefore,, be that of
an interested spectator. They
might occasionally contribute in-
formation out of personal know-
ledge 'if such a contribution would
add to the value of the discussion
without distracting from the main
purpose of the seminar. I do not
believe that a foreign student
start a debate on the seminar
floor and create a disorder in the
meeting by indiscriminate heckling
as was done by a fast talking,,in-
comprehensible and incorrigible
foreign student at last Sunday's
meeting.
I have a feeling that I failed
to catch the eye of the chairman
of the meeting after that heckler's
bad example. I just wanted to
point out a rather gross mis-
statement in the brochure handed
out at the meeting on that day's
topic. The statement refers to an
observation that the Communists
are likely to win the next general
election in India. Prof. Park, one
of the discussants at the meeting
and an expert on the Indian poli-
tical scene, when asked after the
meeting about this statement
agreed with me that the state-
ment is far from the truth. Ac-
cording to Prof. Park who has
been to India very recently, the
Congress Party (Nehru's party)
will retain power in most of the
states. In three or four states
rightist groups have a good chance
of winning the election. But no-
where are the communists likely
to. come to power. Thank good-
ness.
I have to use your columns to
point out this fearful misstate-
ment rather than in the meeting
because of a meddlesome fellow-
visitor to the meeting. I hope that
in the future the foreign students
attending the Challenge seminars
will regard them as the "American
'students' show." They may keep
their eyes and ears open but their
nose out of it.
--Name Withheld
Thank You .. .
To the Editor
WE WANT TO thank all the
people of the University and
Ann Arbor for contributing to the
Acina nokDrive. hoth in hnnok

"Well, I Took You All the Way to the Top"

Orderin the Court
April 11, at 2 p.m. sweat an inhuman amount of work from their
tenaw County Probate fragile bodies and have withheld any pay.
At last, these oppressed servants have rising
ditors of the Michigan against their overlords. Well, it was to be ex-
w vs. the Law School pected. Some people just don't know when they
have it good.,
npending piece of liti- We must not let this happen to them, the
l upset the entire his- poor wretches.
s in the State of Michi- We must uphold their right to be slaves; we
must uphold their innocence by protecting
chigan Law Review have them from their correspondence, their family,
years to their publica- their home and their privacy.
ants Prof. Luke Cooper- We must get behind the law school faculty
at, and Prof. Simon Le- and protect these poor souls from themselves;
they are so sick.
years the publication
its calling, a mockery LAWSUIT SUCH AS THIS must not be tol-
rators. 'tet, through the erated. We must push for justice. These up-
a their doorstep, the ]aw starts cannot endanger the sublime stupidity
ded to let this ugly of the laboring masses with the "fair stand-
ards" ideas.
To the Probate Court we must say: Sir,
s of the MLR are rising acquit the law school faculty with dispatch.
benefactors for their Such shining figures of benevolence should not
g, and incompetence. be subjected to these indignities. And sir, pen-
eorporation to print the alize these insurgent slaves well, for only then
L.«..-.3L1__. .. will thev knnw their nlace.

Imammmoina 7

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