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Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This mus t be noted in all reprints.
Y, MARCH 11, 1961
NIGHT EDITOR: MICHAEL BURNS
Age of Social Supervision
in" Colgsis Waning.
['E SENATOR CLARENCE F. Graebner.
-Saginaw), has spent a good part of the
week launching a series of attacks on
ze of the University. This in itself follows
nd old tradition - administrators, the
students, senators have been alternately
ping and moaning about the size of the
rsity for years-to the point where the
3 itself has lost most of its meaning..
Senator Graebner has injected new mean-
ito the phrase. Sen Graebner has added
rtwist. The University is getting "too big-
s britches," he says, because it has
ed the point where it can't give "proper
rision" to its students. In part, he is
rned with academic Asupervision-"I know
of you kids ever see your professors up
'-but mostly he worries about social
rision-at the big universities "people
re might be something to the academic
although there are certainly enough op-'
pities to communicate with most profes-
if anyone really wants to-picture the
oe lecturer at the beginning of each
nearly begging anyone who wants to
ne and see him in his office.
IT IS the idea of increased social super-
sion that, really goes against my grain."
Jniversity has a basic, fairly reasonable
structure, the kind that every institution,
o have in order to run smoothly.
at Sen. Graebner, and many other of.
ntempories don't seem to realize, is that'
a of strict social supervision over college
its is, or should be, over for good. Sen.
ner seems to realize that change has
- "I've seen enough on the Michigan
campus to make me realize that they .
have supervision" - but he has not yet
lered the idea that this might just be
In the 1920's supervision, especially of wo-
men in mid-Western universities was very
strict. This didn't necessarily mean that there
were more rules broken, but simply that there.
were more to break.
I T MAY BE the atomic threat, it may be that
we are a more serious generation, it may
be that our parents are better adults than
they were students, but we seem to be doing
at least as well with our freedom as they did
with their rules.
Sen. Graebner's concern for student morality
came from direct emprical observation - "We
drove around campuses in the evenings, and
the things we saw weren't nice to look at."
Now Sen. Graebner refused to relate the
improper things he saw, and I have no way
of knowing .what they might have been. It
may have been really dire, but most likely he
refers to the kind of thing you can witness
any evening in front of Mary Markley, the
kind of mass necking that occasionally elicits
nasty letters to the Daily, but rarely really
enrages anyone; Would Sen. Graebner suggest
setting up a group of housemothers to super-
Why isn't this kind of thing better than the
sneaking thrill of the 1920's "petting parties"
which happened, Sen. Graebner, with or with-
out rules, and with a much greater sense of
STIL MORE IMPORTANT, why isn't it
reasonable to trust a large group of people
over 18 years of age to take care of them-
selves within a minimal rule structure? The
University teaches us to be academically re-
sponsible, by allowing us to gauge our ability
and time ourselves. Why should it not allow
us to develop social responsibility in the same'
When I went away to college, my mother
told me that she had no intention of worrying.
about me. She said that if my moral and
social standards weren't what she had trained
them to be, it would mean that she had failed
as a parent. My mother isn't worried about me
or about my supervision, Sen. Graebner, -
why should you be?
IT SEEMS TO me that it is the parents who
have failed who need to worry about strict
regulation of their children. The responsibility
is in the, home, where standards can be trained
with love, not in the institution, where they
have to be imposed.
Imposed standards never stick, Sen. Graeb-
ner, and students who got no standards at
home aren't going to develop them here.
By HUGH WITEMEYER
Daily Guest Writer
T ELAMENT OVER University
counseling is frequent and al-
most universal. "My counselor just
doesn't know what's going on." It
is true that many busy faculty
members no not take their coun-
seling seriously. They do not take
time to keep informed about var-
ious teachers, courses, or even
the printed requirements in the
catalog. Many do not know their
students at all, and simply rubber-
stamp whatever they want to take.
In short, they do not counsel at
all. There are, to be sure a few
rare.men who have a genuine in-
terest in their students and a sen-
se of the importance of their job.
And these few men have influenc-
ed deeply the lives of the students
lucky enough to come in contact
with them over the years. But
most students are on their own
in the selection of courses, and
seem likely to remain there.
This situation, however, is not
wholly to be lamented. For the
student, in making these decisions,.
should not have to depend on his
counselor to any great extent. His
own role should be active, for-
mative, and independent. If the
counselor refuses to take an equal
part, it must be all the more so.
Most' students do not realize all
the methods at their disposal for
coping with the problem of con-
seling. Yet any student who makes
sensible and systematic use of the
resources available to him can,
independently of his counselor, if
need be, map out and in a sense
create his own education. The
question is one of technique. Here
is a suggested method which stu-
dents might employ in their selec-
tion of courses.
1) THE STUDENT should first
decide what he wants to study.
This sounds simple, but it can
be the most difficult step of all.
for it involves knowing oneself
and one's own interests. Each of
us has certain intellectual affini-
ties and curiosities. We are in-
terested in some things more than
in others; we become excited and
respond more to some fields than'
to others. We may not always be
aware of these interests. For some
people they are highly developed
and conscious, but for others they
are unformulated and unrecogniz-.
Studies take on their meanng
from these interests .They are
charged and made interesting by
them. In the abstract, all fields
of study are equal; they are ex-
citing only as people come in con-
tact with them, only as the stu-
dent's energy breathes life ino
the academic clay. These interests
are what connects knowledge to
the students personality. The
student who follows them feels
himself expanding to a new mas-
tery over desired knowledge, to
a deeper and more mature under-
standing. The student who ignores
them finds his studies mechanical
and deadening, with no relation
* * *
' THE STUDENT'S job is there-
fore first td discover what he is
genuinely interested in. He can
do this by allowing himself to re-.
act freely to courses, books,
speeches, conversations and ocher
intellectual exposures; and then
by observing his reactions. Once
his interests are becoming formu-
lated, his job is to let them be the
main guide to his slection of
courses. No other cons' deratn is
The University imposes limita-
tions on the absolute free play of
these interests, in the form of
distribution requirements and con-
centration requirements. These
amount to value judgments on the
direction interests should take.
They say that interests should be
broad enough to include certain
basic areas, and that at least one
interest should be explored in
depth and mastered. Their ration-
ale is breadth an- depth. Some
students feel that their interests
do not extend this far, that they
are coerced by the requirements
into taking courses ur.interest, ng
'to them. Yet they pray really be
complaining about something else:
they may be complairing that the
course is poorly taught or that
they do not do well m it. They
may find, if they dig deeply
enough, that they do have in-
terests in all the distribution areas,
and that these interests should be
given ,a chance to cevelop. There
is an area of free play for ii,-
terests, too, in the selection of
courses to satisfy distribution re-
quirements and of the field of
concentration itself. So these
are not wholly incompatible with
the following of int wectual in-
* * *
2) THE STUDENT should next
decide how the offerings of the
University match up with his in-
terests. He must estimatethe
quality of two things in any course
offered: the material covered and
the teacher. There are techniques
by which he can do this farly
There is no better way to learn
about courses and the mate:ial
covered in them than by reading
+h, In+olng _ nrarhA lno i rn h
visit with the teacher of the course
will clear up any remaining doubts
about the material offered in it.
The teacher himself is the more
important factor in most courses
(although occasionally .the stu-
dent may wish to cover the mater-
ial regardless of who teaches iA").
His presentation can either stimu-
late or deaden the student's in-
terest. If he is bad, the student
will do better to pass up the
course and take another in which
his interest will be brought o
greater fulfillment. The student
can, in various ways, estimate the
quality of the teacher before 4e
has taken him.
* * *
ONE WAY IS by constantly
istening and talking to other
students and to teachers. Their
experience, systematically tapped,
can serve as a guide. The estimate
obtained from other students will
probably be made by standards
closely related to one's own, and
the estimate obtained from teach-
ers will probably e made by more
mature and absolute standards.
Both are necessary for a com-
plete perspective. Personal biases
must be taken }r:to acout, but
wide inquiry will usually yield an
accurate general picture. If the
student's acquantances do. not
include people familiar with the
courses and teachers he is con-
sidering, he must seek thrn out.
Another way is by attmding a
few classes given by the teacher.
Some sense of his style. and ap-
proach may be gained from this
preview, and other students then
enrolled under him can be ques-
tioned. The picture will necsarily
be incomplete; the student may
catch the teacher on 4 ltad day
or in ap art of ine materil which
does not interest him. Bit it is
one more fragment added to the
total view. This systematc read-
ing, questioning, and exploration
is essential every time that elec-
tions are made. With their help,
the'student can decide for himself
whether the teacher and the ma-
terial covered in a course a' likely
to satisfy his intellectual interest.
3) THE STUDENT shonld next
decide which of his inrests can
be pursued outside the cissroom,
and how he will pursue them. This
decision is usually impeaed by
sheer physical necessity. For if,
as is likely at the University, the
student has many interests and
can find many courses appro-
priate for them, he will simply.,
not have time to take all of them.
Some- basis must be set up for
choosing the interests to pursue
outside the class.
One consideration is certainly
the intensity of the interest itself.
The student may not wish to de-
vote an enire elective to a subject
he is only mildly interested In. He
may instead decide to expose hi-
self to it through auditing and
outside reading, and use his elec-
tives for subjects of greater in-
terest to him, in which he wants
to be schooled more thoroughly.
Another consideration is how
well the student can learn the
material on his own. This often
depends on the nature of the
subject. Some subjects rest en
fairly unfamiliar and complex
grounds, and therefore recaire
more classroom practice and ex-
planation than others (for ex-
ample, physics or Russia.)
Others can be learned chiefly
through the regular reading skills,
and are therefore appropriate for
outside study (for example, politi-
cal science or Romanti poetry).
How well the student can learn
on his own also depends on his
own aptitudes and background.
If he learns especially quickly in
ohe area, or has already had some
ped to strike out on his own with-
training in it, he is better equip-
out classroom assistance.
* * *
THE STUDENT must decide
how he. will follow these outside
interests. The two major ways are
by auditing and outside reading.
He can get an idea of the most
important things to read in a field
by talking to teachers . and other
students, and by finding out what
books are used in courses. And he
can informally audit good lectures
on a regular basis. Perhaps also
he can find a teacher willing to
check his work periodically and
offer suggestions. The biggest ob-
stacle to outside study is making
time for it. If course work and
other activities are organized on
an efficient basis, however, most
students can find the time, either
during the school year or during
Following some interests out-
side class can be more rewarding
than following them in class. It
is,. certainly better than taking
the brain-crushing number of
hours some students carry. For the
student may proceed wherever his
inclination transports him. and,
being under no pressure, may
have more time to reflect on the
implications of :what he, has
learned. The anxiety over grades
will be gone, and learning will be
pursued for its own saie .
Once the student knows his
interests, estimates the courses
offered by the University, and
makes plans for outside study, he
has done the bulk of his own
counseling. What, then, should
the role of the counselor be? It is
to help the student, carry out
this process. The counselor should
prod the student to think about
and formulate his interests and
goals; make sure he is aware of
all the courses Appropriate to hs
interests;advise ,himp on these
courses and set up opportunities
for him to talk to other people
about them' and about his career
goals; encourage and assist Him
to pursue some of his interests on
his own; and in general to make
him aware of all the possible ways
by which he can plan'and pursue
his own education. 'To do this,
the counselor must know his Atu-
dents 'well and keep informed
about courses, men, and general
developments going on in the
University. This involves time, but
no time is spent mnore unselfishly
or more rewardingly,
* * *
THE BURDEN OF counseling,
however, even when the counselor
is doing his job, falls on the stu-
dent. It is a complex burden; it
involves, in Supreme Court lan-
guage, a delicate balancing of
interests, interests of a different
kind. But by taking the problem
in hand aggressively and syste-
matically, he can cope with it.
None of the suggestions offered
here are new. But by employing
them in an organized way, the
student can have the satisfaction
of creating his own education and
in a sense his future self.
their feet on the ground. Both
the Eisenhower and Kennedy ad-
ministrations have been attempt-
ing to arrange sound cooperation.
* * *
THE PLANNING, however, has
run headon into a Communist in-
filtration situation which affects
virtually the entire area. Some of
the governments face internal po-
litical instability because of it.
Others have taken only a hesi-
tating-and therefore painful-
grasp of the Cuban nettle. When
Castro says he is not attempting
to export his revolution to other'
countries, they would rather listen
to him than to U.S. warnings
against allowing' Castro to con-
solidate his 'position.
Brazil, traditionally allied with
the United States, apparently is
being carried into a position of
leadership among the countries
which place- demonstrations of
their political independents above
* . ' -*
THERE IS AN appearance of de-
veloping neutralism on the Cuban
'There is even evidence that
some governments are overstress-
ing the growth of communism in
an effort to build a fire under the
In the circumstances it is un-
derstandable that the United
States should have trouble deter-
mining just what her goals and
methods should be.
TAKE MEXICO, for instance.
She' has been making great eco-
nomic strides, and openly credits
the help of the United States. Re-
lations have improved steadily
over the years since her oil expro-
priations. Yet she harbors one of
the best organized, best financed
and most active Communist cadres
in the west.
It is Inevitable that such situ-'
ations, highlighted by what de-
veloped from a small leftist spark
in Cuba, shall be prominently in
the background when the Kenne-
dy program goes to Congress.
The Latin Americans them-
selves, or some of them, are pre-
venting the good business and
good political approach which the'
(Continued from Page 2)
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RMER PRESIDENT OF the United States
braham Lincoln, in his first inaugural ad-
this country, with its institutions, belongs
he people who inhabit it. Whenever they
I grow weary of the existing government,
r can exercise their constitutional right of
nding it, or their revolutionary right to
nember or overthkow it.".
could the University Lecture Committee
e allowed him to speak here?
INTERPRETING THE NEWS:
'Alliance of Progress'.
May Be Lopsided Deal
'M ay By 'I M. ROBERTS
Associated Press Analyst
p RESIDENT JOHN F. KENNEDY will announce plans for his "alliar
of progress" with Latin America next week during a period of spe
ulation as to whether the United States may be traveling a one-w
All of the countries to the south need economic aid. Some of the
like Mexico, need it to keep up steam on programs which have produc
considerable achievement and promise. Others have been going throu
political and economic changes which have prevented them from getti
The following part - time jobs are
available. Applications -for these jobs
can be made in the Non-Academic
'Personnel Office Room 1020 Administra-
tion Building, during the following
hours: Monday through Friday, 8:00
a.m. to 12:30 p.m.
Employers desirous of hiring part-
time or temporary employes should
contact Jack Lardie at NO' 3-1511, ext.
Students desiring'miscellaneous jobs
should consult the bulletin board In
Rm. 1020 daily.
1-Ambulance attendant, must have
chauffers license, and be 21 or over
4 p.m-12 midnight, weekends &
1-Tutor, 'for, Linear programming,
operations research, prefer Indus-
trial Engr. or Bus. Admin. students.
1-Experienced car salesman, as many
hours as possible.
27-Psychological subjects, "hours to be
2-Men to share apartment in exchange
for 10 hours of work each per
week, must be free Wednesdays
10-Psychological subjects (21 or over.
for drug experiments).
1-Full-time clerk typist, 8 ak-5 p.m.,
Monday-Friday, must have trans-
1-Gir1 for housework, and care for
five children from Apri1 1 through
April 18, live in, must have car.
1-Room and board in exchange for
TODAY AND TOMORROW
ter Marshall Aid.
The library of Gainesville,
Florida, has been receiving some
interesting requests for books.
Among them are "Trustee from
the Poolroom," "Keep the Tigers
From my Door," and "Dear and
-The Saturday Review
By WALTER LIPPMANN
CCEPT FOR SEN. Capehart, who did not
vote, the Foreign Relations Committee 'is
,imously in favor of the treaty which will
ke this country a member of OECD (The
;anization for Economic 'Cooperation and
'elopment). The Senate Committee has,
rever, attached to its report an "interpreta-
L and explanation" of the intent of the
ate. Nothing in the treaty gives the Execu-
'any power "beyond what the President
v has." The interpretation is undoubtedly:
rect. It is surely quite harmless. It is also
to unnecessary, as a reading of the treaty,
ticularly Article VI, will show;
'othing can be recommended or decided by
Organization except by unanimous consent.
t is to say, each member has a veto. More-
r, "no decision shall be binding on any
mber until it has complied with the re,.
ements of its own constitutional proce-
es." The rights of Congress are wholly safe-
HIS, IN NO sense of the word is the OECD
a supra-national organization which can
rride the sovereign power of any nation.
at then is it? And why is it important?
'he best way to get at what it is is to
in by noting that today, without the treaty,
President has the constitutional power to
all that the treaty proposes that he should
['he treaty commits eighteen West European
iqtries plus Canada and the U. S. A. to
sult. They are to consult in order to co-
rate for economic stability and growth and
assisting the under-developed countries. The
sident already has the power, if he chooses
use it, to consult with other governments
all of these'subjects. If out of these con-
ations ' come proposals requiring specific
ons, the President must go back to Con-
ss unless the action has already been au-
rized. He can spend no money that is not
ropriated, he can make no loans that are
authorized, he can change no tariff sche-
e except as authorized under the Trade
Why then is it important to establish in a
solemn treaty the commitment to consult? It
is important because in committing ourselves
to consult, we receive the commitment of the
ninteen other nations which comprise all the
great economic powers of the non-Communist
world except for Japan. Japan is now a mem-
ber of the Development Assistance Group
dealing with the underdeveloped countries and
may join the OECD.
In return for our commitment to consult
with them, we get the right to be consulted by
them. This is a valuable right as has oeen
shown by the still uncompleted negotiations
with West Germany, as will be shown by the
forthcoming discussions about the trade .oli-
cies of the Common Market countries and the
nations of the European Free Trade Area.
IT IS HIGHLY significant that this treaty
was negotiated and signed by the Eisen-
hower administration, and that it is being
ratified under the Kennedy administration.
This shows that before the change of Admin-
istration the need which the treaty meets had
become clear to President Eisenhower, Mr.
Herter, and Mr. Dillon. It had become clear
that with the phenomenal economic recovery
of Western Europe, in which this country play-,
ed an historic part, our relations with Western
Europe were grately altered.
At the time of the Marshall Plan in 1948 the
relations between West Europe and the U. S. A.
were those of beneficiary and patron, -'pro-
tected and protector. With European recovery,
though we are still the' biggest economic
power, the relationship is mutual as between
equals. Instead of the patron and the protec-
tor, we are the partner, and to conserve and
promote our interest, we need to have recog-
Snized, as this treaty does, our right to partici-
pate in the discussions, to be consulted, to be
fully informed, and to be listened to in the
field of high international economic policy.
In the time of the Marshall Plan we had the
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR:
Students Behave Like Children
To the Editor:
MISS DOW'S explanation of the
supposed "sterility" of An-
thropology 31 (,LectureCourses
Sterile, March 8, 1961) seems, to
me to be more indicative of the
real problem than she realizes.
Her attitude of uncompromising
criticism is the real problem in
the course and many other "re-
quired courses" like it.
If, as Miss Dow states, the lec-
turer was "an expert research man
in the field" but "incapable: of
communicating with many begin-
ning students," just what did those
students do to make up for that
fault and derive what benefit the
course and the lecturer did have
VERY LITTLE. Last semester
students talked and shuffled like
kindergarten children before re-
cess all through each lecture. They
could not have heard what the
lecturer was saying, let alone at-
tempt to understand it. But what
I consider the most gauche and
most distressing was the hissing
and booing which the lecturer re-
ceived each time he came before
the group. Students grumbled and
criticized, hissed and muttered
every time the lecturer announced
a quiz or tried to explain difficult
material.' Couldn't communicate?
The students gave him no chance.
He was kept uneasy and unsure of
the group all semester.
As for the teaching fellows'
problems in explaining the mater-
ial, often this was not the fault
of the lecturer. Many of the in-
itrtnvrc ,shared andenconira
centratioi, I must side with an-
other lecturer, included in Miss
Dow's blanket accusations of var-
ious departments, when he said:
"I understand from today's Daily,
that some of you don't belong in'
this lecture. I will agree; some of
you don't belong in this ,Univer-
--Patricia Wilson, '64
To the Editor:
BEFORE THE ISSUE of Mr.
Harrison's ejection from the
Union becomes completely mud-
dled, I should like to raise a seri-
ous moral consideration which it
Let us;grant that the Union has
the right to eject any non-mem-
ber. Does it follow from the fact
that the Union has this right that
the Union is always justified in
exercising it? Suppose that I have
the right to lend money to whom-
ever I please. Am I always justi-
fied in exercising this right.
Would I be justified in ,lending
money to someone that I knew
was going to buy a gun to kill
somebody? Would I be justified
in lending money to someone that
I knew was going to gamble or
drinkit away in spite of the fact
that his family was in serious f i-
nancial difficulty? It is true that I
always have the right to lend
money to whomever I please, but
it is not true that I am always
justified in exercising this right.
Suppose I have the right to go 65
on the expressway. Am' I always
iJutified in exercising this right?
Union is always justified in exer-
cising this right. Thus, the real
issue is not whether- the Union
had the right to eject Mr. Harri-
son, but whether it was, justified
in exercising this right. What
would count as justification here
would be the ejection of all non-
members, or the ejection of any
non-member whose conduct does
not meet some well defined and
publically advertised standard. In
other words, if the Union's ejec-
tion of 'Mr. Harrison-or anyone
else-is to be morally justifiable
and not just caprice or harrass-
ment, then the Union must pre-
sent us with a reasonable criter-
tions under which it will exercise
its right to eject a non-member.
MuchAdo ... .
To the Editor:
WHAT IS ALL the fuss over
"Operation Abolition?" The
movie is really ridiculously fun- -
ny. By all means let it be shown.
Its very pig-headedness condemns
its own viewpoint.
The cross-examination scenes
are the most hilarious part. The
poor bewildered witness is deter-
mined to hold onto his dignity and
control his righteous indignation,
but the perfect straight-facedness
with which the Committee levels
its wild, Wonderland charges at
him completely unnerves him. He
keeps trying to read a carefully
prepared statement in his own de-
setting, with the same board, the
same cards, but the rules are al-
THE CARDINAL rule is: The
deck shall always be stacked in
favor of the Committee: Rule
Two: The Person Investigated
(not to be confused with the old
game's Defendant) shall not be
allowed to protest the stacking of
the deck, under penalty of the
addition of more cards to the
deck. The number of additional
cards shall be determined by the
Committee. Rule 'Three: In order
to exercise the ingenuity of the
Committee, it is permitted the
Committee to make up rules as it
goes along. How to Play: The
Committee, whose powers shall be
defined as double the sum of the
powers of thenmembers, shall
choose someone 'not on the Com-
mittee to be It, the. Person Inves-
tigated, by the time-honored
method of counting, "One, two,
three." After "Three," the last per-
son to say "Not It!" is It. Then
whoever is It must sit in a public
place and prepare to receive the
slings and arrows of the outraged
Public. Object of the Game: The
Committee must hurl accusations
at It as quickly as possible, the
more fantastic the charges the
better. Both the Committee and It
must try to keep a straight face.
Whoever breaks first, loses, and
points are totaled for the other
side. (Rule Four: The Committee
always wins, since it is notoriously
"Not It!!" Sa;