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February 25, 1961 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1961-02-25

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Seventy-First Year

Charges Arouse- Controversy

Suggests One Solution
or Engineers' Dlemma

editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

Y .FEBRUARY 25, 1961


Williams Speeeh Sparks
Lively,. Authoritative Talk

HE DISTINGUISHING aspect of the visit
of the controversial Robert F. Williams,,
President of the Monroe County Tennessee
chapter' of the NAACP, who spoke here last
week, was the storm of opinions, queries and
criticisms that followed his pointedly brief
Williams supported his position on the extent
and seriousness of Southern racial discrimina-
tion quite effectively, and his highly colorful if
occasionally extreme speech pointed out the
Coping ..
PROBABLY ONE OF the most valuable bene-
fits the student can ever hope to derive
from his college Experience is the opportunity
to practice the fine art of coping.
Coping, known better as "sich abfinden mit"
to the Germans (who always need three words
to explain one) or as "putting up with" to us,
who really aren't so different from the Ger-
mans, is undoubtedly one of the lesser known
of the fine arts, but all the same an absolute
necessity to a sane and happy life.
The University, it is interesting to note,
offers no specific course on the subject (Soc.
145 seems to approach the scope of such a,
course), but the campus overflows with experi-
mental material. The place is an excellent
coping ground-it teems with all kinds of
characters that we have to put up with.
The financially fatigued student hardly
fights off Life, Post and Look before Time,
N7ewsweek and New Yorker have their collec-
tive foot in his door. And how many times has
he-at last-found something in his normally
barren mailbox-has he joyously scraped off a
layer or two of skin getting out HIS mail--
only to find that now he can get the Times,
McCalls and Hot Rod all in the same, low-
cost package.
Essentially, coping amounts to ignoring the
copee, -who by definition, is the one who is
being put up with. A case in point: that latest
plea for money now buried in my wastebasket.
"Learn how to save money," Changing Time
says, "99 new ideas on your money, job and
living. Enter my subscription for $2." .1
This, obviously, must be coped with. So I
coped. I did not sign the return post card,
I did not enclose my check or money order,
I ignored. I've also found a way to save two
dollars that Changing Time never mentioned.

aims and philosophy of what he termed the
'Negro Revolution' epitomized by the present
sit-in movements.
But his comments on "discrimination free"
Cuba and his statements on the economic and
social advances effected there since Castro
drew heavy audience criticism, particularily
from Doctor Manuel Monal of the University
Hospital staff.
DR. MONAL IS a Cuban citizen, and origin-
ally a Castro supporter,, but as of last
November a political refugee, from what he
repeatedly called the 'police state' of Cuba.
This was in direct opposition to Williams
who said, "I enjoyed a freedom (in Cuba) I
have-never enjoyed here."
Each side seemed limitlessly equipped with
example, incident and quote to support its
opinions, and there was never at any time a
lack of people willing to stand and voice their
The debate, which was entirely of a black
versus white nature with any shades of grey
daring to comment being immediately buried
in the oratory that followed, lasted almost
three hours. If at the end of that time the
arguments had not increased in power, they
certainly had in emotion.
But if the rhetoric might have been over-
extended at times it showed at least some-
thing too often lacking in programs of this
type-controversy between authorities.
OFTEN A specialist in a field is asked to
speak, he does, and the meeting dies there.
Any dissenters in the audience feel too un-
prepared to fight a questionable point alone,
and so the other side is never mentioned.
But in Wednesday's program William's op-
position could and did array themselves around
Dr. Monal. Though it was rather apparent
that few if any of the audience changed their
minds, at least the pro and con were well
aired and a semblance of objectivity was
It would seem only logical in programs of
this type to invite also prominent opponents to
the chief speaker's ideas. If he is right, his
stand becomes more powerful after defeating
opposition; if he is wrong, then the fallacies
should be pointed out.
This would not only cause the evening to
be more interesting, but also more informative,
factual and of neccesity, more objective.
Regardless of subject, a single-speaker dis-
cussion is one-sided and often no more open
to question than propaganda.

Daily Staff Writer
CONTROVERSY has been seeth-
ing around the Washtenaw
County sheriff's department for
four years.
Among the charges hurled at
the county's chief law enforce-
ment officer have been political
firing, ticket fixing, organized
competition with state police, low
morale, inefficiency, bad book-
keeping, bad working conditions
and poor training of deputies.
These local issues, .fomented
largely by former deputies and
the Ann Arbor News, point direct-
ly to state-wide conditions like
elected, rather than appointed,
sheriffs, and the lack of a "civil
service" type operation in employ-
ing officers.
* * *
THE PRESENT sheriff, George
Petersen, is doing all that is re-
quired of him by state law, and
present conditions were tolerated
by the people of the county long
before he assumed office.
Even though he has been elect-
ed to the position twice, it should
be asked if the sheriff is doing
what is required of him by the
needs of the county and by pres-
ent progress in law enforcement.
An ex-convict on trial at cir-
cuit court recently told the judge
there might be a riot at the coun-
ty jail because of the bad food
served there. Other prisoners
have complained because some of
their number, who were given
more active duties, got a different
It is hard to take such charges
seriously because there will be
trouble-makers in any such situa-
tion and Petersen, in an executive
position, is naturally liable to
many such complaints.
has been fired by the sheriff
sounds off, it could easily be dis-
missed as "sour grapes," except
that the nature of the charges and
the number of accusations make
it improbable that they are all
without any basis in fact.
* * *
EARL WILLIS, JR., fired by Pe-
tersen after more than two years
as a deputy, stated Dec. 1 that
last Nov. 21 there was a closed
meeting at which the sheriff told
his men to "keep your mouths
shut" to newspapermen and to
refer all press inquiries to him-
Petersen also announced at the
meeting that there would be two
complaint books kept but that re-
porters would not see one of them.
Willis said.
The "gag rule" on information
was never a written order, and
only second-hand reports from
Willis and other employes lead to
The sheriff said to the press
that he should be the only spokes-
man for the affairs of his depart-
ment, and that the two books were
established so that one would in-
clude only current cases.
Even on a routine report check
the officers involved usually clear
their statements with the captain.
* * *
Klump says that long before the
charges came out in the paper,
"there was one book of reports
they didn't let reporters see at all.
This was where they could put
information that might discredit
the department."
If there is a restriction of in-
formation in practice or atmos-
phere at the department, the peo-
ple's right to know is being im-
paired. Arresting officers have the
direct knowledge on a case and
normally should be free to give
information on these matters.
At the same time it is necessary
for the department to keep good
relations with its reporters, who
can give invaluable assistance to

the department in print.
If limitations exist, they are
either an ill-advised hindrance
in the way of reporters in the
name of efficiency, or else a meth-
od of concealing faults within the
* * *
claimed last July that Petersen
had threatened his men with fir-
ing if they did not contribute to
a newspaper advertisement favor-
ing Petersen's re-election in the
The ad reportedly was to have
the deputies' pictures surrounding

the sheriff's with indication that
they endorsed his candidacy.
Petersen denied the charges,
saying "If my deputies wish to
make known their political sup-
port for me, I welcome it. But I
have never forced anyone to help
me in this campaign unless they
wished to do so of their own free
The incident was raised again
when Willis said he was fired be-
cause he supported Elmer Klump,
Petersen's primary candidate, and
because he was suspected of being
the deputy who "leaked" the ad-
vertising story to the Ann Arbor
Willis 'said that Petersen had
promised in a meeting to "make
it up" to those who supported him
and to "get even" with those who
failed to help out in his cam-
* * *
USE OF POLITICAL tactics was
also charged last summer by
Jerry R. Holtz who had resigned
his deputy position many months
Holtz, who had worked under
four different sheriffs, said that
"civilians who have no connection
with or knowledge of police work
are now in control of this coun-
ty's sheriff's department."
He declared that two Ypsilanti
businessmen were given two-way
police radios in their private cars,
and deputy cards "because the
sheriff had political debts to pay
Another charge was that tick-
ets are returned with the state-
ment "dismissed on order of the
sheriff" on, them. Holtz said that
he knew personally of four oc-
casions in a period of less than a
year when pressure was used "to
gain a release or a reduction in
* * *
LAST JULY deputy Charles L.
Broderick resigned and charged
the sheriff with compromising
good law enforcement "through
cheap, pork barrel politics."
"Political expediency or person-
al friendship always seemed to
beat justice to the wire," said
Broderick in explaining why he
quit the force, and cited two ex-
In March, 1960, Broderick chas-
ed a speeder going 110 miles an
hour on slippery, icy roads, but
lost the race. Later he found out
the driver was ,a former village
policeman and summoned him for
Petersen intervened during the

interrogation, spoke to the man
briefly, shook hands, and had him
The November before, Broderick
said he found a five-ton auto
wrecker lying on its side near a
highway. Later an "obviously in-
toxicated" man arrived and ad-
mitted he was driving the vehicle
during the accident.
The driver said he had just been
at the sheriff's house getting a
ticket fixed. Although Broderick
tiled an accident report and com-
plaint, the papers disappeared the
next day, he said.
LAST SUMMER Ypsilanti con-
stable Thomas W. Brown demand-
ed a warrant against the sheriff's
department because a speeding
ticket issued by his department
was confiscated by deputies and
no legal action was ever made.
Brown related that the defend-
ant was taken to a substation by
deputies where a desk man made
a telephone call. After this, the
deputies told the speeder not to
worryabout the ticket because "it
was taken care of."
Klump privately has made sim-
ilar charges.
Could all of these cases be idle
rumors or headline-hunting?
* * *
IT IS IRONIC that charges of
political firing have been leveled
against Petersen, for he himself
was a victim of this tactic in the
1958 county election campaign.
On April 2 Captain Petersen
announced his intention of run-
ning against sheriff Robert E. A.
Lillie in the Republican primary.
On April 3 Lillie fired Petersen
so that his candidacy would not
be "construed as disloyalty or de-
ceit" and to prevent "any possi-
ble presumption that your duties
will be neglected."
* * *
PETERSEN WROTE a letter to
Lillie stating "you talked to me
about my candidacy, only a few
weeks ago and even encouraged it.
I am forced to the conclusion that
I have been discharged for purely
political reasons."
And just two years later Peter-
sen, who beat out Lillie in the 1958
wrangle, fired Elmer Klump from
his staff after Klump had an-
nounced his candidacy for Peter-
sen's office.
The official reason for firing
was a hidden case of bootlegging
in Klump's distant past, but the
actual reason was probably poli-

To the Editor:
IF WE DIRECT our attention
specifically towards composi-
tion, the current controversy in
the Michigan Daily over engineer-
ing English seems to be marked
by adherence to a particular point
of view on the part of those at-
tacking the program. This view is
that it is essential for the engi-
neer to be trained in creative
writing and that training in crea-
tive writing prepares the engineer
to do the type of writing he must
be prepared to do. Why this atti-
tude has developed it is difficult
to say, but it has, as many stu-
dents who don't like to write have
found to be the case in literary
college composition courses.
The literary college's "red hot
major league outfit" includes some
faculty who are quite unable to
empathize with the engineer's
need for, and interest in, writing
of an expository nature and his
hatred of so-called creative writ-
ing, which after all, he looksupon
as the province of the professional
literary writer. To the "red-hot"
writing is an end in itself, to the
engineer it is a "tool" subject,
ONE MIGHT examine some
consequences of this accent on
creative writing. Many students
because of their lack of interest
and associated lack of talent in
this direction find their English
composition classes an exquisite
torture. Their experiences may re-
sult in feelings of inadequacy
about writing and negative condi-
tioning toward it which will make
it more difficult for later faculty
to teach these students'writing or
for them to write when they area
motivated to do so. These feelings
may like the strength of Father
William's jaw last them the rest
of their lives.
It might be further mentioned
that it sometimes seems as though
the literary college's emphasis on
creative writing makes it neces-
sary for its students to learn re-
port writing on their own through
preparing term papers in subjects
other than English. To avoid this,
in the Engineering English writ-
ing course, the, student is given
careful and detailed instruction in
preparing technical reports on ma-
terial about which he is interest-
ed and of which he has adequate
** *
IN THE OPINION of this facul-
ty member, and parent of an engi-
neering'student, some attention

might usefully be directed toward
a required freshman English
course (even in the literary col-
lege) emphasizing report writing
with later, possibly elective,
courses in creating writing. High
schools might consider such a pro-
gram as well. To require an engi-
neer to take a course primarily
directed toward creative writing
because he needs to be able to
communicate seems to me to be
somewhat analogous to requiring
of the English lit major that he
take a course in automotive me-
chanics because he will probably
need in time to drive a car.
--Thornton Woodward Zeigler
(Continued from Page 2)
assistance in mktg. of bleaching sys-
tems & equipment. Some travel in U.S.,
Canada, overseas involved.
Cleveland State Hospital, Cleveland--
Graduate Bacteriologist.
Please call Bureau of Appoint's., 4021
Admin., Ext. 3371 for further details.
The following part-time Tobs are
available. 'Applications can be made in
the Non-Academic Personnel: Office,
1020 Admin. Bldg., Monday through
Friday, 8:00 a.m. to 12:30 p.m.
Employers desirous of hiring part-
time 'or temporary emuployes should
contactrJack Lardie, at NO 3-1511, ext.
Students desiring miscellaneous jobs
should consult the bulletin board In
Room 1020, daily.
1-Room in exchange for light work.
1--Dark-room technician, afternoons
and weekends.
4-Social photographers, mostly week-
end work.
1-Experienced radio and TV repair-
man, hours to be, arranged.
1-Experienced camera repairman
(min. 20 hours per week).
10-Psychological subjects, hours to be
39-Psychological subjects, two 1% hour
periods, total tlime.
2-Salesmen, commission basis, must
have car.
1-Full-time temporary electronlcs,
2-Saleswomen, commission basis, must
have car.
13-Psychological subjects, two 1% hour
periods, 'total time.
9-Psychological subjects (21 or over,
for drug experiments).

Health Insurance Cost, Rates Rise

Federal Aid to Education

)ESPITE SEN. GOLDWATER, who has just
declared that Federal aid to education is
unconstitutional," the practice of Federal aid
% in fact older than the constitution. As early
s the Land Ordinance of 1785, the Confedera-
on provided that the 16th section of each
)wnship or one-thirty-sixth of the acreage
a the public land estates should be granted to
he states by the national government for the
enefit of the common schools.
Ever since the Federal union was established
has been giving aid to education in a large
ariety of ways, and it is sheer deception to
eclare that what has always been done is
NTHILE FEDERAL AID has been given since
the founding tof the nation, what has
ever been done has been to set up Federal
mtrol of education. It is indeed quite con-
ary to American principles and practices for
ie Federal government to control what is
aught in the public schools, how it is taught,
ho teaches it. The control of education is
eserved to the states, and no one engaged in
le present discussion is proposing to tamper
ith that principle. The Kennedy program is
nequivocal and scrupulous in reserving to the
ates the control of education.
Thus in the proposed contribution to public
ementary and secondary schools, the Ken-
edy program leaves it to each state to decide
hether the 'Federal contribution shall be
sed to build schools or to raise teacher sal-
ries. The loan program for clglege housing
nd for academic facilities is operated by local
dtiative. The four-year program for scholar-
hips is to be "state-administered."
Why, then, with such careful respect for
ates' rights, is it necessary to bring in the
ederal government at all? The answer is that
ie number of children and youths who have
be educated has outgrown the resources
hich can be raised in a very large number of
ae states. The American nation can quite well
'ford to educate all its young at least at the
vel of the most advanced states, for example,
alifornia. It is nonsense to argue that the
nited States is too poor to educate its child-

funds is left to the fifty state legislatures and
the local school districts.
Here is the essence of the Kennedy program.
It has nothing to do with the control of edu-
cation. It does not propose to have the Federal
government pay all the costs, supplanting the
states and localities. It does propose to supple-
ment state and local funds with a compara-
tively small contribution.
THIS SUPPLEMENTARY support has become
necessary because of the spectacular in-
crease in the school population which began
after the second World War and seems certain
to continue for the next ten years. The cost
of educating this growing number of children
is rising and will continue to rise, according
to the estimates of the highly reliable and
conservative Committee on Economic Develop-
ment. Even if prices remain constant, even if
educational standards are not raised, the costs
per pupil will rise by almost half during the
'Sixties. For teacher salaries will have to rise
in order to keep pace with earnings in other
professions. A large part of the pupils will
be in high schools, where the cost per pupil
is much higher than in the elementary schools.
As against this, state and local taxes are,
as Beardsley Ruml put it, encountering stiffer
resistance. As tax burdens become heavier, the
reconciliation of opposing views about taxes
becomes increasingly difficult. One reason for
the slower growth of state and local revenues
is the necessary reliance of those governments,
especially the localities, upon the property tax.
IN ALL THIS we must not fall into the mis-
take of thinking that this is a proposal to
tax the rich, and supposedlymore public
spirited,. states, for the benefit of the poorer
and less energetic states, The truth is that
the poorer states are on the whole making
a greater effort to support their schools than
are the richer states.
Thus there are thirty-one states with an in-
come per school child which is below the
national average. Yet they are spending 3.6 per
cent of their personal income on schools where-

Daily Staff writer
HOSPITAL COSTS are rising;
scientific and technological
advances have increased the price
of adequate medical care; the
average age of the population is
changing; standards of living are
growing higher-all these factors
are leading to the increased cost
of health insurance, a nation-wide
One-half the people of Michi-
gan are currently affected by the
success or failure of the Blue
Cross and Blue Shield requests
for a combined 18 per cent rate
increase - one major example of
the rising cost of health insur-
The problem is more complex
than it may at first appear. Some
members of the public fee that
they are already paying too much
for medical care, while the Blue
Cross and Blue Shield organiza-
tions assert that they cannot con-
tinue on their present incomes.
** *
ON THE ONE HAND, there has
been concern from some quarters
as to the way the money is being
spent; they have shown resent-
ment and irritation concerning
the ever-increasing cost of pre-
payment health insurance.
On the other hand, the facts
show that Blue Cross is nearing a
financial crisis, having already,
dipped dangerously far into its
reserves, while Blue Shield, in a
more advanced state of crisis, has
declared a $2 million deficit.
.t present the case for the in-
creased rates is before Insurance
Commissioner Frank Blackford,
who has held three open hear-

ings. It was here that some of the
public resentment came to light.
* * *
IN VIEWING the problem, sev-
eral questions immediately be-
come aparent: Why are the two
insurance organizations so deeply
in debt? What is causing the ever-
growing cost of maintaining ade-
quate health care? Where is the
money going and how well is it
being spent? By whom and where
are the controls being exerted?
These and other questions have
been reviewed by a University
Study, begun in 1958 at the re-
quest of a. Governor's Commis-
sion. Conducted by the Bureau of
Hospital Administration under the
direction of Prof. Walter McNer-
ney, the study of hospital and
medical economy has been financ-
ed by a $372,000 Kellogg grant.
During the course of this year
the study will publish a report of
its findings which will then be
submitted to the public. The re-
port will survey organization,
management and effectiveness of
commercial insurance companies,
including Blue Cross and Blue
Shield, plus the problems which
the doctors, hospitals and public
have encountered in this area.
* * *
McNERNEY, in outlining some
of the important factors which
have led to the request for in-
creased Blue Cross and Blue Shield
rates, noted that diagnosis and
treatment are becoming more
complicated and that hospital ad-
missions per 1,000 people is ris-
ing; in 15 years it has increased
from 117 to 164 patients. In addi-
tion, hospital and medical costs
have doubled in the last 10 years,

in tune with a general condition'
of inflation.
Membership in Blue Cross and
Blue Shield has risen in Michi-
gan by over 3 million members
since 1940. Blue Cross, which pays
approximately 90 per cent of its
policy holder's hospital bills, has
had to contend with this increas-
ed membership and their ever-
growing hospital bills.
Further, hospital costs them-,
selves are increasing. This can
be attributed to such factors as
salary raises, reduction in work-
ing hours of hospital employees,
advancing complexity of medical
science and the demands it has
made on hospital personnel and
facilities; and improved standards
of living, leading to demands for
better food and better accommo-
BLUE CROSS, which received a
rate increase in 1959, and Blue
Shield which received a rate in-
crease in the summer of 1960,
have requested another increase
by April 1, an increase which
will also provide for additional
income to build up their reserves.
Some of the critics of its pres-
ent payment formula declare
that there is no positive incen-
tive toward efficiency in opera-
tion, nor any positive penalty for
inefficiency in operation or for
unwarranted increases in hospi-
tal operating costs.
Many people fear that addition-
al increases will be needed in fu-
ture years to cover expanding
medical services and operations.
This pinpoints the need for ade-
quate and efficient control of hos-
pital management and Blue Cross-,

Blue Shield funds. At the present'
time the structure of control
seems to be vague. It Is unclear
where the prepayment agency's
power ends and the power of the
doctor or hospital begins. How
the three can be made to work to-
gether effectively is another un-
solved problem.
* C *
WHO HAS THE authority to say
whether unwarranted ambulatory
services are being rendered, or
whether,. diagnostic cases that
could be handled through the doc-
tor's office are taking 'up &xtra
services and extra days in a hospi-
tal? And who has the power to
correct such situations?
Perhaps the basic question be-
comes one of Blue Cross's position
-is it an agency of hospitals or
an agency of the pulbic?
According to its objective, Blue
Cross's aim is to provide non-
profit prepayment hospital care
as required by the people of the
state of Michigan and to provide
a dependable and adequate fi-
nancial base for the operation of
the voluntary general hospitals in
the state. It remains to be asked
whether Blue Cross is measuring
up to these aspirations.
The insurance .cmmmissiofier
may well recommend definite
steps towards more effective con-
trol of funds. These, it is hoped,
will aid Blue Cross in fulfilling
the needs to which it has com-
mitted itself.
* * *
HOWEVER, the problem will not
end here. Hospital and medical
costs are expected to continue to
rise because of the increasing
scope ofservices and payroll and
admission rate considerations. Ef-
fective plans for the future will
r need to be made if these costs are
to be controlled without calling
upon the public year after year to
pay additional health insurance
The situation demands. wide-
spread understanding and con-
structive thinking on the part of
the public as well as the organi-
zations involved.
E PROSPECT OF domination
of the nation's scholars by
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