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May 07, 1963 - Image 2

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1963-05-07

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J,AY 7,1963


Lane Enumerates
Learning Theories

Three basic principles of be-
havioral psychology which have
been discovered in laboratory ex-
perimentation in learning theory
include - reinforcement-extinction,
discrimination-generalization and
shaping, Prof. Harlan Lane of the
psychology department said yes-
Speaking on "Reinforcement as
a Controlling Factor in Human
Learning," Prof. Lane noted that
the first principle of behavioral
psychology, reinforcement, is a
stimulus which increases the prob-
ability of response..
In laboratory experiments with
animals reinforcement consists of
food if the animal is food-depriv-
ed. Secondary reinforcements are
neutral stimuli that have acquired
stimulatory power through associ-
ation. An example of this on the
human level is money, which has
no value of its own but represents
things of value to the subject.
Selects Response
To use reinforcement techniques,
the experimenter selects any one
of the rxesponses in the behaving
organism's motor repertory.
As. an example Prof. Lane dem-
onstrated reinforcement on a pig-
eon which had been trained to
peck a green light and which low-
ered a tray of food into the cage.
When the light turned red, the
pigeon stopped pecking since it
had learned that it would get food
if it did not peck for 30 seconds.
Prof. Lane noted that pecking
on levers is not a common motor
Church Cites
Central States
Arts CompleX
The Midwest should outgrow its
"inferiority complex about the
arts," Michael P. Church of the
Extension Service said recently at
a conference at Michigan College
of Mining and Technology.
"New Yorkers have created the
idea that the sole showplace for
all the country's talent is New
York. But scratch any New York
artist and underneath you will
find somebody from another re-
gion," he said.
Church believes the future of
American arts lies not in "show-
places like New York's Lincoln
Center" but in regional art cen-
If people outside New York "im-
bue themselves with the necessary
confidence to create an indigenous
or regional product, it will find a
market," he said.

..: learning reinforcement

Hager Tells
Of Housing
The Big Ten Housing Confer-
ence recently held at Madison
showed that the University is one
of the most liberal Big Ten
schools in the field of housing,
Assembly Association President
Charlene Hager, '65, reported at
yesterday's AHC meeting.
With respect to receiving apart-
ment permissions and having a
voice in house government, the
University is much freer than
most schools, she said.
She also noted that "we have
the highest scholastic average of
the ten. Some other schools only
require a .75 or 1.0 (on a 4-point
scale) to stay in the dorms, while
we require a 2.0 after two semes-
At most of the other schools
more defined splits between affili-
ated and independent 'students
exist. At the University of Wis-
consin there is a three-way split
among affiliates, apartment and
dormitory dwellers, Miss Hager
In other business at the meeting,
the Council passed a motion to
publish a supplement to the reg-
ular dorm house booklets. This will
take the place of "Women's Roles
and Rules," a booklet which is to
be discontinued next year, but or-
dinarily published jointly by As-
sembly, Panhellenic Association
and the Women's League.
Miss Hager pointed out that
the AHC supplement would im-
prove the house booklets by giv-
ing the entire picture of the hous-
ing government structure in one
Although the University contri-
butes to the cost of the regular
house booklets, Assembly will as-
sume the cost of its supplement.
A motion was introduced to
make available to all dorm houses
a booklet for parents containing
the history and social functions of
the house, dates the University
will be closed for vacations, and
places to stay on Ann Arbor visits.
Other motions were passed to
allow Panhel to place posters in
dorms and to allow Student Gov-
ernment Council representatives to
speak at house meetings.

Craine Evaluates Recreation Education






.. outdoor recreation


response in pigeons, but had to
be learned for the experiment.
In human subjects, it was
found that if reinforcement takes
place at irregular intervals rather
than regularly, the subject takes
longer to reach extinction.
In an experiment where college
students were told a machine
would drop pennies into a cup near
them at irregular intervals for
saying the syllable "oo," the ex-
perimenters packed up and went
home for the night, leaving one
of the subjects behind. Although
the machinery was turned off, the
experimenters found the student
still there at 10:00 the next morn-
ing, after 13 hours of "oo-ing"
without reward.
Shaping is a phenomenon by
which the experimenter can alter
the organism's behavior subtly in
any direction he wants without
changing the basic pattern.
To illustrate, Prof. Lane taught
his pigeon not to walk in circles
in the cage, while his red light was
on and he was waiting for his food
tray to descend. By reinforcing him
every time he faced the wall, Prof.
Lane changed his behavior, or
shaped it in the direction he

Offers Help
For Groups
Cinema Guild, one of the related
boards of Student Government
Council, is again offering finan-
cial aid to student organizations
under its revised sponsorship pol-
This policy provides that the
board will render aid to registered
student organizations "based on
financial considerations and the
potential good to the University
which grants from the board can
Organizations can apply for
help by placing a petition contain-
ing a full financial statement in
the board mailbox at the SAB.
Petitions must be received by May
Jenkins To View
'Leo, the Wise'
Prof. Romilly Jenkins of Har-
vard University wil speak on "The
Fourth Marriage of Emperor Leo
the Wise" at 4:10 today in Rm.
429 Mason Hall.

Committee Names Orientation Leaders

<" t

Soph 5
What? WhE
for Publicity Secr
hursday, May 9,
Women's League-


The University Services Com-
mittee of the Women's League and mesters, are . required to attend
the Michigan Union announced the leader training general discus-
yesterday selection of the orienta- sion meeting at 7:30 p.m. in Rm.
tion leader candidates of fall 1963. 3RS of the Michigan Union. Others
will receive instructions from the
Students, who did not serve as orientation office in the first week
orientation leaders in previous se- ofiut.
of August.
Former leaders who have been
selected include:
John W. Allin, '63; Nanci B. Arnold,
Sh o w ? '64; Elizabeth A. Barbour, '65; Marion
" V. Barnes, '65; Terence M. Bell, '64;
Carole P. Berkson, '65; Sharon K.
Carey, '62; Gary A. Chernay, '65; Mary
en? W here? L. Cook, '64; Kenneth Dressner, '64;
,YSUHerbert Duval, '64; Andree L. Garner,
'65, and Paris Genalis, '65.
SE ET 1N GOthers chosen were "Susan Gergel.
'65; Judith A. Gerson, '64; Lionel Gott-
eta riat Programs schalk, '65; Tim A. Graul,'"64; France-
lia Green, '64; Stephen A. Greenberg,
1 963O8:00 pm. '63; James F. Grossman, '65; Edward
1: P.mA. Hlavac, '65; Rachelle B. Kraft, '65;
-M ichigan Room Beverly I.Katz, '64; John G.
'65 an Le H.Lofstrom, '64.
More leaders include Barbara L. Lyn-'
don, '64; Nancy E. Mintz, '65; Elody H.
Mondo, '64; Dennis A. Parker, '64A&D;
Alfred M. Pelham, '64; Jean R. Pence,
'64; Lana Pleskacz, '64; Nicholas J.
fPisor, '64; Nancy Richards, '64; Alan
IN. Rogers, '62; Nancy L. Rowen, '65;
.Ronald J. Russell, 6Ph; Leslie C.
Scherr, '65; Suzy Sherwood, '65; Allen
RROW Try .Tal.'6AD KnehA
M. Solomon, '65; Stephen Staich, '64E;
'66; Margaret C. Walter, '64; Rich-
ard L. Weaver, '64; Kathleen M. Were-
miuk, '66; Kirk Wheeler, -'66,. and
Rowena Wotring, '65.
The office staff includes Joanie
Deutsch, '65; Ann Girtzman, '65, and
Stephen Straight, '66.
c order for the The Women's League and the Union
have also chosen the new orientation
leaders, who are working for the first
Discussion group one, meeting in
SGLEE UB'SRoom 3K includes Kenneth Campbell,
'65; William Neckrock, '66; Eli Grier,
'66; Bruse Chucacoff, '66; Thomas
Sweeney, '65; Douglas Voort, '63; Rob-
val ert Glaysher, '65; Dawn Bernhardt, '66;
Carole Brimer, '64; Suzanne Orrin, '64;
Kathleen Kidder, '65; Mary Whitman,
T'65; Joanne Kolin, '66, and Peggy Hill-
ONCERTman, '65.
Discussion group two, meeting in
Room 3L, includes Olney Craft, '64;
Robert Parker, '64; James Haughey, '65;
James Codner, '64; Barbara Airmet, '65;
Diemar Wagner, '66; Anita Dogin, '64;
Candy Patterson, '66; Barbara King, '64;
Joan Wolfsheimer, '66; Nadia Lypes-
zky, '66; Helen Raminski, '66, and Bette
Williams, '66.
t] A V ii , A Discussion group three, meeting in

. .. _

recreation to be optionally avail-
The education of outdoor re- able.
reation specialists should be broad- Second, it recommended that
ened, but curricular expansion short recreation courses- for pres-
should be undertaken only where ent natural resources workers be
there is a demonstrated need for made available at the University.
new skills, Prof. Lyle E. Craine of Finally, it declared that the
the Natural Resources school said school should "only plan ahead as
yesterday.sfar asht danlyee"an ealis
Speaking at a luncheon of the far as it can see" and establish
National Conference on Outdoor keestandig faculty conmittee to
Recreation Research, Prof. Craine door recreation edwation.
outlined the diverse skills whichdoecretohdca tion.
outdoor recreation leaders must New courses should be initiated
have-and pointed out some oftin "selective areas rather than
the ways colleges can provide staging a massive assault on the
them. needs of outdoor recreation," Prof.
He began by describing the four Craine commented.
components of outdoor recreation
Supervision oehe Notes
1) There is the function of su-
pervising recreational activities. r
For this, a recreation leader "must Poe 's l
first of all be a teacher," Prof.
Craine commented.
The function is especially im- By RICHARD MERCER
portant in "activity-oriented" rec- Good poetry communicates even
reation areas, such as city play- before it is understood; a poem
grounds. However, Prof. Crainembe eeindrpod;aem
cited "an increasing demand for must be experienced upon an emo-
activity direction" in "Fesource- tive level before analysis may take
ortiityedniresuc s nonale-place, Paul Roche, English poet,
,oriented" areass"ch as national novelist and translater, comment-
parks, where people are more on ed recently.
their own. In these areas, the de- Reading selections of his own'
sire for camping instruction, guides poetry and parts of his transla-'
and nature information is grow- tions of Aeschylus, he noted that
ing, he said. he first began writing because of
Resource Management a great interest in the sounds of
2) Another aspect is resource language, rather than from any
management, for which training feeling of great mission or mes-
in applied ecology is needed, sage.
But Prof. Craine emphasized It is this interest in the sounds
that "people are not trees," and of words thateforms one of his
that recreation workers need edu- major concerns in his translations
cation in "user psychology" as of Sophocles and Aeschylus.
well, to harmonize human use with Roche said that the main prob-
the conservation of nature. lem encountered in rendering the
3) There is also the problem of proper sounds in English trans-
allocating land areas for recrea- lations of Greek works is that of
tion. "This is part of the whole rhythym and cadence. To demon-
regional-development complex and strate his point, he read selections
requires something more than a from his translation of "Agamem-
recreation specialist," Prof. Craine non."
asserted. Roche read his "Te Deum for J.
Compete for Land Alfred Prufrock."
He noted that recreation must T: S. Eliot's "The Lovesong of
compete with other land uses for J. Alfred Prufrock" presents a
available space and called for bleak picture of modern existence
more "recreation consciousness" in to the reader, Roche commented.
regional-development programs. His poem is filled with refer-
4) Finally, recreation specialists enes to and quotations from
must be proficient at forecasting Eliot's poem, but instead of pre-
demand for his attractions, and senting a scene of futility and
this requires a "deeper under- frustration, it presents Prufrock
standing of society," Prof. Craine in a hopeful atmosphere.
He suggested that "well-trained
social scientists tackle these prob-
Can We Teach Enough? I nternatior
Given the diverse abilities need-
ed, Prof. Craine asked whether
"we can expect to cram into one
man the breadth and depth of
education the job calls for." WOMEN
fle went on to outline some rec-
ommendations made by a faculty
committee of the Natural Re-
sources school on these curriculum
First ,the committee suggested
more emphasis on recreation in
the school's course offerings, pro- Participants:
moting a "recreation intelligence" CLAUS MADSEN
in natural resource students. Spe- Danish Stud
cifically, it called for the equiv-
alent of one semester's work in ROBERT ROSS-
Quadrants Select M. MOBIN SHOF
Spring Initiates Stuents of
The following men have been Zengakuren
tapped for East Quadrangle Quad- Tues. May 7, 7
rants: Gregory Geist, '65A&D; *
David Hall, '66; Jeffrey Laizure,
'63; Robert Levine, '63; Drago
Montague, ,'64; ' James Patton,
'65E; Charles Prochaska, '65E, and
Gerald Salensky, '65A&D, and
George W. Smith. Grad.
DIAL 5-6290
We recommend that you see
it from the beginning.

It could be
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Room 3M, includes Jeffrey Fortune,'
'65; Stanley Redding, '65; Roger Kawal-
ski, '63; Gary Gerlach; '65; Bob Ying,
'64; Barbara Caidwell, '66; Sandra
Erickson, '66; Martha Welling, '65; Lin-
da Lovinger, '66; Donna Yando, '66;
Mary Mahoney, '64; Julia Schuett, '66,
and Elizabeth Smith, '66.
Discussion group four, meeting in
Room 3N, includes Geoffrey Gaidos,
'64; Larry Travis, '65; Gary Ludwig,
'65; Gerald Grijak, '65; Roslyn Fried-
laender, '65; Gladys Reinstein, '66; Ju-
dith Mosbach, '66; LindaYee, '66; Caro-
lyn Bent, '66; Cynthia Parry, '66, and;
Nancy Temple, '65.
Discussion group five will meet in
Room 3B and 1includes Daniel Glick-
man, '66; George Wade, '64; Robert
Bergen, '64; Roger Price, ;'65; ,Michael
Hannum, '64; James Rice, '64; Sharon
Gaines, '65; Elaine Schwartz, '66; Ruth
Shelby, '64;. Judy Fields, '66; Earla
Steiler, '66, and Claudia Varblau, '65.
Discussion group six, meeting in
Room 3D, includes Neal Grossman, '64;
Anupman Chinai, '64; RobertR odes;
'64; John Morrison, '65; Richard Espo-
sito, '65; Phyliss Hart, '64; Lynette
Wells, '64; Cheryl Dodge, '66; Katherine'
Snyder, '66; Karol Fuller, '65; Janet
Teeple, '65, and Margaret Witecki, '66.
Discussion group seven, meeting in
Room 3X, includes Richard Berman, '66;
Edward Helpuch, '66; Tony Chiu, '66;
Alan Shulman, '65; Lawrence Nitzi,
'63; Mark Phillips, '65; Julie Horlton,
'65; Karen Thompson, '65; Dorothy
Tremblay, '66, and Jean Potter, '65.
Discussion group eight, 'meeting in
Room 3Y includes Bruce Hudson, '66;
Stanley Bershad, '65; Roger Hurwitz,
'66; James Camber, '64; Frank Strother,
'64; Alfred Remsen, '64; Josephine Lir-
eka, Mary Holmes, '66; Diane Trickton,
'66; Nancy Gribbin, '65; Frederica
Wachtel, '66; Margaret Lowe, '66, and
Christine Fracala, '66.
Discussion group nine, meeting in
Room 3Z, includes Harvey Braunstein,
'65; John Josselson, '66; Kenneth Dun-
ker, '64; David Allor, '65; Ralph Rumsey,
'65; Patrick Lepeak, '64; Nanci Joseph-
son, '66; Virginia Bethel, '64; Sandra
Karmazin, '66, and Robin Zawodni, '66.
Discussion group 10, meeting in Room
3RS, includes Lee Bromberg, '64; Al-
bert Karvelis, '66; Rolf Englefried, Fred
Berhenke, '65; William Salow, '66; John
Ross, '66; Mary Moore, '65; Myrna Ka-
sey, '66; Rosalie Waskue, '64; Susan
Jankowski, '64; Garbacz Laurie, '64;
Brenda Cline, '63, and Barbara Jennings,
Gooch Studies
Art Symbols
Most of the world's population
is illiterate, but not out of reach
of communication techniques,
Prof. Donald B. Gooch of the
architecture and design schooll
said recently.
Prof. Gooch noted much success
in communicating with illiterate
people in Nepal through use of
pictographs (symbolic drawings of
familiar objects) .
The villagers' were able to iden-
tify well over half the drawings.
They did even better when they
moved into pictograph sentences,
hitting over 90 per cent accuracy

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