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February 01, 1963 - Image 13

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1963-02-01

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Jiews Executive Shelf Effect

Court Should Set Standards

Henderson Views Educatioi


There are several reasons why
many executives in American in-
dustry fail to reach the top, Prof.
E. E. Jennings of Michigan State
University explained to a recent
Bureau of Industrial Relations
Exploring "How to Choose Your
Best Executive Style," Prof. Jen-
nings said that "executives in
American industry often fail be-
cause they cannot relate to their
own executive style; they are not
ethically or morally prepared to
face all the implications of execu-
tive competition; and they are
afraid to use, as well as lack un-
derstanading of, power in execu-
tive functioning.
le termed the Horatio Alger
philosophy neither a myth nor a
reality, pointing out that half the
corporation presidents today work-
ed the way up, while the other half
"inherited it."
Yet he observed that "the up-
ward mobility opportunity is not
a 50-50 proposition for self-
climbers, because the birth-elite
are vastly outnumbered."
He said that upward mobility is
often stopped and when such
managers are stagnated for a
period in excess of five years they
can become "shelf-sitters."
He described this stagnation ef-
feet or "shelves": The "trophy
shelf" is the "tweedy gentleman
who has been relegated and util-
ized as a mirror and communicator
of company posture and image;"
then there's the "benchwarmer's
Plans Noted
The only way to prevent a feel-
ing of uselessness in retirement is
to develop a wide range of in-
terests, Prof. Ross Wilhelm of the
business administration school de-
clared recently.
"The gradual retirement pro-
grams which a number of firms
have instituted in recent years do
not solve this problem. Generally
they are designed to reduce the
amount of time the employee
spends on his job just before re-
tirement," he continued.
The format of the programs can
take many forms. One plan is to
give the worker a long vacation,
usually in the year in which he is
going to retire. The idea behind
this is to provide an opportunity
for the worker to decide where
to live during retirement.
Part-time Work
Another way is to place the
worker on a part-time basis. This
gives the employee who will take
over the job a break-in period,
Prof. Wilhelm noted.
"However it is obvious that
gradual retirement p r og ram s
don't work. The basic problem is
one of attitudes and the whole
range of skills a person has de-
veloped," he explained.
Most, people have a narrow set
of interests centering around their
job. Usually when the Job is re-
moved, the main source of the
individual's feelings of being
wanted and useful are taken away
Develop Activities
The worker must begin devel-
oping a wide range of activities.
This preparation must begin many
years before retirement, Wilhelm
"Preparation must take the
form of broadening the worker's
interests and activities so that
when he retires he will stop work-
ing, but not necessarily stop do-
ing all the big things that interest
"Unfortunately most p e o p 1 e
don't do this. Their main interest
is their job and for recreation,
they watch television," Prof. Wil-
helm declared.
Only the individual of his own
volition can broaden himself.

Then, when retirement is reached,
he won't just go to Miami or St.
Petersburg and vegetate, he con-

shelf," which is a "legitimate shelf
where the lack of current openings
delays promotion temporarily;"
there is the "travelling shelf," re-
served for "the problem child
executive-continually moved from
pillar to post . . . to handle in-
consequential assignments . .. to
reduce the frequency and impact
of his negative performance."
Finally he described the "tilting

shelf" as "one more error and out
you go."
In conclusion he noted that cor-
porations have developed value
systems, which force the mobile
executive to conform. He said that
the criteria vary in kind and de-
gree but relate to attitudes and
beliefs in such areas as work,
money, people, techniques and

Vetter Speaks on Need
Of Manpower Planning

One of industry's major future
challenges will be better planning
to fulfill manpower needs, Eric
Vetter of Tulane University said
here recently.
Speaking before a seminar on
manpower forecasting for industry
sponsored by the business admin-
istration school's Bureau of In-
dustrial Relations, Prof. Vetter
sounded a warning that business
faces problems unless it carefully
surveys its future needs itself.
"Many of the government pro-
grams now underway for retrain-
ing workers displaced by auto-
mation and finding the right kinds
of technical and professional help
for research will be hampered un-
less private industry does a more
comprehensive job of manpower
planning without waiting for gov-
ernment pressure."
Vetter cited five areas in which
management ought to take action.
First, it must project its needs
for professional and technical
manpower since personnel in these
areas will be in short supply.
Second, companies ought to take
Action on managerial positions. In
order to fill these positions ade-
quately, better campus recruiting
programs should be devised and
better and more intensive training
guided by sophisticated planning.
Third, business ought to work to
help its white collar workers to
adapt to the automated office with
firms working out extensive plans
for the introduction of this tech-
Fourth, firms must work to al-
Senator Maps
Must List Plan
For Congress
Bills on deceptive packaging and
the proposed Sleeping Bear Dunes
national park are on the legislative
must list of Sen. Philip A. Hart
(D-Mich) for ths year.
The senator indicated these ob-
jectives in a visit to Ann Arbor
Sunday to kick off a local Demo-
cratic fund raising drive.
Hart explained that he would
reintroduce a bill on packaging of
consumer products this session so
that "shopping can be done wise-
The bill suggests that the iden-
tification of volume of goods and
content be printed on all pack-
ages in readable terms, that
standards should be set for the
equivalents for the term "serv
ings', that determinations should
be made about the necessity of
including fractional weights in
content measures and that the use
of adjectives such as "giant, super
or economy size" be standardized.
"Even though I am delighted
that Sen. Patrick McNamara (D-
Mich). is now the chairman of the
Public Works Committee, I don't
think that it will affect the Sleep-
ing Bear Dunes proposal."
Both senators are co-sponsors
of a bill to make a national park
of the Michigan's Sleeping Bear
Dunes in the Traverse City area.
He explained that in a nation-
wide survey of coastal areas, it
was recommended that the Grand
Traverse Bay area be made into a
park to save the resources.

leviate the shortage of sub-pro-
fessional technicians.
Finally, business must accept the
responsibility for the retraining of
unskilled workers whose jobs are
put out of existence by techno-
logical change so that these work-
ers do not constitute an .undue
burden on society.
Vetter suggested a ten-step
system for surveying and deter-
mining manpower needs that can
aid in forecasting future needs.
Team Records
Volcano Land
On Heat Maps
Heat maps of the terrain
around the restless Hawaiian Kil-
auea volcano are being made by a
team of Institute-of Science and
Technology research engineers.
The team, sponsored by the
United States Geological Survey, is
making regular mapping flights,
day and night, over the volcano to
detect, with a special infrared in-
strument, sub-surface heat differ-
The research is part of an in-
tensive program to learn more
about the composition and struc-
ture of the earth.
Because the volcano, which ser-
iously erupted two years ago, re-
cently showed signs of increased
activity, the Survey asked for in-
frared measurements to determine
The United States Army provid-
ed the infrared measuring equip-
ment which are collected from air-
plane. flights 1500 to 10,000 feet
above the volcano.
Marvin R. Holter, IST research
engineer and principal investiga-
tor of the project, noted, "this vol-
cano study is just one of the pos-
sible application of these relatively
new sensing devices to problems
in the earth sciences, and I expect
that this study, and others that
may be started in the future will
yield new and valuable informa-
The legendary home of the fire
goddess "Pele," the volcano has a
long history of volcanic eruptions,
and has been particularly active
in recent years.
The most spectacular eruption
occurred in 1959-60 when hun-
dreds of millions of cubic yards of
lava poured from the summit and
deep fractures-called "rift zones"
-on the flanks of the volcano.
These rift zones, which radiate
southwest and east from the vol-
cano's crest, are of particular in-
terest to the study.
ISR To Develop
PHS Questionnaire
The Institute for Social Re-
search is developing interview and
self-administered questionnaires
for the United States Public
Health Service under a $6,364
Prof. Charles F. Cannell of the
Survey Research Center is direct-
ing the project. Questionnaires will
be used to obtain mothers' re-
ports of their children's medical
and developmental history and be-
havioral symptoms.

The Supreme Court should spell
out applicable standards of legis-
lative apportionment during its
current term, ?rof. Jerrold Israel
of the Law School contends.
Lower courts, without guidelines
for determining what is and what
is not valid apportionment, are
entangled in conflicting legal
theories and, especially in Michi-
gan, are embroiled in political
wrangles, he charges.
Writing in the current issue of
the Michigan Law Review, Prof.
Israel calls on the Supreme Court
to set these standards during its
current term.
Return to Law
"Hopefully," he writes, "when
the dust settles and the court has
spelled out the applicable stand-
ards, the restrictions of precedent
will force injudicious judges to re-
turn to the law and will spur leg-
islatures to appropriate action to
eliminate arbitrariness in legisla-
tive apportionments."
In an article entitled "On Chart-
ing a Course through the Mathe-
matical Quagmire: The Future of
Baker vs. Carr," Prof. Israel dis-
sects the Supreme Court findings
in this much-publicized case in-
volving reapportionment in Ten-
A key fact, he points out, is that
in Baker v. Carr the Supreme
Court did not rule on the consti-
tutionality of the Tennessee ap-
portionment, but only ruled that
a lower court could decide the
Equal Protection
The Supreme Court based this
decision only on the 14th Amend-
ment guarantee of equal protec-
tion, Prof. Israel continues, and
refrained from any interpretation
of Article IV, Section Four of the
Constitution. The latter he ex-
plains, provides that each state
shall be guaranteed a "republican
form of government."
Prof. Israel points out that the
high court has consistently refus-
ed to define whether this means
"one-man-one-vote" government,
or something else.
Without any standards or prece-
dents on the Supreme Court level,
Prof. Israel makes the point that
lower courts have adopted two al-
ternative theories on what does
determine fair apportionment.
Election Ideal
First, some courts demand the
ideal of "one-man-one-vote" and
allow only election districts that
are numerically equal.
Alternatively, other courts de-
mand numerical equality as far as
possible but recognize that other
factors enter into a definition of
fair apportionment.
The limits of possibility and ad-
ministrative practicality vary from
ratios of two-to-one to four-to-one
(or even more) between election
districts, a condition which former
Justice Felix Frankfurter has dub-
bed "the mathematical quagmire.",
Especially is this true in Michi-
gan, Prof. Israel points out, be-
cause of state laws that prohibit
election districts from crossing
county boundaries.
Lower Courts
Prof. Israel suggests that neither
alternatives advanced by lower
courts thus far is the answer. As
long as it limits itself to the guar-
antee of equal protection afforded
by thea14th Amendment rather
than that of a republican form of
government, he maintains that the
Supreme Court should accept any
apportionment plan which has be-
hind it a formulated program or
We of
welcome you to use
the facilities of our

policy. It does not matter, he says,
whether this is based on strict
numerical equality or other fac-
tors, just as long as it is a form-
ulated policy.
Prof. Israel notes that in some
states, where judges are elected,
the public has been subjected to
th2 spectacle of political maneuv-
ering on the bench.
With no gidelines available,
state Judges find that "almost any
decision they make will be sub ject-

ed to charges of political partisan-
ship . . . The unfortunate result
may be direct judicial entry into
the arena of political debate, as
was tae case in Scholle vs. Hare."
"There the various opinions
were sprinkled with injudicious
comments directed at political op-
ponents, including a scarcely-veil-
ed warning that the majority
opinion might go by the wayside
if the 'wrong' Judges were chosen
in the upcoming election."

Joiner Advocates Controls
For Specialization in Law

MARQUETTE-People are free
insofar as they possess the tools
of learning and the techniques of
action, Prof. Algo D. Henderson,
director of the Center for the Study
of Higher Education, said recently,
"People are free when they
know how to acquire the knowl-
edge needed for the courses of ac-
tion they are undertaking at the
moment," Prof. Henderson said at
a commencement speech at North-
ern Michigan College.
"Persons are not free who are
handicapped with unnecessary
psychological inhibitions, who are
victims of preventable communi-
cable diseases, who harbor irra-
tional prejudices against men of
differing views or other cultures

or other races, or who practice
religious bigotry.
"They become free as they learn
how to organize into social groups,
to secure, on a basis of equality of
opportunity for all men," he said.
"Achievement such as this bring
about liberation. Men have become
free in proportion to their attain-
ment of goals. Education is liber-
ating when it aids in this process.
"At first glance, it might seem
that all of education is liberating.
But is it? The Nazi method of
fomenting racial antagonisms is
not liberating; nor are the nation-
alistic distortions of the facts of
history; nor is the teaching of eco-
nomics as a dogma instead of a
vast science," he added.

KANSAS CITY-The time has
come for the American bar to pro-
vide machinery to control speciali-
zation, Prof. Charles W. Joiner,
associate dean of the Law School,
told the Lawyers Association of
Kansas City recently.
"We prevent it from developing
without guidance and to encour-
age additional competence through
an additional device of certifica-
tion based on experience and edu-
Such practice limitation, he said,
would make the practice of law
better for both public and lawyer.
For the public it would bring
"more competence to the decision
of any problem presented by a
client at a lesser cost because of
the fact, that the lawyer dealing
with the problem is more capable
of solving it without undue ex-
penditure of time."
Minimum Standards
Prof. Joiner was endorsing a
1954 resolution of the house of
delegates of the American Bar As-
sociation which "approved the nec-
essity of regulating specialization
and approved the principle that in
such regulation those entitled to
recognition as specialists should
meet minimum standards of ex-
perience and education."
The bar, he said, should profit
from the experience of the medical'
profession. "The failure for 20
years on the part of the American

Medical Association to do anything
about specialization (to control it)
has resulted in the development
of a type of organization that has
failed to provide guidance to med-
ical specialization causing many of
the problems that might have been
Under the 1954 resolution of the
ABA, Prof. Joiner said, there is no
intent to limit the scope and
breadth of practice of any lawyer.
It would be a voluntary plan and
would not limit certification to one
field only.
Several Fields
"It is aimed at increasing qual-
ity of practice broadly in several
fields pormitting a lawyer to par-
ticipate in more than one field if
he desires."
Prof. Joiner explained how the
machinery proposed by the 1954
ABA resolution would work.
For example, "the labor law sec-
tion would propose to the council
on certification that labor law, as
it is defined in the proposal, should
be a field for certification.
"The section would study what,
if any, additional educational stud-
ies would be required for such a
certificate. What, if any, experi-
ence would be required for such a
certificate, and what, if any, show-
ing of any special competence
would be required for such a cer-

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The secopd gravest problem confronting college students tor
day is inferiority feelings. (The first gravest problem is of
course, the recent outbreak of moult among sorority house
canaries.) Let us today look into the causes of inferiority
feelings and their possible cures.
Psychologists divide inferiority feelings into three principal
1. Physical inferiority.
2. Mental inferiority.
3. Financial inferiority.
(A few say there is also a fourth category: ichthyological
inferiority-a feeling that other people have prettier fish-
but I believe this is common only along the coasts and in the
Great Lakes area.)
Let us start with the feeling of physical inferiority, perhaps
the easiest to understand. Naturally we are inclined to feel
inferior to the brawny football captain or the beautiful home-
coming queen. But we should not. Look at all the people,
neither brawny nor beautiful, who have made their marks in
the world. Look at Napoleon. Look at Socrates. Look at
Caesar. Look at Lassie. ..

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What I mean is that you can't always tell what's inside a
package by looking at the outside. (Sometimes, of ourse, you
can. Take Marlboro Cigarettes, for example. Just one glance
at that jolly red-and-white package-so bright and pert -so
neat but not gaudy -Iso perfectly in place whether you are at
a formal dinner or a beach picnic-so invariably correct for
any time, clime, or condition-one look, I say, at this paragon
of packs and you know it has to contain cigarettes of absolute
perfection. And you are right! That pure white Marlboro
filter, that fine, flavorful blend of Marlboro tobaccos, will
give you a smoke to make the welkin ring, whatever that is.
So those of you who have just been sitting and admiring your
Marlboro packs since the beginning of the semester, why don't
you open a pack and light one? Light a cigarette, I mean-
not the package. Then you can settle back and smoke your
Marlboro and, at the same time, continue to gaze rapturously
at the pack. Thus you will be twice as happy as you are if
that is possible.)
But I digress. Let us turn now to the second category-
mental inferiority. A lot of people think they are dumber than
other people. This is not so. It must be remembered that there
are different kinds of intelligence. Take, for instance, the clas.
sic case of the Sigafoos brothers, Claude and Sturbridge, stu-
dents at Wake Forest. It was always assumed that Claude was
the more intelligent just because he -knew, more than Stur-
bridge about the arts, the sciences, the social sciences, the hu-
manities, and like that. Sturbridge, on the other hand, was ten
times smarter than Claude when it came to tying granny knots.
But no matter; everybody looked down on "Stupid Sturbridge,"
as they called him and looked up at "Clever Claude," as they
called him. But who do you think turned out to be the smart
one when their granny almost got loose and ran away? You
guessed it-good old Stupid Sturbridge.
We arrive now at the final category, financial inferiority.
One way to deal with this condition is to increase your income.
You can.. for examnle. become a fence. Or you can pose for a

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