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January 12, 1962 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1962-01-12

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Seventy-Second Year
"Where Opinions Are Free STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. s Phone NO 2-3241
Truth Will Prevail"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual oPinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted is all reprints.

India's Action in Goa:
Misjudged Philosophy

University-Police Axis
Limits Student Rights

THE UNIVERSITY is in collusion with the
Ann Arbor police and courts. They make
mutual use of records, and have split between
them the power to enforce law and University
regulations. But the University has misused
this division of responsibilities..
While some quasi-police and judicial powers
are necessary to enforce University regulations
and protect University property, these should
not be used to circumvent the civil rights
of students. Nor should they provide the Uni-
versity with an easy out to hush up scandals
and violate established processes of law.'
Foremost among these abusive practices is
double jeapordy. This takes two forms. Homo-
sexuals convicted by the courts are often asked
to leave the University in addition to civil
penalty. This is done administratively without
any pretence of "due process." Other offenses,
notably sexual ones, can draw similar actions
from both civil courts and the University.
rP E SECOND FORM is more subtle. The
University, will sometimes use its influence
to have a serious civil charge reduced in
court to a less serious offense; afterwards, the
individual usually faces Joint Judic and ex-
pulsion. In a recent case, a charge which
might have been arson was changed to mali-
cious destruction of property, a misdemeanor.
Probably, although there is no way of knowing
for certain, the offender was later brought
before Joint Judic.
Charges are reduced to avoid bad publicity
-to keep the public, Legislature and alumni
from thinking that the University is a breed-
ing ground for crime. By switching some ser-
ious crimes to Joint Judic the University is
able to expel a student privately for "conduct
unbecoming a student" without anyone ever
knowing the real reason. It is much more con-
venient than a public trial.
The University also uses the privacy of a
Joint Judic hearing to obtain convictions which
would be impossible in a court of law. The
scope of police action is greatly broadened by
the knowledge that, if they break in without
a warrant or lack conclusive evidence, the
University will handle the disciplinary action
without.: a great deal of regard for legal
"details." The University has even created a
Joint Judic whose characterization as a "coun-
selling" rather than judiciary group nicely
excludes the need for due process. Thus in-
dividual civil rights have been reduced by the
University's informal idea of justice.
A THIRD, and equally obnoxious practice, is
University use of police records as a source

of knowledge regarding the purely personal
conduct of students. The police report to the
administration every contact they have, with
students. If the University knows, for example,
that a student is undergoing psychiatric treat-
ment, the University will very likely report
to his therapist any police difficulties the
student encounters.
While this may seem justifiable for humani-
tarian reasons, it shows the administration's
inability to draw any sort of a barrier between
the student's personal and academic careers.
Certainly counselling and psychiatric help
should be available; but the University should
avoid using records-which are not open to
the public and which are really not the Uni-
versity's concern.
Furthermore, the possibilities for abuse are
numerous. By convincing the police to change
their system of records slightly, the adminis-
tration could obtain information on students
who are violating purely University regulations.
For example, if a record were kept of the
names of women who are passenger in cars
stopped for traffic violations, the number
of violations of the sign-out system would
vastly increase. Through such records, an un-
precedented level of control over the student
body could be reached.
CERTAINLY some ties are needed between
the police, the courts and the University.
But public crimes occurring on campus should
be handied by civil courts. The University
needs judicial and police powers; but these
should not deteriorate into using the police
as a spy system, making a mockery of courts
and the Constitution by gentlemen's agree-
-ments and, as an end result, destroying student
STUDENTS HAVE OFTEN complained about
arbitrary police procedures in the city. But
these-whatever their extent-will not cease
until the University stops tacitly condoning
them. The law enforcement agencies of Ann
Arbor have a broad scope of action with stu-
dents because the University wants it.
Students must bear the consequences of their
own crime just as any citizen; they must be
granted the rights of any citizen; but as
long as the University is so ridiculously intent
on shielding the University's "image" by in-
terfering in proper proceedings, students will
find themselves without proper rights or re-

To the Editor:
ALL OF US in the hair trigger
nuclear age have reasons to
be uneasy and to be seriously dis-
turbed when armies move and
the peace is broken, as in the
recent case of India's absorption
of Goa. At the same time, we
should recognize that three major
forces in world affairs-commun-
ism, anti-communism, and anti-
colonialism-aim at altering the
status quo.
When the organs of the United
Nations prove ineffective to pro-
duce the changes demanded by
one party or the other, when bi-
lateral negotiations founder, or
when two or more of the three
forces come into conflict over
given issues, "reasons of state"
propel governments to move on
their own, and in their own in-
terests, when power seems to be
on their side.
In such circumstances, each
government itself decides what is
right. I need not cite other cases
to underline these conclusions.
Many in the United States under-
stand the justification of change
when the communist issue is direc-
tly involved. But, since anti-
colonial actions usually complicate
the power struggle with commim-
ism, too many of us forget that
communism - anti-communism is
not the only issue before us.
.* * *
THE "OVERTIME" editorial,
and Mr. James Nichols' column in
the January 6, 1962, issue of The
Daily compound error with error.
Concerning the conclusions of
these writers, I do not enter a
controversy. They are entitled to
their feelings of dismay and alarm.
But "Overtime" misunderstands
the concept of satyagraha ("non-
violent resistance," as Gandhi
sometimes put it). Non-violeit
resistance is a personal philosophy
of conciliation, broadened to a
national policy by Gandhi, that
honors the goodwill of one's ad-
versary, while insisting that Ahe
parties differing move reacefully
towards the solution of an issue
based upon that which is right.
Compromise, according to Gan-
dhi, is basically an "untruthful"
solution, and thus will not do.
What is right must prevail II
peaceful methods of resitance
(satyagraha) against a w-o0-g do
not achieve the goals of right, and
if the exponents of "right" have
been scrupulous in honoring their
peaceful means in pursuing the
controversy, then force may in
rare cases be necessary. Cowardice
exhibited in the face of a wrong,
according to Gandhi, is far worse
then exercising violence.
India's achievementcof inde-
pendence in 1947 undoubtedly
was characterized oy the eifective-
ness of satyagraha, to a remark-
able degree non-violent. India's
reasoning on the Goa case in all
probability flowed along tne =same
lines. In the Goa case, after four-
teen years of fruitless but peace-
ful negotiation with an adamant

adversary, it was concluded that
"right" could prevail only if the
emergency step of force was ex-
ercised. One may agree or disagree
with the reasoning; and with the
meaning of "right." But I believe
that the logic of the Indian case
should be appreciated correctly.
* * *
assessing the Goa case is a mis-
understanding of India's foreign
policy. The search for peace and
the insistence upon non-violent
methods expressed often by Prime
Minister Nehru undoubtedly were
(and are) basic tenets of that
policy. But the national self-
interest of India, at home and on
its borders, naturally take first
priority over any global strategy.
In the consolidation of India's
territories after partition in 1947,
more particularly in the absorp-
tion of the princely states, in the
Kashmir case, in the border dis-
putes with Pakistan, in the "buf-
fering' of the northern boundar-
ies, India's policy has been quite
as "realistic" as any other coun-
try's. In the Goa instance, a good
portion of the Indian Army has
been held in the Southern Com-
mand to give effect to a boycott-
blockade of Portuguese India.
In terms of timing, nationalist,
leaders from African Portuguese
territories expected India to take
an early lead in Goa that might
make it easier for the Africans
to move in Angola and elsewhere.
Within India, most spokesmen of
the several political parties in
opposition have castigated the
Congress Party's leadership for
not "liberating Goa," and a' Gen-
eral Election looms in 1962. Most
important, it is clear that the real
danger for India lies in the north
with the Chinese Communists who
threaten this spring to take more
of the 52,000 square miles of
India-claimed territory beyond the
12,000 already under Chinese oc-
cupation. To meet all of these de-
mands, India moved on Goa,
among other things thus releas-
ing most of the Southern Com-
mand for northern duty.
every country necessarily, in a
world of conflict and change, in-
volve contradictions. It is palpably
unfair to call Mr. Nehru a "hy-
pocrite" because he, like all his
international colleagues directing
the high affairs of state, is en-
meshed in such a contradiction.
The fact that Mr. Nehru has
lectured us all on the necessity
for non-violent] resistance of
course leaves a nice opening for
parries and thrusts to pin him to
the "realistic" wall. I think we
should resist such easy entries, and
think more about the means that
can be found to effect necessary
changes in the world community
without triggering the horrors of
World War III.. Solutions which
are based on the maintenance of
the status quo will not do.
-Prof. Richard L. Park

Cold War Demands Freer Trade

Blockage Ahead?

THE NEW BUSINESS which is before Con-
gress in 1962 arises from the great change
which has taken place in our economic posi-
tion during the past ten or twelve years. This
economic change was preceded by the change
in our military position after our nuclear
monopoly disappeared, and the cold war be-
came a confrontation of substantially equal
nuclear powers. Now, we have to deal with the
melting down of the economic supremacy in
the non-Communist world which came to us
during the two World Wars.
The President's main problem in leadership
is how to get popular and Congressional sup-
port in adjusting policies and finding measures
to meet these historic and fundamental
changes. It may be said, I think, that Gen.
Eisenhower was the last of the war and post-
war Presidents. President Kennedy is the first
who belongs to the era that comes after the
post-war period. He must deal with an adver-
sary of equal military strength and with part-
ners Who are of equal economic strength.
HIS IS an entirely new experience for this
country. We knew a hundred years of
isolation from the wars of the outer, world.
Since then we have known about forty years
in which we nobilized the power to win total
victories and impose unconditional surrender
on our enemies. First, in our isolation and
then in victory, we have not had to face the
human problem of learning to live in a world
where our own will is not the only law. The
moral fallout from this new and disconcerting
experience is what irradiates the radical right.
THE CENTRAL THEME of the Administra-
tion problem in this Congress is bound to
derive from our new economic situation in
the non-Communist world: from the rise of
Western Europe and the necessity of establish-
ing a working partnership with it.
To do this the President will ask for author-
ity to reduce trade barriers drastically. But it
would be a mistake to think that what the
country will be engaged in is merely an exer-
cise in reciprocal tariff bargaining. The part-
nership will have to be much broader than

is already under way cooperation, or at least
official cooperative study, in the field of global
commodity agreements, of monetary stability,
and of cooperative assistance to underdevelop-
ed countries. This varied cooperation is not
merely desirable. It has become indispensible.
Thus, it is now evident that the chief world
agricultural commodities, such as wheat, sugar,
and coffee, cannot be handled successfully by
separate national programs. Because they are
world commodities they can be protected
against anarchy and perpetual crisis only if
there are world programs.
IT IS EVIDENT also that in monetary affairs,
it is no longer feasible for the United
States single-handed to provide the monetary
reserves for the non-Communist world. Thus
in 1949 the' gold stock of the United States
exceeded the short-term claims of foreign
countries by more than $18 billion. By 1960
the foreign short-term claims had risen to $19
billion while our gold stock had declined to
$18 billion. This does not mean, of course, that
we are insolvent, for our long-term invest-
ments abroad are enormous. The situation,
however, is not a comfortable one because it
is vulnerable to speculation and to frightened
For the other world currency, sterling, the
foreign short-term claims greatly exceed the
gold reserve. On the other hand, in Western
Europe, there has been an accumulation of
gold reserves, which now greatly exceed the
short-term foreign claims on European cur-
rencies. All these disparities and discrepancies
demand cooperation, indeed a working part-
nership, across the North Atlantic. In embryo,
at least, the partnership already exists' and
is working successfully.
IT IS NO LESS necessary for Western Europe
and North America to come to agreements
through which they will share the burden of
financing the underdeveloped countries. The
United States no longer has the great surplus
of monetary gold which enabled it to finance
the Marshall Plan and its successors.
No doubt, we can carry, or even increase
our present assistance if we can earn more

(EDITOR'S NOTE-This is the last
article in a three-part series on
United States trade policy.)
Daily Staff Writer
T HERE IS an increasing fear
among developing areas such
as Japan and Latin America, that
the reciprocal tariff agreements
between the United States and
the, Common Market nations will
eventually leave them out of the
trading picture entirely.
If these countries cannot turn
to. the U.S. and Western Europe
for continued and increased trade,
their only alternative will be to
turn toward the Communist bloc
The United States trade pattern
falls roughly into three categor-
ies: trade with the industrialized
countries of the Atlantic commu-
nities, trade with the developing
countries, and trade with the Com
munist-bloc countries.
* * *
the United States owes no obli-
gations. To the industrially emerg-
ing nations she does. The lucrative
results of the reciprocal lowering
of tariffs with the Common Mar-
ket countries must not overshad-
ow the situation of the develop-
ing countries. We are in danger
of harming ourselves both poli-
tically and economically if we de-
sert these nations.
"Whatever we gain from bar-
gaining in Europe must also be
available to Japan and Latin
America," President Kennedy has
The carrying out of this state-
ment is of extreme importance. At
present many of the underdevel-
oped countries are uncertain of
their position in the new trading
world, and it is our responsibil-
ity to clarify this position in a
positive and constructive manner.
* * *
ALTHOUGH no two countries
are exactly the same in this eco-
nomic situation, it would be mean-
ingless to try and pretend they
Latin American trada relations
with the U.S. can be regarded as
typical of our trade relations with
Asia and Africa as well:
In order to earn the money to
buy goods, the typical country in
Latin America depends upon the
sale of one or two products to
Western Europe and the United
States. Oil is synonymous with
Venezuela, coffee with Brazil, ba-
nanas with Panama, beef with Ar-
gentina, tin with Uruguay.
Since so much of Latin Amer-
ica's trade is with the United
States, our trade policy is of over-
riding importance to this area. We
cut down the earning capacity of
these countries each time we re-
strict imports of petroleum, lead,
meat, or copper. The lack of di-
versification makes these 'coun-
tries dependent upon a strong
trading partner they can rely on.
. r s
IN AN EFFORT to combat their
lack of diversification, the Latin
American countries have estab-
lished two trade agreements bas-

that may occur in the next
months, or years.
The same opportunity for asso-
ciating with the economic pool
should be given to all countries in
the free world.
JAPAN OFFERS a situation of
a slightly different nature. As she
becomes more and more indus-
trialized, herrneed for a market
capable of handling her produc-
tion becomes acute. Many Euro-
pean nations discriminate against
her, unwilling to open their in-
dustry to the competition her low
prices would create.
Japan's need for a market is
reaching the point where she may
very soon be faced with the neces-
sity of aligning herself econom-
ically with Communist China. The
ties could all to easily become
more than just economic.
When France joined the Euro-
pean Economic Community, her
colonies in Africa received special
status. This is what Grea't Brit-
ain seeks for the Commonwealth
as a condition prior to her entry
into the ECC. Countries given spe-
cial associate status enjoy tariff
preference over other countries.
This would be a possible solu-
tion to the problem of the under-
developed countries. There are
those in Europe who favor this
sort of global community of free
nations over a tight defensive eco-
nomic block. This is the type of
free trade the United States should
* * *4
President Kennedy plans to reveal
for the first time his new trade
policy to Capitol Hill in its en-
tirety. The President needs bi-
partisan support to get his pro-
gram passed.
Legislative proposals for exten-
sion or revision of the Trade
Agreement Act are under the jur-
isdiction of the House Ways and

Means Committee, and the Senate
Finance Committee.
Two congressional subcommit-
tees have jumped the gun and held
their own hearings. Protectionist
Rep. John H. Dent (D-Pa), head
of a House subcommittee, held a
series of hearings with various in-
dustrialists, whose consensus was
that a lowered tariff would be
harmful to business.
Rep. Hale Boggs (D-La), a lib-
eral (in tariff considerations), and
head of another subcommittee, is-
sued a series of papers on trade
in November and subsequently or-
ganized two weeks of panel dis-
Events seem to indicate, as Prof.
George A. Peek of the political
science department has said, that
the upcoming fight will take place
primarily in the House.
* * :.
Peek points out, Wilbur Mills (D-
Ark), head of the House Com-
mittee, is up for re-election and,
since his state is also being re-
districted, he will not be able to
devote his full energy to the tar-
iff issue. The loss of Sam Ray-
burn's leadership will also help
free trade opponents in both par-
On the whole, Prof. Peek felt
the outlook for the Administra-
tion's new policy has hopeful. He
mentioned that a lowered tariff
was endorsed by a number of
leading statesmen and politicians,
among them Dean Rusk, Luther
Hodges, and Christian Herter.
Prof. Peek agrees with Herter in
believing the Common Market and
its relationship to the U.S. is part
of a much larger issue.
The United States and the cru-
cial issue of free trade are tied
closely to the politics of the Cold
War. And the question of success
in the Cold War is moving from
the realm of the military into the
realm of the economic.

U' Orchestra, Roller
Set Romantic Bill

TONIGHT, at 8:30 p.m. in Hill
Auditorium, the University
Symphony Orchestra will present
a concert with guest conductor A.
Clyde Roller.
Under his baton, the orchestra
will concentrate on romantic
works-Beethoven's Leonore Over-
ture II, Brahms' Symphony No. 2
and Tchaikovsky's Romeo and
Juliet. From this century comes
Ralph Vaughn Williams' Fantasia
on a Theme by Thomas Tallis.
* * *
THE Leonore Overture III de-
rives its title from the name of

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(Continued from Page 2)
ing less than 15 hours per week or
normally registering on Feb. 7 are eli-
gible for passes. Organizations should
submit lists of their requests to the
SGC secretary in the Student Activities
Bldg. by Jan. 24.
Applications for Fellowships and
Scholarships in the Graduate School
will be accepted through Thurs., Feb.
15. All credentials, including transcripts
and letters of recommendation, must
be in departmental offices by this time.
Late applications cannot be considered,
and the deadline will not be extended.
The Queen's University, Belfast, Ire-
land, again offers an exchange scholar-
ship for a University of Michigan grad-
uate. The scholarship will provide fees,
board and lodging for the academic year
1962-63. A married student receives 170
pounds in lieu of board and lodging. A
grant of $400 will be made by the
Graduate School to partially defray the
cost of travel if an application for a
Fulbright Travel Grant is unsuccessful.
Study may be carried on in any of the
academic disciplines offered at The
Queen's University. Further information
and application forms are available at
the Fellowship Office, Room 110, Rack-

on Sat., Jan. 13, in Rackham Aud. Call
Mr. Warner at NO 8-8597 if interested.
Student Accounts: Your attention is
called to the following rules passed by
the Regents at their meeting on Feb.
28, 1936: "Students shall pay all ac-
counts due the University not later
than the last day of classes of each
semester or summer session. Student
loans which are not paid or renewed
are subject to this regulation; however,
student loans not yet due are exempt.
Any unpaid accounts at the close of
business on the lastday of classes will
be reported to the Cashier of the Uni-
versity and
"(a) All academic credits will be
withheld, the grades for the semester
or summer session just completed will
not be released, and no transcript of
credits will be issued.
"(b) All students owing such accounts
will not be allowed to register in any
subsequent semester or summer session
until payment has been made."
The following student sponsored so-
cial events are approved for the com-
ing weekend. Social chairmen are re-
minded that requests for approval for
social events are due in the Office of
Student Affairs not later than 12
o'clock noon on the Tuesday prior to
the event.
JAN. 12-

Approved: Minutes of the previous
Approved: "That Student Government
Council favorably review the appoint-
ments to Joint Judiciary Council of
the following: Gary Lee Hoffman,
Michael A. Bloom, John Rickel, Malcolm
A. Gleser.
Appointed: Steve Gainer to the Com-
mittee on Student Concerns, term to
expire September 30, 1962.
Approved: "The agenda of each reg-
ular session shall be constituted of
the following items-in the specified
Call to order--4:15 p.m.
Approval of agenda.
Minutes of previous meeting.
Reports of standing committees.
Reports of ad hoe committees and
related boards.
Officer reports.
Old Business.
New Business.
Members' Time.
During the meeting there shall be
two automatic recess periods: 1) at 5:45
p.m. (duration 1 hour and 45 minutes);
2) at 9 p.m. (duration 10 minutes).
Each of the automatic recess per-
iods shall be preceded by constituents'
time which shall last no longer than
thirty minutes, during which no con-

the heroine in Beethoven's only
opera, Fidelio. Originally Leonore
III served as the overture to the
opera, but Beethoven was later
dissatisfied with each of the
Leonore Overtures and composedF
a fourth which is now called
It is believed that Beethoven
chose to set aside Leonore III be-
cause it was too overwhelming and
weighty in proportion to the fol-
lowing opera. However, the over-
ture, which contains several
themes from Fidelio, was recog-
nized for its great symphonic sig-
nificance and power and rein-
stated as part of the opera in the
late 19th century.
FOLLOWING the overture will
be Brahms' second symphony,
which was also performed by the
Cleveland Orchestra earlier this
A performance of Vaughn-Wil-
liams' Fantasia on a Theme by
Thomas Tallis will feature as
solists the members of the Stanley
The Fantasia, one of the com-
poser's first significant works, is
based on a tune from a psalter
written by a 16th Century Eng-
lish composer.
Conclu'ing the program will be
Tchaikovsky's popular symphom
poem, Romeo and Jn':t.
* * *
to Ann Arbor a distiiguisned
background of experienas with
both amateur and professional
orchestras. Early in his career he
was director of the wartime G
He presently conducts the Uni-
versity Division Orchestra at In-
terlochen during the summer, and
is director of the Amarillo (Texas)

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