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January 09, 1962 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1962-01-09

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r Seventy-Second Year
'here Opinions Are Free STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Truth Will Prevail"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

Industry Helps Support Colleges

1SDAY, JANUARY 9, 1962


SGC Attitudes on Students:
Threat to Democratic Society

ATTITUDE of some SGC members at
last Wednesday's Council meeting revealed
one of the greatest internal threats to the
freedom of this country.
The Council members were discussing mat-
ters of student rights and student responsibili-
ties. But their attitudes are more general-
they are attitudes towards democracy- and
social responsibility.
JOHN VOS' ATTITUDE was typical. He noted
that it had been implied before that Uni-'
versity students here are in a shell and
do not have a chance to develop their de-
cision-making power in any way during their
stay here. He countered this by pointing out
that students consistenly make value decisions.
Some examples he offered were the choice
as to whether a person should study or sleep,
selection of courses, going to the movies on
week-ends and other such profound matters.
SGC Executive Vice-President John Martin
took a similar view, saying that he did not
think the situation was as black at it had
been made out to be. He said that he would
rather see the deans in a flexible position
without imposed restrictions. He expressed con-
fidence in the deans' office and did not feel
that a student bill of rights was needed.
A third member of the Council, Inter-
fraternity President Robert Peterson declared
that he did not feel and never had felt that
his rights had been impinged upon while at
the University, and he felt he was fully
responsible for his actions and, Vthin reason-
able "limits, free to do what he wanted.
HIS ATTITUDE on the part of students is
extremely disturbing. The fact that they are
student leaders makes it even more so. It
reveals a basic apathy and complacency to-
wards government and democracy; which ex-
tends into our society and threatens the con-
tinuation of free institutions in this country.
Most of the people in the United States
give at least lip service to the tenet that
the governed have the right to set the rules
under which they live. In order to insure
that no government could take this democratic
right away from the people the Bill of Rights,
which defined areas of individual and social
concern which no government could set re-
strictions against, was added to the Consti-
Knowing human nature the writers of the
FI0l of Rights could imagine that a time might
come when a government might try to re-
strict these rights if they were not predicted
and history has proven them right. As Admin-
istratvie Vice-President Robert Ross pointed
out, the unrestricted right to travel was not
'included in the Bill of Rights and now re-
strictions are placed on it.,
P ETERSON. VOS and Martin all exhibit the
same distressing symptoms-a pre-occupa-
tion with self and an apathetic satisfaction
with the status quo. From their statements it
appears that they have no notion of what
giving t;e governed the right to set the
rules under which they live really means.
They are able' to make simple personal
decisions of the bed, board and bottle type,
and as long as they are permitted to do this
they are satisfied. It is merely sufferance-
there are some very personal decisions which
they are not allowed to make, such as what
time to end a date and where to live fresh-
man year. Just as these rights have been
infringed upon so can the rights they are now
allowed to hold.

And yet these personal decisions, important
as they are, are secondary to the basic demo-
cratic rights of freedom of speech, religion,
movement, assembly, publication and the
others in the Bill of Rights. Only when these
basic rights are operating and guaranteed can
a serious persons personal rights to make
his own decisions operate and be guaranteed.
One of the basic tenets that a, university
should be based upon is the unrestricted right
to access of information. This will determine
a whole range of decisions on how to study.
We do not have this basic right on this cam-
pus, thanks to the infamous speaker ban. It
is possible that some day in the future an
administrator might decide to abridge this
right even further by deciding that seeing a
certain movie would be the same as hearing
a banned speaker, and the student's personal
rgiht to choose what movie to go to would
be limited. Because the clause on "no re-
strictions of the student's freedom of move-
ment" in the Glick-Roberts motion failed the
students will be forced to accept these restric-
-As an American citizen and a member of a
university community within the United States,
the student is entitled to certain basic rights.
But just as important as these rights is the
knowledge that they are inviolate, the know-
ledge that a law exists saying that these
rights cannot be restricted. For students, who
do not enjoy such knowledge, to say that we
don't have to insure our rights in the future
because we have them now displays. an appal-
ling ignorance of the true nature of democracy.
AT THE SAME MEETING the objection was
raised that students are unprepared for
new decision making power and that con-
sequently they would use it unwisely. In other
words students are not taught responibility
and, democracy at home so the University
should not attempt to teach them. Instead,
they should go out into the world where they
are suddenly expected to act like responsibile
democrats even though they never have be-
fore. The fact is they cannot, and without a
responsible public, democracy can easily be-
come increasingly authoritarian.
It is the University's job to insure that the
people it sends out into society are responsible
people dedicated to the idea of democracy.
If parents have not instilled this responsibility
and dedication into the student the University
must provide the opportunity to learn it. Since
this cannot be taught in a classroom the only
way it can be instilled is-through experience
One can say that the only people who would
get this experience would be the people on
SGC, but this is not necessarily so. If SGC
were made more important and more relevan't
to the students there is a good possibility that
the student body would be more concerned
with the Council.
THERE SHOULD BE no need for a student
bill of rights because as American citizens
students should be entitled to the rights grant-
ed, all citizens in the Constitution. Unfor-
tunately the constitution's jurisdiction seems to
end at the boundaries of the University cam-
Students do not have rights as American
citizens, they are allowed conditional rights
as students; rights that can be taken away
by the administration and regents. Students
should have rights that other, Americans have
and they should be guaranteed rights. An un-
democratic enviroment does not produce demo-

Daily Staff Writer
SATISFY their growing
thirst for'funds, both public and
private colleges and universities
are turning more and more to
business and industry for support.
There is considerable rivalry in
higher education's scramble for
support. At odds in the competi-
tion are, groups of institutions-
large against small, public against
private. While painfully aware of
its own financial squeeze, however,
every college and university rec-
ognizes the similar and sometimes
worse situations of the others.
Rising costs mean private
schools, both large and small, can
no longer depend completely on
the large private fortunes with
which many of them were founded
and supported. Even increases in
the already high tuitions of the
private universities will not sustain
the research and public service
with which all universities are be-
coming more concerned.
The traditional support of the
public university is also proving
inadequate to its needs. Deeper
involvement in graduate programs,
research and public service has,
in Michigan particularly, become
too much for the Legislature.
In its traditional role of pro-
viding undergraduate education
for all qualified students, the uni-

versity is feeling great pressure.
Almost 60 per cent of the nation's
college students attend public in-
stitutions, and this figure in-
creases slowly each year.
* * *
up many colleges and universities
which need money even to main-
tain quality, the state has more
trouble supporting higher educa-
tion than most states, and this
hurts the University. A large part
of the, statge's problem is its ab-
normal dependence on public edu-
cation. This is seen in three areas,
In such states as Indiana, Illi-
nois, Ohio and Pennsylvania,
three-fourths or more of the in-
stitutions are privately controlled
or supported; in Michigan about
half are private, and there is only
one large private university, the
University of Detroit.;
Enrollment figures tell a simi-
lar story: with 58 per cent of the
nation's students at public col-
leges, 80 per cent of Michigan's
students attend public institutions.
In net investment, Indiana's pri-
vate institutions account for 36
per cent of the support of all the
state's higher education; in New
Jersey it's 85 per cent; the 'na-
tional average is 44 per cent. In
Michigan private colleges accuunt
for 14 per cent.
* * *S

Turmoil in Brazil:
Politics and Hunger

Daily Staff Writer,
"BE CALM, Brazil is ours," is a
favorite Brazilian saying. It
clearly expresses the people's am-
bition-'some shade and fresh-
water" are all that is wanted in
Up till now this may have work-
ed in Brazil, but today the com-
mon worker is faced with a prob-
lem: hunger. Food prices have
soared while wages have stayed at
their normal minimum-approx-
imately $25 a month for five days
work weekly.
Until four months ago, the people
could bask in the hot sun on Rio
de Janeiro's many beaches and
confidently talk about all the
changes "their Janio" would do--
Janio and his little broom' would
sweep the nation clean. If not
today, then tomorrow-but Janio
would do it.-
SUDDENLY the people were left
without their prophet. Janio
Quadros resigned, whispers ab it
his eventual return as dictator
were heard, but now even those
have died. People must content
themselves with the Labor Party
boss "Jango ' Goulart as president
and his friend, businessman Tan-
credo Neves, as Prime Minister.
The Brazilians are confused.
Who has the most power? Neves
promises one thing; Goulart an-
other. The parliamentarianisnm is
not working. According to the re-
vised constitution, Goulart will be
president until January 31, 1966.
There is no Vice-President. The
President may choose the Prime
Minister, but all of the acts of
the President must be signed by;
the Prime Minister in order to
be valid.
SUPPOSEDLY, in March there
will be a plebiscite to determine
whether or not the people will
continue with the parliamentary
system or whether they will want
to revert to presidential govern-
ment. But Article XXV of the re-
vised constitution, scheduled the
plebiscite for nine months before
the end of the actual presidential
term, that would be in 1965.
* * *
the country will soon come to a
boiling point. Brazil has a bud-
get deficit of $600 million for 1961.
The cruzeiro has greatly depre-
ciated. There are now 400 crui-

zeiros to the dollar; four months
ago there were 250 cruzeiros to the
dollar. A general inflation is ter-
rorizing the- country. The poor
people cannot eat even if they
Not only is the economy falling
but the government is also in a
state of political turmoil. Neves is
the one to establish relations with
foreign countries and to orient
the foreign policy of Brazil. This
he has done. Diplomatic relations
with Russia have been restored.
There is great controversy over
whether or not this is a good
thing for Brazil.
The United States was so wor-
ried about this that our Ambas-
sador Gordon was called to Wash-
ington to discuss this matter. Con-
trary to American opinion, this
does not mean Brazil is turning
Communist. The United States
tends to over emphasize the
amount and power of Communists
in Brazil. The fact that Brazilians
are no longer reverently bowing
to the U.S. aid and politics does
not mean that they are under the
Russian thumb.-
A GREAT SURGE of national-
ism sprang from the building of
-Brazilia, the new capital, which
reached its peak in the faith put
into Janio's independent policies.
With this Brazil is trying to assert
herself as a country that can stand
on its own two feet. Brazilians no
longer want to imitate, they want
to lead. Brazil, "country of the
future," is a very popular saying.
Vast rich resources still lie under-
ground, unexplored and unused.
But above the ground, the om-
nipresent fear that the poor will
come down from their "favelas"
or wooden shanties on the hills
surrounding Rio de Janeiro and
San Paulo, is turning into a real-
ity. Not even the "macumba" or
voodoo spiritual sessions held
weekly by the lower classes! will
satisfy their needs. No pin-pricking
of dolls made to look like Jango
or prayers on the beach will help
them now.
** *
WHAT WILL this new , year
bring to Brazil? No one really
knows, least of all the Brazilians3.
Nothing could be more satirical
now in this chaos than the beau-
tiful green Brazilian flag forever
unfurling and flying in the non-
existent winds of the hot tropical
summer, carrying the words "Or-
der and Progress."

financially-exhausted legislatures
and support from businessmen is
just as uncertain, but the trends
are promising for higher educa-
tion in general. Three important
questions to ask about industry's
aid to colleges and universities are:
1) Are business corporations un-
fair to public universities in their
aid programs?
2) Is business giving as much as
it should and could?
3) Is business giving enough un-
restricted funds (money not ear-
marked for certain projects.)
Public colleges and universities,
while they have slightly more -2n-
rollment than private institutions,
receive only 25 per cent of the
corporate aid given to higher edu-.
cation. From this, some observers
infer that business is unfair to
public education.
* .'*
ones that heavily support educa-
tion in general, feel that their
state taxes sufficiently aid public
colleges. The United States Office
of Education reported that in 1957-
58 public colleges got 42.5 per
cent of their income from state
governments, which provided pri-
vate colleges with only 1.4 per
cent of their support. Each re-
ceived about 15 per cent from the
federal government.
Private institutions, however,
got three times as much from
tuition and fees, fourteen times as
much from endowment earnings,
and five times as much in private
gifts and grants.
gets as much from industry-com-
pared to what private universities
get-as a public school can ex-
pect. With such facilities as the
$1 million Phoenix reactor from
the Ford Motor Company and the
medical buildings from the Kresge
Foundation, as well as many ex-
pensive grants from other com-
panies for research, scholarships,
and fellowships, the University
does pretty well compared to many
public institutions.
Private gifts and grants to the
University (which are from sources
in addition to corporations)
totaled $14.75 million last year,
almost half of what Yale and Har-
vard each receive. This is about
1 /per cent of the University's in-
comie; all higher education, both
public and private, receives 17 per
cent of its support from private
gifts and grants.
ONE REASON for the Univer-
sity's success with industry might
be that business likes to give where
there's strong alumni support. In
addition to regular alumni con-
tributions, the University receives
about $1 million in bequests each
That the University's grants
from industry compare favorably
with those to other universities is
notcause for satisfaction, though.
More important than questioning
private education's share of cor-
porate aid is increasing business
support for all education.
Many businessmen have recently
become aware that they have ob-
ligations to higher education. The
Council for Financial Aid to Edu-
cation, Inc., a national organiza-
tion started by businesmen, has
set a goal for industry of $505
million to colleges and universities
in 1969-70. This would be 25 per
cent of the estimated total volun-
tary support for higher education,
instead of the 15.7 per cent ($150
million) supplied by business in
* * *
viding more support for colleges
and universities, a group of Cleve-
land businessmen last January be-
gan a new method for getting
corporate aid: Companies pledge
at least 1 per cent of their net

income to higher education.
Business Week magazine last
February reported that, although
21 Cleveland companies had signed
up and the idea was spreading to
other cities, many businessmen
questioned the plan. Major ob-
jections were that other charities,
such as the Red Cross and United
Fund, might need more help one
year, that a company might want

to re-invest most of its profits
after a good year, and the 1 per
cent minimum could easily be-
come a maximum for some com-
Nevertheless, the plan represents
the growing interest of business-
ment in higher education-an at-
titude also indicated by research
of the Council for Financial Aid
to Education.
Business support for education
(mainly higher education) rose
from 17 per cent of industry's total
contributions in 1950-51 to 28.4
per cent in 1959-60, but not at the
expense of other causes, the CFAE
reported. And between 1954-55 and
1958-59, support from business in-
creased 26.5 per cent each year,
a rate that the CFAE does not
think can be maintained, how-
DESPITE the hopeful patterns,
the present amount of corporate
aid to higher education is not very
high. considering the potential. A
corporation can deduct for char-
itable contributions up to five
per cent of its net income from
its taxable income. Since most
corporations pay a federal in-
come tax of 52 per cent of their
earnings, a gift of $100 costs the
company only $48 (the amount it
would have kept had it paid the
tax on the $100 instead.)
THE TREND over the last ten
years offers hope that the ga
between what companies do give
and what they can give to higher
education will soon narrow.
Unhappily, this pattern is not
matched by the snail-like trend
toward unrestricted funds from
business. While industry's total
gifts to higher education in 1958-
59 increased 70 per cent over
those of 1954-55, unrestricted gifts
increased only 17 per cent. At that
time they amounted to 22.9 per
cent of industry's total support.
Any contributions which are de-
signed by the. donor for a par-
ticular university project, fund, or
expense are restricted. Most un-
restricted gifts go to private uni-
versities. Almost all of the Uni-
versitiy's aid from corporations is
No matter how large, no con-
glomeration of separate gifts can
have the unity and consistency of
purpose and results that the sam
amount of unearmarked money
can. Many educators and some
donors believe that "one dollar
of unrestricted money does the
work of two dollars earmarked for
special projects," the Reader's Di-
gest recently observed.
* * *
DESPITE industry's increasing
generosity to higher education,
business is still business, with a
head kept hard by labor and gov-
ernment, as well as competition.
Most of what a university gets
from industry requires effective
salesmanship by persuasive ad-
ministrators and sympathetic, in-
fluential alumni.
Often the results are research,
scholarships and fellowships in an
area of interest and value to the
benevolent industry. Faculty, stu-
dents, and administrators welcome
these opportunities, of course, bie
education for its own sake suffers.
American industry, for all its
contributions to everything, in-
cluding education, does not have
altruism among its prominent vir-
tues. A company is interested in a
university mainly because it pro-
vides many of the company's
trained employees and future
executives and because it does re-
search in the company's field.
But if universities, especially
public institutions, are not to be-
come mere annexes to industry's
laboratories and training schools,
and if they're to maintain quality
undergraduate education, business
must start aiding colleges and uni-
versities as educational institu- -

This can-only be done when ad-
ministrators are able to use in-'
dustry's growing donations for
faculty salaries, curriculum im-
provement, general scholarships
and loans, buildings,, and what-
ever else they need to bridge the
minds of students and teachers.

5PARTACUS, in spite of a few
short-comings, is the only film
epic in the current rash of spec-
tacles that can be seriously con-
sidered motion picture art.
Dalton Trumbo's screenplay
from Howard Fat's novel (evi-
dencing the philosophynofehistory
for which he was once black-
listed) is excellent, avoiding the
over-peopled deus ex machina
plot-line (as in Ben-Hur) in order
to dissect the epic personalities of
Spartacus, Varinia Cassius and
a few Roman citizens and present
an honestly conceived ideal.
The uneven dialogue varies from
a terse brilliance in the political
maneuvers to a hackneyed re-
pulsiveness on the eve of the fatal
battle- Mommy, Mommy, when
are we going home?"
tion is inspired in its jolting use
of contrasts. Without a hesitation
he cts from a tender, slow love
scene to a terrifyingly fast-moving
gladitorial combat, from the rag-;
ged gray face of beaten Spartacus
to Varinia's dazzling white face,
from Spartacus' order for motion
to the marching Roman army.
The first forty minutes of the
film is among the finest film
footage created by Americans in
the last twenty years. The segment
is virtually without dialogue but
cinematically tells a delicate love
story, demonstrates the decadence
of Rome. and essays the tragedy
of slavedom in so many concrete
instances that the following two
hours of details are almost extran-
THE ACTING is unique in its
uniform excellence. Laurance l-
ivier is frighteng and pitful as
the powerful yet weak Cassius. His
subtle handling of the contro-
versial homosexual element is
masterful. Charles Laughton and
Oscar-winning Peter Ustinov ca-
vort about Italy with - calculated
Proving that' one ' woman's
laughter might have been worth
Cassius' struggle, Jean Simmons
gives another surprisingly adept
performance. Nina Foch is de-
lightfully decadent in a cameo
'role. Kirk Douglas is adequate as
Saul Bass (famed for his credits
in Otto Preminger flicks) not only
designed the intriguing main titles
but also created the gladitorial
school set and the stirring revolt
of the slaves. Alex North's score
tends to be divided between syrup
for love scenes and, deafening drum
beats for the rest of the picture.
-Milan Stitt
Deb t
education is socially supported
because an educated population
makes for a better, more prosper-
ous, more stable society. The aims
of education may be summed up
in terms of economic development4
political stability and cultural en-
As each one of us is educated,
he has an implied responsibility
to work for the improvement of
all. All of us emerge from a se-
ries of educational experiences as
debtors to the society which made
our education possible. Educated
men and women have borrowed so
much from the common bank, of
high motives that they are deeply

in debt to It.
-James M. Davis
Director, International Center
GayIN ineties
CLASSIFIED AD in the January
15, 1899 Daily:
"A colored man wants a posi-
tion in fraternity house. Refer-
ences furnished. Two years in
* * *
Well - we can suggest some
houses not to rush.

NSA Co-Ordinador Important

THE RESIGNATION of Kay Pommerance as
United States National Student Association
(NSA) co-ordinator has left an unfortunate
gap in the Administrative organization of
Student Government Council, for the NSA co-
ordinator is the main link the SGC has with
other student governments.
This gap occurs at an especially inoppertune
time for issues concerning NSA are about to
come before the Council and the campus. At
Wednesday's meeting, SGC will be asked to
replace the current system of appointing dele-
gates to the NSA convention with an election
system. The more basic issue of University
brought up and submitted to students in a
brought up andsubmitted to students in a
T HE CO-ORDINATOR'S JOB falls into three.
major areas: 1) publicizing the activities of
NSA, 2) maintaining and co-ordinating of
other colleges and universities, and the regional
and national NSA, and 3) carrying out NSA
projects on this campus.
At this time- publicity is the most c vcial
of the NSA co-ordinator's jobs. NSA will soon
become a major issue to a campus unprepared
to discuss it intelligently. The level of ignorance
'on this campus about NSA is appalling. Many
students n nnt know what the organization

with information for appropriate stories, fear
tures and 'editorials. He also can distribute
publications prepared by NSA such as''the
National Student News, or special papers such
as the NSA convention working papers. These
papers are presently buried in the Student
Government Library. If they were placed in
the residence halls' libraries and in UGLI more
students might read them. Special programs,
lectures and debates are a third channel of
THE CO-ORDINATOR should maintain close
co-ordination between SGC and various
NSA wings and can be valuable in' dealing
with political student issues. NSA is also useful
structure for exchanging ideas and solutions
to student government problems on a continu-
ing basis instead of the one-shot method
of regional meetings.
Another job for the co-ordinator is helping
translate NSA convention mandates into posi-
tive action on campus. The minimum job in-
volves circulating the NSA stand, as on Africa,
Cuba and other world problems, and maximum
sometimes requires pushing SGC to adopt
a position of program.
This is the real opportunity in the co-
ordinator's job. The first two functions are
important, but essentially dull jobs. However,



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