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January 04, 1962 - Image 4

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Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1962-01-04

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Seventy-Second Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. 0 ANN ARBOR, MICH. 0 Phone NO 2-3241

here Opinions Are Fi
Truth WillPrevail"

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

AY, JANUARY 4, 1962

NIGHT EDITOR: CAROLINE DOW

Michigan Super-Board:
The Education. Business

NEW FEATURE-With this morning's paper, The Daily adds to its editorial page the services of Bill
Mauldin, well-known cartoonist of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Mauldin's cartoons will not replace
those of Daily regulars Herbert Block (Herblock) and Paul Conrad, but will allow us to select from
what we consider to be the nation's three best editorial cartoonists.
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"INSTITUTIONAL I'RIDE!" Vice-President
and Dean of Faculties Marvin Niehuss
calls it.
"Provincialism!" retorts AFL-CIO President
August Scholle.
Both are referring to the opposition by
higher education to a co-ordinating council for
the administrative and financial problems of
the state's colleges and universities; both have
valid objections...
Scholle has proposed that the constitutional
convention establish a council to co-ordinate'
the financial affairs of all the state univer-
sities. This governor-appointed body would
present the monetary requests of all the
institutions to the Legislature in one neat
package.
There is no question that such a body would
be of some advantage to the state as a whole.
It would eliminate the damaging public battles
the institutions stage yearly for the largest
chunk of the educational appropriation. It
would 'eliminate needless duplication of cur-
ricula and expenses. With a little luck it should
even make the universities indistinguishable
from one another.
ESSENTIALLY what such a council would do
is center the power over all the univer-
sities, in the hands of a few men. It would turn
Michigan's state-supported colleges into a vast,
faceless complex, somewhat akin to the gar-
gantuan and sprawling University of Cali-
fornia, without the high-powered organiza-
tion of that bureaucracy.
The controversy boils down to the age-old
question: Which is more important, efficiency
and economy or preservation of individual
quality and uniqueness, even if it costs more.
When the problem is education, the choice
must be for individual quality.
THE SUPER-BOARD raises more problems
than it solves.
A single body would be quite subject to

HEADACHES, JOY:
The Quarter System:
Penn State's Turkey,

political pressures both from the statehouse
and the Legislature. The needs of each school
would be at the mercy of the board's con-
ception of the needs of the rest of the schools.
No individual board member could ever know as
much about the needs of each institution as
well as the currentrepresentatives of each
college do. Decisions would have to be made
on necessarily inadequate consideration. of a
great volume of information.
Such decisions would be likely to be arbitrary
and quite possibly unfair on occasion. Worse
yet, with a small controlling super-board,
power could evolve into one man's hands. The
head of the board could wind up in nearly
complete command of the entire state system
as Clark Kerr has in California.
CENTRALIZATION for efficiency and econ-
omy is essentially a practice of business.
But education is not a business. And turning
the University into a diploma mill is no solu-
tion to its fiscal problems.
Under a super-board the University would
become just the Ann Arbor branch of a mam-
moth organiztion. All its claims to an in-
dividual character and much of the appeal that
such individuality creates would be sub-
merged into the impersonality of the State
School.
Even if the University came out on top
in the state complex; even if all the other
schools in the state were robbed to make the
University the state's single "great" institu-
tion, it wouldn't be worth the academic con-
sequences. The riches of California have been
poured into the Berkeley campus, leaving the
others as relatively poor relations. California
perhaps can afford to get away with it:
Michigan cannot.
SCHOLLE SUGGESTS that the co-ordinat-
ing board could elimate "needless duplica-
tion" by reshuffling faculties, facilities and
even entire academic programs. It is interest-
ing to speculate upon the University Law
School's potential reaction to having its 20
best faculty members shifted bodily to Wayne,
because that's where the Law School's going
to be.
But one of the worst possible after-effects
of the creation of a statewide behemoth would
be the regimental treatment of the students.
Students who now feel that their still small
voice goes too often unheard would be even
more overwhelmed as the smallest cogs driv-
ing an even bigger machine.
The graduate students who return from Cal
with complaints about the university's ap-
parent ignoratice of the existence of the stu-
dent population would not be eager to see a
similar system established here.
WHAT ARE the alternatives?
Probably the best one is increased volun-
tary cooperation between the various schools,
such as that recently proposed by the Asso-
ciation of Governing Boards and the State
Council of College Presidents. Forced or re-
quired alliances are likely to be resented and
shunned. Such a mandatory situation exists
in Texas and a number of the participants are
complaining that their particular interests are
being ignored.
On the other hand, the states having volun-
tary alliances, such as Indiana, Florida and
Colorado, all report that such cooperation is
satisfactory.
Institutional pride and individual excellence
can only be retained if each school cooperates
voluntarily, coming to a compromise without
being forced to sacrifice.
-FAITH WEINSTEIN
Editorial Director
--MICHAEL HARRAH

COE 011 1A -d T BST PEOPLE REGETfWG Of y
TODAY AND TOMORROW:
Kennedy's 'Big' Budget'

By RICHARD OSTLING
Associate Editorial Director
PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNI-
versity has joined the stampede
of colleges changing their calen-
dars, a pack which the University
will soon be joining. .
Until this September, Penn State
ran on a two-semester system
much like the one we are using
now. A sudden shift to a quarter
system has caused student com-
plaint, and many other troubles
which inevitably go along with
a radical alteration of college life.
The new calendar has four 10-
week terms with no vacations. The
only breaks come between terms.
** *
STUDENTS THINK it's a real
grind. They feel more pressure,
and have to get through the same
course matter in five less weeks.
(However, fewer courses are taken
at one time.) Final exams and
term papers are closer to the start
of the course.
'You just can't coast without
flunking," summarized one stu-
dent.
As expected, students chafed
under the plan, 'especially when.
Thanksgiving time rolled around
and they found they had only a
one-day vacation.
The Daily Collegian was flooded
with letters, and riot rumors were
in the air.
RIOTS are rare at Penn State,
since residence halls counsellors
take photographs during the fes-
tivities and those who are caught
in the Line-up at the dean of
men's office the next day are
awarded a trip home, minus thee
fare.
But things were so bad this time
the president made a public state-
ment that if there was any dem-
onstration at the Penn State-
Syracuse game the weekend before
the holiday (which was on nation-
al TV) a number of students would
not be in class Monday.
At the game, the marching
band did a salute to the quarter
system in a remarkable display of
tact which garnered a shower of
boos. Chants of "We Want Tur-
key" floated through the Novem-
ber air, along with a new version
of the alma mater with. appro-
priate words.
Signs shown to the national
audience screamed "Home For
Turkey" and other slogans too
colorful to mention.
SUPPORTERS of the one-day
break pointed out a long vacation
would defeat the purpose of hav-
ing 10 concentrated weeks of worK,
and that the semester would be
all over in another week and a
half.
More cynical observers wondered
why students had a sudden in-
terest in traditions like Thanks-
giving which they normally don't
care about at all.
Tempers quieted down when the
four-week Christmas recess rolled
around. For one thing, the term
was over, and no courses hung over
the students' heads as they went
home for the holidays.-
RATHER THAN HAVING a
special exam period, all finals were
given in regular class time. They
tended to be final bluebooks rather
than comprehensive finals.
Classes were longer under te
quarter system, mushroomipg from
50 to 75 minutes. Professors who
had used the same set of notes
for years had to revise their whole
course plan and it didn't always
work smoothly.
DAILY OFFICIAL
BULLETIN

The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
responsibility. 'Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3564 Administration Building
before 2 p.m., two days preceding
publication.
THURSDAY, JANUARY 4
(Continued on Page 5)

Early in the term, some teachers
had great difficulty stretching
their material over the ful period.
They lost their voices and students
lost interest. Later, they found
themselves behind and moved at
breakneck speed for the rest of
the course.
UPPERCLASSMEN, used to
planning their work on a 16 week
basis, found adjustment difficult,
although their grades seemed to
end up about the same. Freshmen
who expected a new look when
they entered college had less
trouble adjusting.
The Student Health Center re-
ported that mental breakdowns
came one month earlier than usual
this year, but added the comfort-
ing news that the number of
cases was probably no greater.
But the University Park mer-
chants are pretty happy. They
now sell'books four times a year,
instead of two big sales and a
small one at the start of summer
session. (Penn State, like the Uni-
versity, is trying to increase sum-
mer attendance with its new
schedule.)
More books will be sold each
year, and students will be buying
around the year when the new
plan takes hold.
* * *
SINCE STUDENTS were not
consulted about the shift and were
not prepared for the new calen-
dar, campus feeling was that what
the merchants wanted was much
more important than what the
students wanted.
Another happy group was the
maintainence crew - janitors,
maids, groundskeepers and the
like. Now they will have year-
'round work and get better pay.
Both improvements mean the col-
lege will be able to hire better
workers.
* * *
AFTER WATCHING the quarter
system in operation, one student
mailed the following suggestion to
The Daily Collegian:
Penn State should have five 10-
week terms. One and a half weeks
would be allowed for registration
and travel. This leaves 4 days,
for Christmas, Thanksgiving, the
Fourth of July, and New Year's.
Every Leap Year, students could
celebrate Labor Day on February
29th.
* * *
BEFORE THIS YEAR students
coud get through college in three
years if 'they were smart, and
lucky in their choice of courses.
Now, course offerings are geared
to full-year attendance.
The college is selling the plan
to students, pointing out they will
be further ahead financially by
borrowing and staying in school
over the summer. University loans
have been established to help stu-
dents. Tuition can be paid in
m'onthly installments br over a
10-year period.
With the end of mass registra-
tion, the schedule has been tight-
ened considerably. As you make
payments and hand in a course
card for the present term,
you also submit a proposed sched-
ule for the 'following term. Pre-
registration is pretty popular with
students.
CHANCES ARE that the Penn
State summer session will have
nearly full enrollment within a
few years, with increasing pres-
sure to either get through college'
quicker to start on graduatework'
or get rid of military obligations.
When this comes, it means more
efficient use of equipment, build-
ings and staff fox Penn State, and
more economical education of
Pennsylvania's students.
It can easily mean the same
thing here if the Mihigan Legis-
lature wants to pay to put the
University on a full-year basis.

It is significant that the Uni-
versity's proposed trimester plan
will be geared to. avoid many of
the problems of the Penn State-
type quarter system. And gradual
change and preparation should
mean a lot less grumbling when
the time rolls around.

New Era

THE HAPPY CHRISTMAS SEASON, tradi-
tional period of prominence for the starry-
eyed idealists of the Christian world, is in-
variably a time of disappointment and dis-
illusionment, for some.
At this time each year, a number of trusting
little children realize that kindly old Santa
Claus is not the wonderful person their child-
ish dreams have pictured him to be. There-
after, the kiddies are left with a little less
hope, and many become confirmed cynics.
BUT THIS YEAR, the whole world was
treated to a large dose of this type of
rude awakening. Indian Pime Minister Ja-
waharlal ("we shall not swerve from the paths
of peace") Nehru has joined the growing club
of aggressor nations by restorting to the time-
honored method of solving political problems.
The siezure by the patron saint of pacifists
of 1,537 square rmiles of territory by force of
arms has been a cruel blow to those who de-
spise using military means to accomplish
political ends.
It would be a bloody execution of poetic
justice if the Red Chinese were to suddenly
descend upon lily-white India, using the same
feeble "justification" that Nehru found suf-
ficient.
Meanwhile, the continued urgings of the
Prime Minister for the world to rely on "the
forces of peace" will find his formerly spell-
bound disciples a little less reverently at-
tentive.
-J. NICHOLS

By WALTER LIPPMANN
BEFORE the end of the month
the President will present to
Congress his budget for the fiscal
year which begins on the first of
July. This Kennedy budget will
be balanced, it is reported, at a
level between $92 and $93 billion.
A budget of this kind, which
looks forward over a period of a
year and a half, is at best an edu-
cated guess. Nobody, for example,
can be certain now that an inter-
national crisis will not require
emergency expenditures which are
not now planned. Nobody, more-
over, can be certain that the
American economy will carry on
at the reasonably good level which
economists today anticipate.
This budget is really the first
Kennedy budget. The one we are
living under at present is in fact
the last Eisenhower budget, en-
larged by additional military
expenditures and some welfare
spending. The proposed budget
will be bigger by at least $3 billion
than the actual expenditures in
the present fiscal year. It will be
larger by more than $10 billion
than the last Eisenhower budget
as originally presented to Con-
gress.
Nevertheless, the tentative bud-
get is expected to be in balance.
That will be achieved because of
the business recovery which will
produce bigger tax revenues out of
larger personal and corporate in-
comes. Prof. Samuelson thinks
that corporate profits in 1962 will
be larger by 20 per cent than in
1961.
* * *
AS WE LOOK forward to the
annual mid-winter debate on gov-
ernment spending, it is useful if
we look at the figures in perspec-
tive. To do this we must look not
only at Federal spending, but at
all government spending. The best
present estimate is that the total
expenditure by Federal, state, and
local governments will be about
$150 billion in the coming year.

This is a huge sum. It will be
about 27 per cent of a predicted
gross national product of $568
billion. This large sum must be
compared with the growth of our
population and the growth of our
economy. It must be seen in the
light of our responsibilities in the
world.
It is a bearable burden. Of the
money spent by all government
for goods and services, roughly
one-half goes for national security.
Except for the spectacular rise in
the spending for national security,
there has been no radical increase
in the burden of government
spending during the past twenty
years.
In 1939 government spending
(minus defense) amounted to 13.4
per cent of the gross national pro-
duct. In 1960 it was 12.3 per cent.
It is interesting to note that in
1929, before the New Deal and
the Second World War, govern-
ment spending (minus defense)
was 7.5 per cent of the gross na-
tional product.
The reason why the share of the
gross national product spent by all
government on non-defense items
has not increased is that the total
gross national product has in-
creased so spectacularly. The coun-
try is spending more than it used
to, but it has much more money
to spend.
IT IS OFTEN SAID that these
large government purchases of
goods and services are "creeping
socialism." The facts do not, I
believe, support this charge. For
the goods which are purchased
are not being produced, as they
would be under socialism, by gov-
ernment-owned and operated in-
dustries. They are being purchased
from private firms operated for
private profit. In 1960 some 53 per
cent of all government purchases
were of goods and services pro-
duced. by private firms. The other
47 per cent went to wages and
salaries for government employees.

The proportion of government
funds was somewhat lower thirty
years ago. In 1929, government
purchases from private firms ac-
counted for only 39 per cent of.
government purchases. Thus there
has been no decline in the role of
private enterprise in government
spending. It is evident that creep-
ing socialism has not crept very
far.
WHAT HAS CREPT along dur-
ing the twentieth century has been
our rapidly growing population
which has been moving away from
the farms and villages into big ci-
ties. People collected in big cities
need more public expenditure than
do people who live in the open
country.
This simple and obvious truth is
often forgotten by the orators. But
the people living in the urban cen-
ters are continually aware of the
truth. They cannot get along in
the cities, as could their grand-
fathers in the country, with pri-
vate wells, private cesspools, un-
paved streets, no police force, a
volunteer fire department, pri-
vate transportation. They must
have the facilities and the ameni-.
ties that are essential once they
have moved from the country into
the city.
The so-called socialism which is
supposed to be creeping upon us
is in fact nothing more than the
work of making life safe and de-
.cent for a mass society collected in
great cities.Through the Federal,
state, and local governments we
spend on these civilian necessities
--no doubt with some waste and
shenanigans--less than a sixth of
all the wealth we produce.
We spend an equal amount on
the task of containing the Soviet
Union and Red China and the
Communist movement from ex-
panding any further. The sums
are large. We are, in a word, pay-
ing the price of having become a
modern great power.
(c) 1962, New York Herald Tribune; Inc.

am ej 7 Ma, IVzj1 -4

rroieso's ani 1 t'Xi~oOK

WVY DOES the French department use
Chairman Robert L. Politizer's textbooks?
What is the reason that Sociology 101 em-
ploys a department written book? How -is it
that Prof. John S. Brubacher uses a text he
edited in his philosophy of education class?
The logical answer is that these are either
the best or only texts available and that the
departments allow the professors a free rein
in textbook selection for advanced courses.
If the instructor has written a text, it is
only natural that he will want to use it-
a 'book he enjoys and is thoroughly familiar
with. Also, when the text is designed for the
specific course, the common conflict. between
book and course structure is eliminated.
BUT, when the instructor has written the
text, the student runs the risk of becoming
the victim of an incomplete and biased pres-
entation of the subject matter. This is espe-
cially a danger in history or political science
courses in which subjectivity and interpreta-
tions are important.
Also, nothing can put a class to sleep faster
than a lecture taken straight from the book.

back on blue books. Professors claim to de-
plore this situation, but continue to make it
possible when they teach their own texts.
Another drawback when an instructor uses
his own text is the question of whether it is
really the best text available or if the vision of
increased royalties and prestige affected his
decision.
There are ways to correct this situation.
Some instructors like Prof. Palmer Throop
of the history department purposely teach
against a foil-a book which presents a view
different from his own. The sociology depart-
ment achieves the same end by de-emphasiz-
ing the text and assigning supplementary read-
ings.
Also 'departments could insist that when text-
book selection committees are formed to choose
books for the lower courses, the author of a
text under consideration be excluded from
the group.
Another suggestion would be to adopt a
modification of a plan in operation at the
University of Minnesota. At Minnesota where
there are many locally written texts, the author
is required to get permission to teach his own
text.

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