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OSA IN TRANSITION:
Women's Halls Need Philosophy
vDAY, DECEMBER 3, X961
NIGHT EDITOR: CAROLINE DOW
Grave Dangerlm-p icit
In Walker's Actions
HERE IS GRAVE DANGER in the rising
military thrust into political activity-dan-
:er exemplified by the recent actions of Gen.
Tdwin A. Walker.
General Walker took as his basic premise,
hat his commitment as a military officer was
ot to serve the elected representatives of the
eople, nor to observe laws and regulations in
he carrying out of his duty, but rather to do
rhat he personally conceived were the best
iterests of the people.
Such a commitment when exercised by one
Man holding power could lead to tyranny, and
'hen held by many men could lead to anarchy.
'his is particularly true of military men who'
:mmand large forces and who are not elected
y or responsible to the citizenry.
STALKER HIMSELF has in the past pointed
out that Anerica has a government of
w not men. Before beginning his right-wing:
ampage, the General told Little Rock high
hool students during his command of United
tates paratroopers enforcing integration.:
"The United States is a nation under law
nd not under men .. .We are governed by
ws properly decided upon by our duly consti-
ited authority ... We are all subject to all the
ws, whether W* approve of them personally.
r not . . . There can be no exceptions."
Yet he proceeded to violate these principles
uring his command of the 24th Division in
ermany. In violation of the Hatch Act, of
rticles 92 and 134 of the Uniform Code, of
ilitary regulation, AR 3555-5, and of federal
atute 18 USC 595, Gen. Walker attempted to
fluence the votes of his troops and their de-
indents in the 1960 congressional elections,
.doctrinated those troops with a John Birch
ociety philosophy, and mocked and slandered
merican leaders, including his-ultimate super-
r, President Eisenhower. His actions consti-
tted the rule of man in direct violation of the
hic of law.
A DAMOCLEAN SWORD hangs over the Stu-
dent Government Council. Under the revis-
ed SGC plan the vice-president for student
affairs can veto any action of the Council if
it meets three tangible criteria and two neb-
ulous, intangible ones.
The tangible criteria are clear enough. If
the Council action conflicts with established
Regental policy, is hastily considered, or ap-
proved without consultation with the adminis-
tration or the groups involved, the vice-presi-
dent for student affairs can veto it on request
of an aggrieved party.
However, Councol actions can be vetoed on
two undefined, subjective bases. According to'
Vice-President for Student Affairs James A.
Lewis, he can annul an action if it is "irrespon-
sible or unreasonable."
WHAT DO THESE WORDS MEAN? To find
out, the Committee on Student Concerns
invited Lewis to last Wednesday's Council
meeting. He touched the subject, but left it es-
sentially as cloudy as ever. "It is a clearly un-
derstood ground rule of Student Government
Council that there may be variation in what is
reasonable," Lewis asserted as he dismissed all
attempts to define these subjective criteria.
An explanation of veto policy is vital to the
Council. Soon a deadline of submitting state-'
ments on bias in fraternities and sororities will
bet set. Following that, the Committee on Mem-
ber.,hip Selection in Student Organizatigns may
recommend that the Council throw a fraternity
or sorority off campus. However, the threat
of an administrative veto may complicate Coun-
As an administrator whose job is to uphold
Ethics and Earn
T HE UNIVERSITY agreement to cooperate
with William P. Lear in the relocation of his
aircraft industry is, on the surface, a wonder-
ful thing for the State and the University.
The decline of the University's Willow Run
as a thriving terminal will be happily solved
by the proposed entry of Lear's Swiss American
Aviation Corporation's operations to the Wil-
low Run Ann Arbor area. The state eventually
will gain a predicted $5 million a year payroll.
In addition, the University is helped finan-
cially by another research project. This gain,
however, raises an ethical question of whether
mnilitary and industrial needs should direct the
course of research. The quest for funds has
forced the University to tailor its research
lanning around the needs of industry and
the military in order to attract these most im-
portant sources of money. It is a simple fact
that there is more money available to scien-
ists who are willing to do research in some
area of industry or defense. Planned or not,
he research is being channeled into the needs
>f defense and industry.
F THIS REBELLION against the constitu-
tional authority of the United States and this
violation of American law were unique to Gen.
eral Walker and without support, the danger
would not be as grave as it is. But Walker and
his actions have the support of at least two
United States Senators, conservatives Strom
Thurmond of South Carolina and John Tower
of Texas, who see the opposition to him as the
silencing of anti-Communism.
In addition, Gen. Walker has undertaken a
national speaking tour, and there is specula-
tion that he may run for Congress in Texas
next year. Furthermore, his rebellion expresses
the publicly unstated but privately outspoken
views of an important part of our American
officer corps in all three services.
By resigning rather than retiring from his
command, Gen. Walker has attempted to make
himself a martyr, and with the help of his sup-
porters he may yet succeed. The cult of mar-
tyrdom that his actions could initiate could,
cause a movement of emotion to replace among
citizens the philosophy of reason upon which
democratic processes are based.
This emotion feeding on the American fear
of an enemy that is said to be able to over--
throw the United States from within, the pos-
sibility of that emotion gripping the citizenry
is heightened. Gen. Walker, by deliberately
violating regulations and by resigning when
his superiors attempted to enforce these reg-
ulations, has casied the stability of the military
and its subservience to civil authority into
L EADERSHIP OF THE MILITARY is not
chosen by democratic process. Furthermore,
that leadership commands actual physical pow-
sr. For these two reasons, the military must a't
all times remain subservient to the constituted
and constitutional authority of the United
States, however severe the threat of internal
Communism may seem.
Lewis ' Axe
the Regents' anti-discrimination bylaw 2.14
against discrimination, Lewis owes the Council
an explanation, of his veto policy. His "non-
directional" approach, which was beautifully
illustrated in his evasion 'of questions from Ad-
ministrative Vice-President Robert Ross and
Brian Glick, will only lead to confusion.
IT IS UNCLEAR what Lewis would do if the
Council intended to enforce Bylaw 2.14 and
throw a fraternity or sorority off campus.
Even if the Council meticulously met the first
three criteria of staying within Regental poli-
cy, consulting local and national fraternity of-
ficials and OSA administrators, and holding
long deliberations, Lewis could still veto this
action on vague ground of irresponsibility.
Lewis dangles the sword over the Council's
head. Under the vaguely defined terms of
Lewis's authority in the SGC Plan, he may veto
any council action he pleases even if the Coun-
cil has meticulously followed the specified cri-
It is true that the Council could bank on
the Committee on Referral to check Lewis's
power. However, this student-faculty-adminis-
trator committee is only advisory-and cannot
control Lewis's final action.
Faced with the "ground rules" of Bylaw 2.14,
fraternity and sorority bias clauses, and the
SGC intent on removing them, Lewis perform-
ed a great disservice to the campus commu-
nity by his evasiveness at the last Council
meeting. If Regents Bylaw 2.14 is to be enforced
and, beyond the immediate issue, if the Coun-
cil is to be an effective student government,
Lewis must state a clear policy on administra-
mation will require increasing creativity in re-
search and cannot be met by the demands of
defense or industry.
Secondly, are the pressures to provide re-
search personnel and facilities for defense and
industry impairing the first service of a Uni-
versity to a community, that of education? In
other words, are salary and building priorities
going to faculty and classrooms or to research
men and facilities? And if research is gaining
the priorities, is it the right kind of research?
The agreement of the University to aid in
the development of a specific product, such as
Lear's SAAC No. 23 plane, is justified from
the point of view of state welfare, as it brings
in payrolls to the state economy. It is also
justified from the defense point of view, as it
improves aviation. It is not justified education-
ally if it in any way impairs the education of
Michigan's future citizens.
YET, pragmatically, the question is not a
question. For under existing circumstances
the University has no other choice but to
(EDITOR'S NOTE - This is the
first in a continuing series of in-
terpretative articles on issues raised
by the current re-evaluation of the
Office of Student Affairs.)
By DAVID MARCUS
Daily Staff Writer
A MASS LIVING SITUATION al-
ways presents certain limita-
tions and discomforts. A mass liv-
ing situation in which a student
is compelled to live adds psychol-
ogically to the stresses of the in-
dividual in the University commu-
nity. These difficulties and a gen-
erally paternalistic Dean of Wom-
en's office have resulted in the
frustrating, petty and intellectual-
ly unjustifiable conglomeration
known as administration of the
For four years, except in a very
few exceptional circumstances and
for those who choose sorority liv-
ing, undergraduate women must
face rules whose express purpose
is to regulate their personal lives
and keep their . behavior within
closely defined limits.
They must sign in and sign out.
They are on evaluated on personal
qualities by people unqualified to
do so, for files they will never see.
Almost the only hope of getting
out is to join a sorority. Worst of
all, the women feel caught by a
system with an impenetrable bu-
reaucracy that seems impersonal
and inhmune to change, not car-
ing about what they think.
* * *
ALL THESE resentments, which
to one degree or another most
women seem to feel, have been in-
creasingly voiced in past months.
Both Assembly Dormitory Coun-
cil and Student Government Coun-
cil have voiced their disapproval
of the non-academic evaluations
used in the women's residence
halls. Assembly has become so
bold as to set up a committee to
define the role of the housemoth-
er ('it's' an intangible,' said one
administrator). And finally, the
women have had the opportunity,
through the recent Office of Stu-
dent Affairs Study Committee sur-
vey, to voice their complaints di-
rectly to an agent of change.
In the case of the dorms, the
OSA committee faces one of its
most difficult problems in artic-
ulating a philosophy. With liter-
ally millions of dollars worth of
buildings, over 3,000 residents and
huge staff, the women's residence
halls simply do not have an insti-
tutional philosophy apart from
that of Dean Deborah Bacon's of-
fice; and since she has resigned,
there has been a void which the
OSA committee must fill.
* * *
IN FACT, former Assistant Dean
of Women Elsie Fuller, who was
in charge of residence halls, re-
signed because of a "lack of phi-
losophy" since the resignation of
Dean Bacon. One administrator,
with long experience in the wom-
en's residence halls, put the prob-
lem more bluntly:
"There is a lack of leadership
in the office of Student Affairs
that extends from Vice-President
Lewis to President Hatcher and
the Regents." -
The lack of philosophy is an
historical fact in the dorms. The
first three of them built-Helen
Newberry, Betsy Barbour and
Martha Cook-represent the gifts
of private individuals to the Uni-
versity. The first two were sim-
ply handed over to the University
to use as the administration chose.
Only Martha Cook building carried
with it extensive provisions, in-
cluding a special governing board.
IT WAS NOT until the, late
1930's that the University began
to build housing for women on
its own initiative. The University
has since built Alice Lloyd, Stock-
well, Mosher-Jordan, Mark Mark-
ley and has had Victor Vaughn
converted for women.
But nobody, during this entire
period, has ever articulated the
purpose of the women's residence
halls. Prof. Karl Litzenberg of the
English department, when in
charge of University housing,
wrote "The Michigan House Plan,"
on which both the men's and
women's housing were to be based.
Although nobody inthe dean of
women's office will admit it di-
rectly, they will imply quite lear-
ly that they do not really fel the
House Plan applies to women. Said
"The House Plan was designed
for the men's residence halls
which didn't get started until the
late 1930's. Worsen's housing had
already been in operation since
1915 and was a going concern.
Besides, the needs of men are dif-
ferent from the needs of women
and the House Plan doesn't really
IN FACT, this statement that
"women have different needs than
men" seems to be the main ra-
tionalization for the failure to ar-
ticulate philosophy. And the fail-
ure to articulate philosophy has
led to a consistent use of expedi-
ency in building a myriad of dor-
mitories and in creating the struc-
ture of rules, and aims under
which the women must live.
For example, administrators in-
cluding Dean Fuller and ADC
President Sally Jo Sawyer and stu-
dent leaders will generally agree
that, it would be better if all dor-
mitories were built on the same
scale as Barbour or Newberry. But
the usual excuse is 'Well, we would
like it, but the business office . ..'
But, if small dormitories were
really an integral and inseparable
part of the philosophy of wom-
en's residence halls, the adminis-
tration would not have given in so
easily to the business office.
Certainly, they let many possible
alternatives slip by. For example,
would the women be willing to
have less services in exchange for
a small dorm? Nobody knows, be-
cause nobody has ever taken the
trouble to find out because it, has
never been that important to the
* * *
SIMILARLY, rules have been
guided not by ideals, but only by
realistic concern for what the
public will think.
"Let's face it," says one dean of
women's office administrator, "in
our society women just can't do
what men can." In this state-
ment are embodied a number of
The dean of women's office is
caught in a paradox. On the one
hand, there is the idea, articulat-
ed at the recent conference on
the men's residence halls by James
H. Robertson, associate dean of
the literry college, of the process
of education as one of learning to
make choices and bearing the con-
sequences of one's own decision.
On the other, there are the so-
cietal pressures demanding that
women students not be allowed to
make choices regarding their own
* * *
at the University as they are sup-
posedly at home. For example,
witness the statement from a
University booklet on women's
rules which says:
"Students who find some rules
questionable may not possess an
adequate knowledge of the ration-
ale behind them. The underlying
basis for this rationale is protec-
tion; for the individual and for
the University which is responsi-
ble for each of its students."
Perhaps an even more telling
example is the demand of the
Alumnae Council that in a re-
vamped OSA structure the dean of
women's office be retained in or-
der to "maintain high moral
standards" among the women stu-
* * *
THUS the University will al-
most certainly continue to unjus-
tifiably structure the lives of
women students to a far greater
extent than men. But the really
unfortunate part, is that no mem-
ber of the dorm administration
will declare, even privately, that
minimizing and gradual elimina-
tion of major rule differentiations
between men and women is a de-
Further, dorm administrators
until now see little reason for not
concerning themselves in the pri-
vate lives of individuals.
Women's non-academic evalua-
ions, for example, ask extensive
information about all aspects of
personality and behavior, includ-
ing study habits, motivation,
whether she is cheerful or moody,
whether she has organizational
ability or is a team worker, how
she dresses, whether she is ad-
justed or not, etc., etc.
What is really dangerous about
these evaluations is their inva-
sion of privacy, their becoming a
part of a permanent record, their
potential use for non-residence
hall purposes, and finally, the
lack of qualifications of those
filling them out.
Aside from some of the obvious
questions such as how well a wom-
an is doing academically, house
directors (the official term for
housemother) and resident advis-
ors usually do not know the in-
dividuals well enough and are not
sufficiently qualified in depth
psychology to answer the ques-
* * *
THE HOUSEMOTHER, in fact
is an enigma. Nobody really seems
to know why she exists or exact-
ly what she is supposed to be d
ing. To many, she is simply a
symbol of antiquated gentility.
She is an attempt to introduce in-
to the dorms the philosophy of
conventional middle-class Ameri-
cana of about 1900.
In addition, resident advisors
seem to be fairly useless. Very
few of them have or will have
much experience in the dorms as
RA's since most will only stay to
do a year or two of graduate work.
Certainly the role of the RA
and the housemother should be
- * *
TO CONFUSE the already-tan-
gled situation, nobody knows
exactly what the women think.
There has never been anything
like the Scheub report in the
The only known survey has been
the OSA Study Committee's ques-
tionnaire. However, the question-'
naire has its limitations, especially
since the responses came from'
house meetirng discussions of the
questions with the obvious difficul-
ties of a person having to commit
his opinions publicly and with the
necessity of a note-taking secre-
tary which may or may not be a
factor in the outcome.
In any case; there is consider-
able doubt about the statistical
validity of the OSA survey.
Student government, i.e. ADC
should be the means for voicing
both content and discontent, but
generally fails in this. The failure
lies in a too weak conception of
student government, both on the
part of administrators and stu-
dents. One administrator in the
dean of women's office said:
"I think of Assembly as an ad-
visory group to the administra-
* * *
MANY STUDENTS don't seem
to have a powerful picture of the
organization. Unlike Assembly
President Sally Jo Sawyer, who
sees ADC as having the threefold
purpose of communication between
the student and administration,
coordination of house activities,
and formulation gf some policy,
there is a sometimes-expressed
viewpoint that Assembly is a tool
of the administration.
Sawyer points to such accom-
plishments as making Betsy Bar-
bour an upperclass dorni; but ad-
ministrators refuse to define pre-
cisely the powers and significance
of ADC and the various dorm and
ADC members are in a difficult
position. On the one hand there
are the more aware constituents
who want action. Said one of
these, "they (ADC) just sit there
and knit." 'On the other hand,
there is the administration which
seems to expect complacency. One
Assembly official said, "One of the
girls just called me a tool of the
dean of women only a couple of
days after I had been talked to by
an administrator about my 'radi-
* * *
ONE OF THE MAJOR problem$s
that ADC faces is apathy. This
is probably due to the enforced
living situation which allows no
exit except in cases of financial
hardship. One change that would
probably help immensely would be
to make some provision for wom-
en who are truly unhappy in the
residence hall living situation.
"They complain and make them-
selves and everyone around them'
unhappy," Sawyer said in support
of the idea.
Apartment permission is now
granted automatically to those
over 22. Probably the age limit
should be lowered rather than let-
ting the dean's office grant apart-
ments for reasons other than fi-
Women are required to be. in the
dorms so that they can be super-
vised, not because of the financial
obligations of the University to
pay for the buildings.
A high University administra-
tor has noted that the dormitor-
ies could make a transition to a
different kind of operation strict-
ly on the basis of voluntary occu-
pany, with no financial strain.
* * *
THUS, the women's dormitories
are the University's admission of
defeat before societal pressure. The
University has failed to articulate
what they are, why they are and
the ideal of what they should be.
They are 'in loco parentis' in the
most derogatory sense of the term.
They remove a great deal of pos-
sibility for choice that is legiti-
mately the individual's and not
But worse than these failures is
the philosophy of administration.
The administration of the resi-
dence halls, like much of the ad-
ministration of the OSA, has gen-
erally been placed in the hands
of people with no intellectual com-
mitment to the University.
There are too many people who,
licking philosophy or the ability
to formulate it, do not see the
broader purpose of the dorms, and
are instead imposing on residents
the limitations of the expedient.
A DIRECT QUOTE from a re-
uent Associated Press wire re-
JACKSON, MISS-FIRST ADD
NUCLEAR TESTING ' (BJT)
(A4h1X)X X X EXPOSED.
* ,* *
Things are really getting tough
THE SOCIETY that
different standards of
from men and women
strongly that women be;
"On The Other Hand, If What He Says Is True,
Wthy Is It Printed In Izvestia?"
LAST NIGHT'S performance of
Handel's "Messiah" shows a
great improvement over those of
previous years. First of all, the
University Symphony Orchestra"
was used for the first time since
1942, instead of a pick-up orches-
Secondly, the chorus sang from
the more accurate Coopersmith
edition instead of that by Noble.
Past performances by the orches-
tra have been from the, arrange-
ment by Ebenezer Prout, published
almost sixty years ago.
Prout made his arrangement
from that of Mozart which was
published a hundred years before.,
Mozart's additional orchestral
parts were made because a noble-
man wanted a private performance
of the "Messiah" in a hall which
had no organ. As good as Mo-
zart's arrangement may or may
not be, it was made from the
first publication of the entire score
in 1767 which was badly lacking
This year, the orchestra employ-
ed new parts which were edited
from original Handel manuscripts.
(Unfortunately, several "unaccom-
panied" recitatives still retained
Prout's string additions.) The in-
strumentation was restricted to
that of Handel--strings, oboes,
bassoons, trumpets, timpani, harp-
sichord, and organ. Such a begin-
ning towards a historically ac-
curate performance resulted in a
noticeable improvement of musical
IN SPITE of limited rehearsal
time, the orchestra played very
well. Prof. Ray Ferguson's harpsi-
chord playing added a welcome
brightness to the sound. Donald
Tison should be singled out for his
impeccable trumpet playing in
"The trumpet shall sound."
While Elaine Bonazzi sang ade-
quately, she seemed more a mezzo-
soprano than a contralto. The bell-
like quality of Ilona Kombrink's
voice, coupled with an obvious un-
derstanding of the recitatives pre-
ceding "Glory to God," was a
pleasure to hear.
Prof. Richard Miller's beautiful,
light, flexible, and controlled sing-
ing made it hard to believe that he
has recently been fighting a cold.
The rich bass voice and musician--
ship of alumnus Ara Berberian was
outstanding. It was unfortunate,
however, that the soloists did not
add expected trills at cadences.
WHEREAS "adagio" and "largo"
to achieve a remarkable lightness
and'clarityy especially in "And he
shall purify." ,While ensemble was
amazingly good, there were notice-
able exceptions. Consonants at the
ends of phrases often lacked audi-
bility and crispness. Attacks tended
to be fuzzy. It was obvious, how-
ever, that it was the large size of
the choral body which was respon-
sible for these faults.
* * *
THE TRADITION of large-
"Messiah" in England began in
scale yearly performaces of the
1783 by three music amateurs
with a performance by 250 in-
strumentalists and 275 choristers.
The largest performing force oc-
curred in 1882, when 500 instru-
mentalists were pitted against
4,000 voices. The tradition was
transferred to this country in
1818. Performances in Ann.-Arbor
began in 1879, and have occurred
annually, with some exceptions,
This tradition is the reason for
the large performing body of last
night. However, such performances
obviously do not follow the in-
tentions of Handel, who employed
no more than 60 performers.
Admittedly, it would be un-
realistic to duplicate a "Messiah"
performance of Handel's day. Boys
would have to be employed on the
soprano part, and men on the
alto. Also, soloists would have to
improvise cadenzas, a skill which
apparently has been lost.
But where Handel had almost
twice as many instrumentalists as
singers, last night there were
six times as many singers as in-
strumentalists. For the auditorium,
the number of men in the chorus
seemed about right. However, they
were badly overbalanced by the
THE PRESENT POLICY of the
Choral Union is that once singers
are accepted, they can continue
membership merely by participa-
tion each year. The chorus there-
fore includes many who, even if
enthusiastic, are plainly past their
best singing years.
It would seem advantageous if
the director would hold annual
or biannual auditions for all mem-
bers. The resulting reduction in
size, especially among the women;
would cause a better balance and
the ratio between the singers and
instrumentalists would approach
that of Handel.
If a greater number of singers
ser .l ei r f vcAln- T a7®t lr __