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December 01, 1961 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1961-12-01

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Seventy-Second Year
"Where Opinions Are Free STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Truth Wilt Prevail"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.


at Cornell



True Integration Comes
Only Through Education

one thought could peaceably integrate,
quietly accepted several Negro students this
year. A dozen all-white public schools in the
states of Florida, Texas and Georgia enrolled
their first Negroes. Quietly, without fanfare or
hoopla, the South began to concede a battle
which has been fought continually since 1860.
Southerners are pictured by many Northern-
ers as an ignorant, backward, and bigoted lot
of unpatriotic Klansmen. But now the South is
showing the world there are seeds of integrity
and intelligence in many of its inhabitants.
The screaming headlines after Little Rock re-
ceived more world-wide attention than the un-
heralded token integration started this year.
This beginning, however small, sets into motion
the wheels which will soon roll to the entire
gradual strides are taking place, and the
educated Southerners who are striving for a
peaceful integration deserve credit for their
efforts. The federal government is providing
the impetus in changing this old and favored
view of white supremacy. Little Rock served as
a warning to the entire South about what hap-
pens when the population rebels too loudly,
but it is hard to change the long-held views of
a cultural area overnight.
P. D. East claims that the Southerners have
been raised on a "snake oil" concoction of con-
ceit, prejudice, and stupidity which has so long
been a remedy that it is almost impossible to
remove it. But the "snake oil" people are not
characteristic of everyone living south of the
Mason-Dixon Line. Rather, they represent a
noisy, rabble-rousing group which violently
pushes its views on the world. The public pre-
fers to read about an uneducated backwoods-
man beating up a freedom rider than about a
group of Negro students filing peacefully into
a Florida junior high school. The eyes of the
world focus on the United States' big flaws
rather than its quieter accomplishments.
The cities are beginning to integrate, and
now one must wait for the well learned lesson
of the cities to seep into the rural areas. The
urbanized areas, with their more varied cul-
tural groups, must go into the backwoods and

help the people realize they must surrender
their useless fight. Extra care must be taken to
educate and prepare states such as Mississippi
for the coming integration.
TrHE NORTH has many such spots of preju-
dice too. The schools of Chicago and New
York with their carefully drawn boundaries
manage to separate white and black. The school
boards set integration in areas where white
residents are moving out. Eventually the
schools resegregate. The quota and discrimina-
tion policies of some colleges prevent many
worthy candidates from receiving scholarships
or entering the schools of their choice.
This change will take much diligence on the
part of many people. The quiet, frightened anti-
segregationist will have to bear threats of
violence and financial blackball. The papers of
the North and South will have to begin a quiet
and subtle education of those people not ready
for a change in beliefs. The work of Ralph Mc-
Gill and William Hartfield, the mayor of At-
lanta, prove that this method pays off.
THE BEST and most long lasting results come
with the cure which is carefully blended
and aged to perfection, not the one hastily
thrown together and crammed into use. The
only long-range cure for the "snake oil" is edu-
cation, not the armed soldiers of Little Rock.
Such action merely suppresses the symptoms
for a while and allows them to reappear later.
The educated South is trying to do what is
right for the goal of all men. It has a long,
arduous struggle ahead before all Southerners
will stand up and admit they are the brother
of black men as well as white.
The papers of North and South must edu-
cate gradually the rural folk. Much more will'
be accomplished if they can peacefully work
together without excess sensationalism and
criticism. An all-out attempt must be made to
reach every corner of the South and slowly
change the beliefs which have been held so
long. The newspapers need to applaud and
commend the steps that have been taken al-
ready. This is the only way long-term integra-
tion will ever come to the South.

(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the
first in a continuing series of ar-
ticles on outstanding student gov-
ernments in several universities
across the country-how they were
started, what they control, who has
power over them. Arthur Brooks,
'63L, was president of the Cornell
Student Council in 1958.)
Daily Guest Writer
IN MAY OF 1958, some 1,500
Cornell students, determined to
express their dissatisfaction with
student life at the University,
rioted against the Cornell admin-
This was not a demonstration of
opposition to one particular ad-
ministrative decision affecting the
rioters' stomachs, beds, or bottles,
nor was it a playful springtime
romp to "let off stean?' before
final examinations.
It was an attempt to display a
genuine and complete dissatisfac-
tion with the role of the student
in a changing university com-
munity. It demanded not a change
in a particular administrative rul-
ing but a change of philosophy on
the part of a highly centralized
and dominant university adminis-
* * *
enjoyed a tradition of great social
and intellectual freedom. This
tradition was an essential part of.
the image of the University itself.
In such a context, one of the du-
ties of the university's administra-
tion is seen to be that of preserv-
ing a certain autonomy among the
various elements of the campus
community. Ideally, it is to be, as
Carl Becker points out, a "loose-
jointed administrative system
(preserving) the casual freedoms
of the old days."
This philosophy of freedom and
responsibility served to encourage
a vigorous dialogue between fac-
ulty and students. It recognized
faculty autonomy in asserting a
liberalizing and humanizing in-

fluence on the student body
whether in class or out.
As a result of it the university
faculty at Cornell had assumed
a great deal of responsibility for
encouraging student participation,
action, and discussion. Faculty-
student committees established
policies affecting student life.
* * *
BY 1958, HOWEVER, this tra-
dition had been subjected to a
steady encroachment by an ever-
centralizing administration. The
structure of the University had
been straightened into a more con-
ventional business framework by
a President whose principle orien-
tation was that of a business
Although such centralization un-
doubtedly resulted in greater ef-
ficiency, and measurably assisted
in the physical expansion of the
University, the changes also re-
sulted in the disagreeable growth
of institutionalized living and act-
* * *
IN SUCH A "big business" en-
vironment, viewed from the stand-
point of the administration, stu-
dent organizations all look about
the same.
They take on administrative
functions that would be onerous
(and expensive) for the adminis-
tration or faculty to handle, and
establish lines of communication
from students to the various units
of the administration and faculty
much like the bargaining com-
mittee of a company union.
"Autonomy" and "responsibility"
of student government mean some
financial control over student ac-
tivities and a substantial respon-
sibility for appointing qualified
students'to function as a judiciary
or to sit on the more powerful
student - faculty - administrative
committees which actually formu-
late policy proposals on matters
affecting student life.


Working ith
The Unaligned

Challenge Goes On-Campus

AFTER HOVERING OVER different parts of
the world scene, Challenge is now going to
bring its analyses down to the campus. By re-
lating next semester's program ("The Challenge
of Higher Education") directly to the Univer-
sity, Challenge is taking a necessary and im-
portant step.
This is not a criticism of past Challenge
programs dealing with world issues, which were
excellently conceived and presented. It is mere-
ly a recognition of certain facts of life. At-
tendance at some past programs has not been
what had been hoped for, and at certain pres-
entations there has been a higher proportion of
faculty represented than students.
Since Challenge was designed primarily to
appeal to the student audience in order to in-
form them on world problems, the low attend-
ance is a sign that the students might be just
a little disinterested in such presentations. To
remedy this, Challenge has decided to bring
its program closer to home. The present plan
is to use members of the administration, the
faculty, and present and former students as
T HIS WILL GIVE students the opportunity
to ponder the quality of the education they


are receiving at the University. This will be
especially important next semester when stu-
dents will be confronted with the report of the
committee on the Office of Student Affairs and
with the approaching Conference on the Uni-
versity. The results of these events will reach
into the corner of every classroom and every
quad room. Due to the importance to student!
of these events anything which even attempts
to provoke thought on them should be wel-
The program will also be divided into sub-
topics which will give those people interested
in one particular aspect of higher education
an opportunity to do research and study in
small seminar groups. Concerned students
(hopefully there are some'in this den of apathy)
will be able to get necessary knowledge, enabl-.
ing them to speak up with authoritative voices
on issues of student concern.
THE SERIES should also bring up an issue
which usually gets an airing only at SGC
election time: the relevancy and importance of
off campus issues. This will come from dis-
cussion of whether the non-academic phase of
college life is educational. All students must
think about this in connection with their roles
as members of society, whatever the size of the'
role they desire to play.
This program is directed against the apathy
which controls the attitude (or lack of it) of
too many students concerning their education.
Unfortunately, this same apathy may prevent
the program from really getting off the ground.
An open meeting Monday night for all people
interested in working on the program will de-
termine the effectiveness of next semester's
Challenge is making a break with its past
commitments in presenting next semester's
program. If it does not get the necessary sup-
port there is a danger that it will die out. This
program is too important for students to sit
by and let apathy destroy it.
THERE WAS A sadly amusing incident after
Saturday's game which went largely un-
noticed. Shortly after the unfriendly encounter
between coaches Elliott and Hayes, one of
the officials had some trouble shepherding the
football used in the game off the field.
Ohio State's band director, Jack Evans, saw
some of his college's fans, who were tired of
the twist and goal post shaking, getting ready
to steal the ball for a souvenir. He decided

IN HIS NEW appointment, Mr.
Chester Bowles is to be advisor
to the President about affairs in
Latin America, Africa and Asia.
In effect, he will be concerned with
the countries which are not within
the Communist orbit and yet are
not aligned with the anti-Com-
munist alliances of which the most
important is NATO.
Although almost all of these
countries are called "underdevelop-
ed," they are in fact in all stages
of development. The differences
among them are of compelling
In viewing the "non-alignment"
of these new nations, it is well to
remember our own tradition of
isolation. All the Founding Fathers
believed in it, and for a century
it was the very basis of our for-
eign policy.
It had two aspects: the United
States was to stand apart from
the quarrels of the Old World,
and Europe was not to be. allowed
to interfere insthe affairs of the
New World. The original and clas-
sic exposition of 'our own isola-
tion was made by George Wash-
ington in his Farewell Address.
"The great rule of conduct for
us in regard to foreign nations is,
in extendinghour commercial re-
lations, to have with them as
little political connection as pos-
sible . . . Why, by interweaving
our destiny with that of any part
of Europe, entangle our peace and
prosperity in the toils of Euro-
pean ambition, rivalship, interest,
humor, or caprice? . . . It is our
true policy to steer clear of per-
manent alliances with any portion
of the foreign world, so far, I
meanas we are nowat liberty to
do it."
* * *
EVER SINCE we emerged from
our isolation and neutrality, we
have found it difficult to know
just what to think and how co
feel about countries which are
still isolated and still cling to
their neutrality. As a result, our
opinion has in the main swung
back and forth between two poles.
At one pole there is the feeling
that in the great conflicts of our
time, first with Nazism and Fas-
cism and now with Communism,
to be neutral, unaligned, uncom-
mitted, and unengaged is immoral.
At the other pole there is the re-
action against this view. It in-
clines -to an excess of humility,
and is disposed to accept President
Tito's claim that he and his fel-
low-neutralists are "the conscience
of the world."
Since the Belgrade conference
and the inability of the neutrals
to deal with the moral issues rais-
ed by the Soviet's nuclear explo-
sions, American opinion has swung
sharply towards the view that we

allied with either of the great
coalitions of the cold war.
There is an enormous mass of
mankind living in many different
states, almost all of their gov-
ernments recently created, who
feel that they are outside the
great conflicts which have pre-
occupied us for a generation. For
them, the burning issue in the
world is the elimination of the
last vestiges of colonialism, not
the conflict between Western and
Communist society.
Our efforts to convince them
that colonialism has all but dis-
appeared seem to them to miss
the central point. Our appeals
that they concern themselves with
the subjugation of the peoples of
Eastern Europe seem irrelevant
to their own vital interests.
/ They might be using John
Quincy Adams' words, who once
said that the United States "is
the well-wisher to the freedom
and independence of all. She is the
champion and vindicator only of
her own," for "by once enlisting
under other banners than her own,;
were they even the banners of
foreign independence,s he would
involve herself . .. in all the wars
dividual avarice, envy and am-
of interest and intrigue, of in-
bition, which assume the colors
and usurp the standard of free-
* * *
conflict of our time, trying to
remain outside, certainly does not
make the unaligned countries the
conscience of the world. When it
comes to the vital question, which
is how to maintain the balance
of power which preserves the
peace of the world, the final de-
cision cannot be left to those
who do not have the ultimate re-
sponsibility for peace.
put in all that we do which
affects their development, it is a
different matter. There we must
have great and continual respect
for their opinions, and the deci-
sions must be joint and voluntary.
* * *
AND SO, while it would be fool-
ish to treat the underdeveloped
countries as our moral superiors,
inviting them to lay down the
law to us, it would be no less
foolish, and inherently wrong, to
talk as if we could and should
lay down the law to them. What
is more, we cannot lay down the
law to them.
In the course of time there will
emerge from the diverse conglom-
eration of the underdeveloped and
unaligned countries, new powers
in human affairs. We cannot buy
their friendships. We cannot earn
their friendships by abasing our-
selves as if there were some
reason to be a'shamed of the awful
burden of responsibility which we

The rest is debate and negotia-
tion of either a primitive or
sophisticated sort depending on
the personnel elected and ap-
The existence of student gov-
ernment "organized to coordinate
all student activity" may be point-
ed to by a proud administration as
an example of their munificence
and cooperative spirit when ac-
tually it may simply express their
desire to communicate with one
rather than several.
* * *
at the University had brought the
supervisory control of student af-
fairs from the faculty into the
hands of the President, by way of
delegation from the University's
Board of Trustees. Members of
the responsible committees, here-
tofore elected by the faculty, were
now appointed by the President.
This enabled the President
either to effectively control all
student activities, or to choose tf
ignore these committees and the
Student Government as well, a
choice which was somewhat more
difficult to make under the old
When the Council dealt with the
President (during one of his
seemingly infrequent visits to the
campus), he revealed a startling
ignorance of and lack of respect
for student responsibility in any
form. He seemed complacent in
the knowledge that he enjoyed
effective control and authority
over student affairs, and that
student organizations could play
only a static suggestive role in
determining the direction of his
e * * *
personal frustration of any mean-
ingful participation by Student
Government in University policy-
making contributed substantially
to the individual student's feeling
of helplessness in the face of the
increasing dominance of the ad-
ministration. It was this feeling
which eventually generated the
student riots.
The chain of events leading up
to the riots began perhaps with
the pre-emptory announcement of
a ban on drinking at the football
stadium. The announcement was
made jointly by the Presidents
Committees on Student Activities
and Conduct without benefit of
prior consultation or discussion
among student leaders or their
The same year, as the result of
some serious accidents during a
weekend houseparty it was an-
nounced that the entire pattern
of student social conduct at the
University would be reviewed by
the President's Committee on Stu-
dent Activities and that house-
party activity would be suspended
until a Social Code could be form-
ulated by the Committee.
Student leaders were permitted
to participate in the discussion,
but Committee rules did not per-
mit the publication of any of the
Committee's deliberations.
* * *
was announced, therefore, there
was no opportunity for general
discussion of any specific proposal.
Student leaders could only be ef-
fective in preventing the Commit-
tee from taking an absolute, po-
sition on any of the various items
under discussion. The proposal as
announced w~as rejected by the
Student Council and the Inter-
fraternity Council, but by that
time three was a pervasive feel-
ing of futility as regarding the
effectiveness of any absolute re-
jection, and so a compromise was
proposed and accepted on a trial
After this trial under the new
code, and following the election

(Continued from Page 2)
Appointed: Carole Feldman, to the
Interviewing and Nominating Commit-
tee, term to expire in May of 1962.
Adopted: The Interviewing and Nom-
inating Committee shall recommend to
the Council the chairman of the In-
ternational Relations Board on the bas-
is of interview and petition.
Appointed: To the standing commit-
tees of the Council, the following Coun-
cil members:
Committee on Student Concerns:
John Vos, Sharon Jeffrey, Steve Stock-
Committee on the Uhiversity: Tom
Committee on Student Activities: Per
Hanson, Dick G'Sell.
Adopted: That Senator Thayer be in-
vited to the next Council meeting to
discuss: 1) the problems involved in
the Legislature's granting of funds to
the University; 2) the possible roles
that students can take in influencing
this; and 3) the outlook for sufficient
appropriations, to the University of
Michigan this spring.
Defeated: Student Government Coun-
cil should express student opinion only
in those areas which directly affect the
affairs of the student body during their
tenure at the University.
Postponed: Consideration of motion
on investigation of other programs of
freshman orientation.
Adopted: Student Government Coun-

of new officers in the various st't-
dent organizations, the President's
Committee, without prior warning,
announced a ban on social events
in off-campus apartments to take
effect in the Fall.
* * *
THIS WAS THE touchstone. Or-
ganized demonstrations were call-
ed. The first was a silent protest
in front of the Administration
building in which 500 or 600 took
A few eggs were tossed, but on
the whole the demonstration was
peaceful. The signs carried in-
dicated a broad base of student
The acknowledged leader of the
demonstration was J. Kirk Sale,
editor of the Cornell Daily Sun,
son of a professor of English at
the University. Kirk gave real
direction to this demopstration.
Another was called for the fol-
lowing Friday night. It was re-
peatedly urged that it be a peace-
ful demonstration of student con-
cern. The meeting began under
torchlight much like a pep rally.
The speeches were not genuinely
inflammatory, but elicited great
response from the 1,500 or so as-
IT WAS CLEAR that those or-
ganizing the demonstrations want-
ed only to peacefully demonstrate
the unanimity and strength of
student opposition to the adminis-
tration. ,
Unfortunately, perhaps because
of the mood and volatile nature of
crowds of that size, some began
a ridiculous chant ("We want
Mallot shot"), and new leadership
sprang up around a group of stu-
dents who had burned the Presi-
dent in effigy. This group propos-
ed that the crowd take their ap-
peal to the President's home.
Somewhat less than half of the
crowd at the first meeting, many
out of curiosity, took up the call
and descended on the President's
house. Here smoke bombs were set
off, and rockswere hurled through
the windows.
ally emerged (with a prominent
alumnus who had just donated a
boathouse to the University) he
was ingloriously spattered with
eggs. When he attempted to speak
he was repeatedly shouted down.
It was not a pleasant scene, nor
one of which we were proud. The
news media across the country
found the story appealing. Some
were content to classify the dem-
onstrations in the panty-raid cat-
egory and announced:
"Students Riot for Sex." News.
week and. The New York Times,
however, made an effort to dem-
onstrate the broad bases of stu-
dent unrest, and perhaps because
of this, the Trustees, whose spring
meeting was held at Cornell in
early June, found it difficult to
ignore the demonstrations as mere
spring-time hi-jinx.
* * *
was with respect to the conduct
and desirability of the student
demonstrations, no one could ig-
nore their apparent effectiveness
in bring about some significant
changes in the attitude of the ad-
ministration and ultimately in
causing a re-examination of the
role of the undergraduate in uni-
versity affairs.
On July 1, 1958, the Office of
Vice-President for Student Af-
fairs was established. The Deans'
Office was eventualidyrestructured
with a Dean of Students replacing
the deans of men and women. The
President delegated his authority
over Student Conduct Activities
to committees elected by the Uni-
versity faculty.
Negative and restrictive policies
were replaced by a more affirma-
tive policy of at least cooperation

and respect. The President noted
these changes in his 1958-9 report,
and spoke with approval of Stu-
dent Council action studying and
proposing methods of improving
the intellectual life of the campus.
He also noted that there must'
be a complete understanding and;
respect among students, faculty
and administrators in accomplish-
ing the purposes of the university
-purposes which were being re-
evaluated at that time by a com-
mittee of concerned faculty and
alumni under the leadership of
the Dean of Faculty, and with
participation by various students.'
ognizing that its structure had
proven unwieldy and unrespon-
sive to student needs, completely
re-organized. An elected Executive
Committee now exercises control
over all powers which the faculty
has delegated to students. It has
in turn delegated initial judisdic-
tion in some areas to other stu-
dent governing bodies, but retains
a review power.
IT IS NOT my opinion that
these changes were all brougnt
about by the demonstrations. Such
organic changes do not admit of

to the
To the Editor;
H AVING BEEN terribly mis-
quoted in yesterday's report of
Student Government Council's
consideration of membership
statements, it is necessary to ex-
plain just what my position was.
Contrary to Miss Neu's interpreta-
tion, I did support a time limit
for those groups which have not
yet filed a statement. Our point
of departure was on the issue of
adequacy of those statements.
It was urged by various council-
men that a standard of accept-
ability should now be set for those
groups which are yet to send in
their statements. If the statements
were found inadequate, these
groups 'would be vulnerable to
"punishment" on the day of the
deadline. Groups having already
filed would not be subject to such
action regardless of the complete-
ness of their statements on that
Clearly this is an inconsistent
way of dealing with the situation.
What is necessary at this time is
the statement. The next step is
the evaluation of that statement
in terms of completeness. There
should be no change in mid-
stream at the eleventh hour.
-Susan Stillerman, '62
Panhellenic Association
Apartments ...'
To the Editor:
IN REGARD TO Pat Golden's
November 29 editorial "The
Senior Pad," we would like to
qualify her statement that "a
policy to keep the sorority women
caged for their senior year received
resounding support." If Pat had
attended the meeting at her own
house, at least, she would have
discovered that her sorority, Alpha
Chi Omega, was diametrically op-
posed-to this policy.
-Andrea Patterson, '62
Quad Visits ...
To the Editor:
letter to the editor of Novem-
ber 27; the question of whether
women should be allowed in the
rooms of the quadrangles is purely
academic, since it is based on the
false assumption that women ac-
tually want to visit these rooms.
Perhaps Mr. Hendel has gotten
his idea of sophisiticated "en-
tertainment" from Esquire or some
other such publication. Well, he
should realize that inviting a date
to a small, -cluttered quad room
whose furnishings consist of a
chair and a sinister looking bed is
not quite the same as stopping at
a plush Fifth Avenue apartment
after an evening at the theater. I,
and most of my friends, would be
perfectly satisfied to go to a show
and then maybe stop for a bite to
eat, but to go to our date's room to
talk or "listen to music" - Oh
come now!
-Connie Lingus, '62
Peace Course ....
To the Editor:
SOME MEMBERS of this com-
munity are upset because the
University does not offer an un-
dergraduate course in disarma-
ment. I say that such an offering
would be unwise.,
A university should aim itself
at equipping its- undergraduates
with the fundamental bases of

knowledge upon which to base
their thinking, and not try to
"teach" solutions to specific prob-
lems falling within applied areas.
Students' time is better spent
reading (for example) in history
and the classics than attempting
to use knowledge that they do not
-Noel Ossian
Brush-off? ...
To the Editor:
HOW NAIVE can two people be!
I'm referring to your columnist
and the letter writer who made
an issue of Bump's perfunctory
handshake after last Saturday's
game, How does one go about con-
gratulating someone who acts as
Mr. Hayes does in front of crowds?
Typically, coaches do not pour
it on opponents who are obviously
not going to win that day. Mr.
Hayes went for another quick
touchdown and two points as well
with 33 seconds to go. He got
what he deserved-a perfunctory
handshake. It was Hayes who
hung on to Bump's hand and
thereby pointed up the fact that
Bump had no desire to chat with
him at that point.
-Prof. Earle F. Zeigler
Department of
Physical Education
"UTR GRE1ATES5T contribuition





THE WOMEN of Mary Markley Hall have
been instructed that Christmas is on the.
way. In celebration of this holiday, they have
been told that 'they may decorate their rooms.
But, there have been certain necessary re-
strictions placed on the Markleyites' decorat-
ing. No liquid snow may be used anywhere in a
room. No greens of any sort (even lettuce) may
be employed in making a "house" a "home"
Windows may be decorated as long as no
one can see them from the outside. Since
there are -no windows in Markley which face
into the corridors, this limits window decorat-.
ing considerably. The women decorating theip
rooms have been instructed to hang nothing
from the ceiling. This is reasonable, since
Christmas around Markley is often a rather
depressing time of year, and young women
sometimes act irrationally when depressed.
In a moment of weakness the powers that be
ruled that candles may be used in the rooms
if they (the candles) are not lighted.
THERE HAS BEEN no statement issued, to
date, restricting colors which may be used
in decorating. Nor has there been any limit set
on what a Markley Girl may do to the door of
her room. But, as one disillusioned house presi-
dent mumbled. "Ain't even no Santa for Mark-

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