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EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
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Down The Rabbit-Hole
Gou Should Only
'e Opinions Are Free
uth Will 1f'reval"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
Y, NOVEMBER 18, 1961.
NIGHT EDITOR: MICHAEL HARRAH
ULIP SHERMAN, City Editor
EDITOR'S NOTE: The writer has witnessed
sh coverage from the wire service point of view.
is article is a hypothetical reconstruction of
away Wednesday's minor plane crash at Bos-
i's Logan Airport was covered, showing the way
major news services and metropolitan dailies
E ASSOCIATED PRESS transmitted an
urgent" bulletin ending at 5:21 p.m. Wed-
ay, announcing to the world (or, at least
he AP papers) that "two planes, reported
e commercial airliners, collided on the
nd at Logan International airport to-'
t." Three more terse paragraphs des-
ng emergency action were included before
Lis first report was cryptic enough to imply
ajor disaster, rather than the relatively
r one that did occur.'
it it set off a chain of newsgathering that
d till 8:49 p.m. when the AP transmitted
the national trunk wire a five-paragraph
lusion to its report.
HAT WENT ON in between?
Logan airport is in east Botson, about 15
minutes from downtown. It is in an area
covered by the Boston police and fire depart-
ments, so the first notice of the disaster
probably came over their radio network. It
would be orders to police and fire companies
to proceed to the airport.
The radio can go on all day, without the
newsmen hearing very much. But they always
dear those orders.
In the early stages of a crash at an air-
port, the news bureaus have to rely on the
fire radios. The control towers will rarely talk;
and the firemen are getting the best informa-
. A, message dispatched at 5:22 p.m. (EST)
Indicated that newsmen and photograpers had
been dispatched to the scene, the usual pro-
edure when a crash- has definitely occurred.
I AN EVENT like this, the emphasis
is on speed. Goaded by competition, both
the AP and United Press International try
tb get as much as they can on the wire, as
'ast as possible. Often this leads to errors
Overlooked by toq-eager newsmen and editors.
Half past five is just a bit late for the
great Eastern morning dailes, whose first
editions were -probably too far along for the
tory to be put in.
But in the midwest, it was an hour earlier,
and the first editions had time to carry 'the
It would have been better if they had not.
[he story, as it turned out, wasn't important
nough to worry millions of readers.
At the same time, the radio teletype net-
Works of both services would be working full-
ble, clacking out the news. In the East, at
east', news directors were probably breaking
nto rock n' roll shows, if they didn't have a
:35 or 5:30 news cast coming up.
p ENEXT STORY moved just before 5:45
p.m. It definitely stated that the planes
Were airliners, and speculated on their com-
lanies. There were several short reports from
witnesses." The story was filled out with
etails of what the Boston police were doing.
Another story followed within the half hour.
'HERE ARE ONLY 600 ,or 700 students on
this campus who seem to think that people
hould know more than they do about the
roblems of peace in the nuclear age.
This is not the preface to a call for a mass
rnout at another peace assembly. It is not
condemnation of those too apathetic to stand
ut in the cold for an hour and listen to talks
about the crises of our times. Rather it is
condemnation of those who are too lazy
0 even sign their names.
WEDNESDAY and Thursday, Americans
Committed to World Responsibility had a
etition in the Fishbowl urging the University
0 set up a, credit course on the problems of
eace in the nuclear age. Not more than 600
r 1700 students out of a campus enrollment
f 25,000 signed it.
A signature on the petition did not con-
;itute a commitment to take the course, it
ist indicated the signers belief that such a
purse should exist. Yet people walked by,
ast a curious glance at the large letter pasted
Bove the petition table and walked on, con-
emning themselves to ignorance.
It is also a condemnation of a society when
produces young people who are so un-
terested in life that they are not even
irious to find out why it may end.
It pinned down the casualty details. This was
important, because the deadlines for the mid-
western papers was approaching, and they
needed something definite.
The next story did not hedge. Two airliners,
a Northeast and a National Airlines plane had
collided. There were 12 casualties.
This was not banner headline naterial.
At 6:42 p.m. New York sent a wirephoto ad-
visory indicating a picture "plane on nose
after Boston Airport collision,"-was upcoming
on the wirephoto network.
The picture was probably taken with a tele-
photo lens and rushed downtown to be devel-
oped and then transmitted. Speed in wire-
photos is as important, competitively, as news
THE ADVISORY was quickly followed by a
"first add" to the "second lead planes."
These paragraphs included names of two men
taken to the hospital and comments from
people who had been on the planes. More
details of the crash were included, this time
The story was still quite choppy, indicating
it was being written in the bureau by a re-
write man receiving information over the
The story was transmitted on the teletype
network at about 65 words per minute; the
operators who punched the paper tapes that
run a teletype were probably working around
100 words per minute, normal speed for many
All this tim, copy was going out on the
wire networks to local raido stations; the
Boston bureau is in control of these, though
not in control of the national trunk wire
stretching to California.
The first add finished at 10 minutes to
In another hour, a "third lead plane" was
The sentences were smoother, the whole story
flowed more. The disaster was over and it
was time for a rehash that read better.
One more item was transmitted Wednesday
evening-another add with the story on the
crews and the Federal Aeronautics Agency
IF THE DISASTER had been more serious,
there would be more stories, because the
clients would want them. There would be
casualty lists and the, ticklish job of contact-
ing families of the deceased for details: "Why
was your husband going to Boston?" "Had he
flown before?" "Your daughter was going
to visit grandma?"
This infinitely tactful process would be car-
ried out at every point each airliner had
touched down, for only there would the in-
timate personal details the papers would want"
Sometimes the task would be even more
ticklish: the airlines, at first, are able to give
out only the information on the ticket-the
passenger's name and initial, and his city.
The newsmen has then to call everyone by
that name and initial.
BUT AS IT WAS, there was only a rewriting
of the evening's story in a style proper for
the next day's afternoon papers-which are
first printed at 10 a.m.
The crash would be old news by then, and the
stories more restrained, with more stress on the
human element, and less on the immediate
The crash had been covered.
IF YOU THINK American officials are honest,
upright "good-guys," who would never
stretch the truth, take note:
The New York Times reported Thursday that
John Kenneth Galbraith, United States am-
bassador to India, emphasized that it was
only a "happy coincidence" that the announce-
ment of nine American universities' plans to
set up a technological institute in India came
at the same time as Prime Minister Jawaharlal
Nehru's visit to the United States.
T'was nearly two weeks ago when University
Vice-President William E. Stirton, a top man
in the United States Educational Consortium
that is preparing the plans, was carefully mak-
ing arrangements for Nehru's "surprise."
So if you've ever wondered how such perfect
timing could happen so "coincidentally," now
By JUDITH OPPENHEIM
Daily Staff Writer
STUDENT Government Council
Wednesday night refused per-
manent recognition to Voice Poli-
tical Party because members felt
its membership qualifications;
needed to be clarified.
Article III of the Voice Con-
stitution states that "membership
is open to all who feel in accord
with its principles, work actively,
for the implementation of them
and pay the established dues.
Membership shall not be based
upon race, creed, color, religion,
national origin or ancestry."
* * *
THE DISPUTE which arose
over the meaning of the phrase
"all who feel in accord with its
principles" involved two questions:
What are the principles of
Voice? And has Voice the right to
restrict its membership to those
who are in accord with its prin-
Voice Chairman Kenneth Mc-
Eldowney said the Voice principles
are stated in its preamble which
says students "should assume
greater responsibility and in-
volvement with the problems of
both the University and the total
community, and is dedicated to
that end through responsible,
direct, non-violent action and,
* * *
SOME COUNCIL MEMBERS
protested this could not be taken
as a statement of the Voice prin-
ciples, which really were represent-
ed in the Voice platform and sub-
ject to change from one SGC
election to the next.
They failed to recognize that
the specific issues on which Voice
candidates run are only reflections.
of the broader underlying prin-
ciples spelled out in the preamble.
As long as the Voice candidates'
advocate steps aimed at "greater
responsibility and involvement
with the problems of both the
University and the total com-
munity," and as long as proposed
projects are to be carrie-d out
through "responsible, direct, non-
violent action and analysis," they.
are acting in accord with Voice'
It would be absurd to demand-,
the individual issues be spelled
out in the constitution since they
are subject to change as "the
University and the total com- ,
* * *
THE QUESTION of whether an
organization has the right to de-
mand that members adhere to its
principles is more complicated and
open to various interpretations.
When asked whether "any
sucker who was willing to pay
his buck for dues" would be allow-
ed join Voice, McEldowney said
But regardless of the real situa-
tion, the Voice constitution, like
the constitutions of many student
organizations, requires that mem-
bers be in sympathy with the
Steven Stockmeyer said he con-
sidered such a requirement in line
with an organization's right "to
select its members on the basis
of personal merit" as long as it
does not discriminate in a man-
ner forbidden by the University.
. * * *
"PERSONAL MERIT" is a bad
term because it implies that a
student organization may choose
its members in the same manner
that a sorority or fraternity does.
An organization obviously must
have some control over its mem-
bership, but the point at which
it may begin to exercise this con-
trol is not definite.
If the club has a right to exist,
it has the right to perpetuate
itself and work, for its own best
interests. It has the right to state
its principles and to expect that
individuals who wish to join, al-
though they may not work ac-
tively to further these principles,
will not work to subvert the or-.
* * *
IF AN AVOWED supporter of
the Young Americans for Freedom
joined Voice with the intent of
destroying the organization, and
if he could encourage enough
other YAF'ers to join to outvote
the liberals, Voice would be over-
In this way, any Mninority or-
ganization on campus would be
at the mercy of the majority to
continue its existence. For reasons
of self-preservation, then, an or-
ganization has the right to de-
mand what in affect amounts to
a disclaimer-not a signed state-
ment or anything of the sort, but
the right to refuse membership to
a student who declares that his
purposes are contrary to those
of the group and that he has no
intention of changing his mind.
However, it does not have the
right to demand that every stu-
dent who joins will agree whole-
heartedly with its aims or will
work;to implement them.
* * *
IN A UNIVERSITY where all
students are accepted as equals,
any University-recognized organ-
ization should be open to all stu-
dents who wish to join for reasons
other than its overthrow.
For example, if a student deeply
opposed to ,the principle of non-
violent action wants to join Voice
simply to listen to procedures, he
has the right to do so.
Groups which choose menbers
on a competitive basis, such as the
cheerleaders or the select choirs,
are not involved in a question of
this nature. But other organiza-
tions must work out membership
clauses which protect the organ-
ization without forcing all who
jiin to agree with its ideology.
Tyranny in the Free world?
Boy RONALD WILTON i
Daily Staff Writer
CALLING A NATION a part of
the "Free World," does not
necessarily make that nation free.
Portugal is a good example of
Portugal has a population of
8,500,000, and a percapita income
of less than $200 a year, the lowest
in Western Europe. She was neu-
tral in World War II, much to
the delight of espionage agents on
both sides who often used Lisbon
as a jumping-off point.
She joined the North Atlantic
Treaty Organization in 1949, which
automatically' makes her a part
of the "Free World." Butrhere the
names is misused-Portugal is a
FOR THE PAST 33 years Por-
tugal has been ruled by one man;
73-year-old Premier Antonio de
Oliveria Salazar. According to the
Constitution of 1933, which made
Portugal a Corporate State, Sala-
zar, as Premier, is nominally re-
sponsible to the president of the
country. Since the beginning of
his rule he has hand-picked his
own presidential candidates and
gotten them elected against little
or no opposition.
But in 1958 the people gave 23
per cent of the vote to Brig. Gen.
Humberto Delgado, a former
friend of Salazar. Delgado, who
traveled around the country crit-
icizing Salazar's hold on the gov-
ernment, claimed that the voting
was rigged and presented evidence
which made the claim appear more
than just possible. The govern-
ment, naturally enough, explained
that Delgado was just a poor loser.
Shaken by what he considered
this "spectacle," Salazar had the
laws changed in 1959 to do away
with direct voting for the Presi-
dency. In its place he substituted
an indirect voting system through
an electoral college.
When the next President is se-
lected four years from now repre-
sentatives from the National As-
sembly (the lower, popularly elect-
ed house), the Chamber of Cor-
porations (the upper house rep-
resenting industries and profes-
sions), overseas territories and mu-
nicipal councils will sit on this
body. These are all controlled by
Salazar, either through his Na-
tional Union Party, the secret pol-
icy, or economic interests friendly
* * *
LAST SUNDAY Portugal held
an election to fill the 130 seats
in the National Assembly - an
election which made a mockery of
This year a cross section of the
Portugese political body provided
the opposition, ranging from mon-
archists to socialists, from doctors
to army officers. They called
themselves the "Democratic Op-
position," and they called for
democratic rights (such as a free
press), economic progress (one
opposition leader is reported to
have said, "we are being operated
"Free World" type of law which
says that people suspected of en-
dangering the security of the state
may be imprisoned for periods of
up to six months while the gov-
ernments accumulates evidence.
There was more harrassment.
According to the election laws
candidates can be nominated only
if 20 local electors have signed
their petition. Opposition can-
didates would get the signatures,
only to find out later that some
of the officials who had signed
their petitions were not officials
any more. Government censors
took liberties with statements by
Opposition candidates; either sur-
pressing them, revising them, or
holding them for long periods of
* * *
CATHOLICS, who make up the
bulk of the country's population,
were warned by the Roman
Catholic hierarchy of the nation
not to vote for "Communists or
their allies," a term Salazar ap-
plies to his opponents (perhaps
the only liberal thing about Sala-
zar in his liberal application of
the term Communists to his op-
ponents). The church eventually
set up housekeeping on the pro-
verbial fence by disassociating it-
self from "the methods of totali-
The opposition had popular sup-
port. This was confirmed by news
reports which spoke of student
demonstrations against Fascism in
the streets of Lisbon and crowds
of people gathering to hear and
applaud opposition speakers, al-
ways under the watchful eye of
* * *
FIVE DAYS BEFORE the elec-
tions the opposition decided that it
had had enough harrassment.
Twenty-six opposition candidates,
the last of 59 who had received
government approval to run, with-
drew from the race and called
on the voters to boycott the polls.
Announcing that "the opposition
party no longer exists," the gov-
ernment banned all further news
of the opposition.
The withdrawal of the opposi-
tion left the National Union
Party's candidates as the only
ones left in the field. The voteis
had two choices, stay at home or
vote for Salazar's unopposed fol-
lowers. The boycott idea had its
followers, although just how large
this group was, percentagewise, is
hard to say. The New York Times
reported that the Portuguese In-
terior Ministry said that about
one million or 65 per cent of the
electorate had voted.
But Time magazine reported
the number of Portugal's eligible
voters as 2,250,000. If this is true
then the percentage figures drops
to 44 per cent which is evidence
that a majority of therelectorate
is against the present regime.
I DO NOT WISH to seem in the
THIS ELECTION will, at best,
increase Salazar's dislike of elec-
tions, for he has always main-
tained that Portugal is unready
for democracy. At worst he will
abolish elections entirely in an,
effort to consolidate his hold on
the government-a government of
ficial has admitted that Salazar
tolerates the appearance of elec-
tions only in hopes of satisfying
world opinion that he has no fear
of taking his policies to the people.
The election results could also
make him more determined to
stamp out the centers of opposi-
tion overseas. This would include
a greater effort to supress the
Angolan people fighting for in-
dependence with all the inter-
national ramifications this would
contain both for Portugal and the
SALAZAR, like his contemporary
in Spain, is an anacronism from
the 1930's. He himself made the
best possible case for his removal
when he told aBrazilian reporter
on his 72nd birthday, "Maybe I
have lived beyond my time." He
is a burden on the Portuguese
people, the United States, and the
whole "Free World."
As leader of the Western bloc,
the United States should demand
that either Salazar resign or at
least that he sharply liberalize
Portugal's political and economic
system. If he refuses, an arms
and economic boycott should be
thrown up around the- country.
There is something wrong with
this country's conception of jus-
tice and democracy when we try
our best to overthrow leftist lead-
ers like Castro while sending guns
to rightists like Salazar.
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
responsibility. Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3564 Administration Building
before 2 p.m., two days preceding
SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 18
The student automobile regulations
will be lifted for Thanksgiving vaca-
tion from 5 p.m. Wed., Nov. 22, until
8:00 a.m. on Mon., Nov. 27, 1961.
Approval for the following student
sponsored activities becomes effective
twenty-four (24) hours after the publi-
cation of this notice. All publicity for
these events must be withheld until
the approval has become effective.
November 20-The Michigan League,
Coffee Hour and discussion for students
interested in the "Mademoiselle" Col-
lege Board Contests. League Vandenberg
Collegium Musicum: The Michigan
Singers, Tudor Singers, and an instru-
mental ensemble from the University
Symphony Orchestra, conducted by
Maynard Klein, will present a concert
of Renaissance and baroque music on
Sun. No v. 19.8:30 in Fm . theack..
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR:
City Council Account
To the Editor:
IN MICHAEL HARRAH'S column
of comment on The Daily's
editorial page of Wednesday, 15
November, there is an incorrect
statement of fact which I 'would.
like to have Mr. Harrah publicly
retract in the pages of The Daily.
In reporting my remarks' at a
recent meeting of the Ann Arbor
City Council, Mr. Harrah stated
that "His remarks to Mrs. Flan-
nery were quite insolent.", That
statement is not correct. I made
no remarks to Mrs. Flannery and
did not mention 'her name in my
statement, which was directed to
the City Council as a whole.
Mr. Harrah is quite at liberty to
call my remarks insolent if he
wishes, but he is not at liberty to'
imply that I insulted Mrs. Flan-
nery. She certainly took exception
to my remna~ks, which is hen privi-
lege as a member of the city
council, but it is not correct to
say that any of my remarks were
directed toward any one council
Prof. Daniel R. Fusfeld
Department of Economics
To the Editor:
IN WEDNESDAY'S Daily, Mr.
Harrah presented his interpre-
tation of the proceedings of Mon-
day's City Council meeting. The
extremely biased reporting of
Councilman Eley's role during that
meeting was to say the least in-
appropriate and absurd.
To begin with, Mr. Harrah fail-
ed to point out that Mr. Eley is
the only Democrat on the City
Council and is slightly outnum-
bered by a bargin of 10-1. Yet
the matter of a simple difference
of opinion never even occurred to
Harrah. Instead, Mr. Harrah
would have us believe that Mr.
facts in an effort to impune Mr.
Since local city news gets little
coverage in The Daily, it would
seem only reasonable that the facts
not be presented in such a biased
manner, and this in effect is just
what has been done. Enthusiastic
concern is one thing, but down-
right distortion and grossly mis-
leading allegations is another.
-Beverly Jean Silverman
To the Editor:
IT WOULD BE quite pointless to
attempt to reply to the recent
editorial, newspaper and letter to
the editor-especially if we were
to restrict ourselves to the lan-
guage of the Academy. However,
permit us to make a few points--
without "inaccuracy" or "distor-
The Committee Of One Million
is a public organization dedicated
to mobilizing and articulating
American public opinion against
the admission of Communist
China to the United Nations. It
is headed by Warren R. Austin,
former U.S. Senator and first U.S.
Ambassador to the U.N., and Jo-
seph C. Grew, former U.S. Am-
bassador to Japan and Under Sec-
retary of State. Among those who
support the Committee's work are
a majority of the Congress of the
United States 'representing both
Our opposition to the admission
of Communist China to the U.N.
rests on many premises. Our major
premise, however, is that Red
China does not qualify for admis-
sion under the Charter of the U.N.
Either the United States supports
the U.N. or it does not. If we sup-
port the U.N., we must not only
abide by its Charter but also see
to it that the Charter is respected
hv all natinns Tn effect the Cnm..
IN THIS TIME of crises the effect of the
national defense build-up is noticible na-
tion-wide. Physicians, key executives, college
students,,and many others have been drafted
out of important roles and have had their
personal lives disrupted.