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November 12, 1961 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1961-11-12

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C 41 Aldilgatt Daily,
Seventy-Second Year
'here Opinions Are Free STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Truth Wil Prevail"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

The Sword of Damocles



j I By PAS


' GOLDEN, Associate City Editor

NON-VIOLENCE is both a philosophy and
a method.
The philosophy holds that there is something
of inestimable value within man, and that
man has dignity. It is therefore wrong to
kill men, or to treat them without respect. It is
disrespectful to attack a man physically; it
is disrespectful to treat any man as less than
If it is wrong to kill men, then weapons
that kill vast groups of men are wrong. And
when an individual shares in the decision-
making process of a society, he also shares
the guilt for the group's wrongs. Each citizen
is a murderer if the government kills.
IF AN INDIVIDUAL applies non-violent prin-
ciples to life in twentieth-century America.
he will probably object to atomic weapons
testing and military buildups. He may refuse
to carry a gun. He may protest to acts and
laws wihch violate his philosophical beliefs.
He protests because he feels a need to
express his convictions. He can do so without
any intent of spilling over into the practical
.and tactical aspects of political action. Or, he
may protest in a combination of desire for
expression and a social consciousness.
He may direct his acts toward arousing the
level of awareness, creating a social concern,
and setting off a chain of public reactions. But
he may not be able to provide effective poli-
tical channels for the reactions and the new
public awareness.
In either case the. protest stems from a
philosophy and subsequently becomes political.
Its validity lies only in the sincere conviction
of the protester. Public response to his action is
desirable, but not essential.
THE METHOD of non-violent resistance, on
the onther hand, is designed for political
effect. It aims specifically at calling attention
to an issue and polarizing opinion. The un-
committed public is urged to respond favorably
to individuals acting with dignity in the face
of undignified behavior by others.; This re-
sponse is then channeled into pressure upon
the center of political power, with the state
goal of political and social change.
The effectiveness of the method depends
upon three basic conditions:
First, the society must accept the same basic
assumptions-,-there is something of inestim-
able value in life, and man has dignity. People
will not respond sympathetically to a blatant
violation of their values-even if they, too, have
been lax in.following the same principles.
Second, non-violent action must polarize
opinion and appeal to a spectator group. The
protestors must be suffering injustices per-
formed by another clearly identifiable group,
or law, or structure. The appeal for sym-
pathetic esponse is directed at a third group,
which rallies to the "side of the injured and
defends the common values.
Third, the responding group must see an
accessible and effective channel through which
pressure can produce political change.
THE UNITED STATES does accept these
basic values, and does provide the setting

and channels for public response to non-
violent resistance. It also harbors some social
injustices which lend themselves to non-violent
Non-violent political methods can be taught
to persons who have a sincere desire to solve
a particular social or political problem, but
who are not necessarily followers of non-
violent philosophy.
It is possible to train a man to sit silently
at a lunch counter while a howling mob spits
at him and grinds cigaret butts into his
shoulder. He can be trained to maintain his
digpity in this situation without making a
commitment to non-violent philosophy. There
are others, whose commitment to civil rights
is just as strong, but who cannot participate
in non-violent resistance.
ACTIONS STEMMING from either the phi-
losophy or the method of non-violence are
valid. There can also be great value in a
carefully considered synthesis of the two, as
exemplified by Mahatma Gandhi, who is often
considered the father of non-violence. Gandhi
saw practices and structures in his society that
conflicted with his basic non-violent philos-
ophical values. Yet he could not tolerate vio-
lent means of changing the society, as that
would conflict with his values, too. He sought
politically effective means of change that would
enhance, rather than violate, his non-violent
Gandhi had the personal public stature to
make a hunger strike a politically effective
non-violent tactic. He lived in a society which
was basically aligned with his views on non-
violence-much more so, in fact, than the
United States today. He polarized his position
from that of the government and placed the
public in the responding spectator role. At
that time the government was responsive to
public pressure alone, so the only necessary
channel was to direct the public protest
against the government.
This particular method could probably not
be used with similar effect today.
OO OFTEN the distinction between philos-
ophical non-violence and tactical non-
violence, and the conditions under which the
two may rationally and effectively combine,
are not clear to the well-meaning participants.
Too often individuals begin a protest purely
because they need to express their non-violent
philosophical convictions, but then mystically
contend that because they are expressing their
convictions they are bound to achieve politi-
cal effect.
This not only makes them look illogical and
ridiculous, but it discredits all forms of non-
violence in the eyes of a public all too willing
to dismiss such actions as the feverish mut-
terings of the nut fringe.
F NON-VIOLENT philosophy is to be linked
with non-violent resistance as a method
of political and social change, then not only
the sincerity of the philosophical conviction,
but the conditions of the political method
must be present.

Daily Staff Writer
soon debate the now-familiar
question of the seating of Com-
munist China.
The United States, as usual, is
expected to use' the full force of
its international influences in be-
half of its Nationalist Chinese al-
ly. And, as usual, a sufficient
number of the member nations
are expected to reluctantly bow to
the wishes of their gargantuan
The People's Republic of China
is one-third larger than the con-
tinental United States. It effec-
tively governs one quarter of the
people of the world. It is present-
ly the seventh-greatest producer
of iron and steel. By the end of
this decade it is expected to be
third among the industrial pow-
ers of the world. Its army is esti-
mated at two and one half mil-
lion men. It has 125 million males
of military age.
* * *
BUT the People's Republic of
China is not represented in the
United Nations.
Instead, China is represented in
New York by a delegate from For-
mosa, an island in the China Sea.
This odd circumstance exists
because the United States, almost
alone, has insisted on it. Public
opinion polls conducted through-
out the free world have shown
that of the 21 nations question-
ed, only three favor the status
quo: Mexico, The Netherlands,
and the United States.
Among those countries whose
people clearly ,favor the seating
of Communist China are Great

Britain, France, West Germany,
India, Japan and the whole Scan-
dinavian bloc.
* * *
IN EARLY 1950, members of
the young United Nations had
little doubt the Communist re-
gime would be recognized and al-
lowed to speak for China in the
organization. Five of the eleven
Security Council members had al-
ready recognized Red China.
The United States, while ex-
pected to vote against the change,
made it clear that they would not
exert influence -on the other na-
tions. Over the howls of conserva-
tive senators, the Secretary of
State declared that the United
States felt it had no right to exer-
cise its veto.
And then the picture changed.
Red China lost the support of
France, by supporting the Viet-
minh government in Indochina.
Russia, its most vociferous sup-
porter, walked out of the United
Nations. And by the time the Gen-
eral Assembly completed its an-
nual business, 200,000 Chinese
troops had been committed against
United Nations forces in Korea..
IN 1954, 43 nations voted against
discussing the seating of Red
China. Eleven favored the meas-
ure, and six nations abstained.
In 1959, the vote was 44 against
degate, 29 for, and nine absten-
Last year, the supporters of the
perennial American proposal
shrank to 42, as against 34 who,
wished to bring the issue before
the Assembly. The 22 nations
which abstained included most of
the new African states.
This African bloc gave the West

The War Vigil:
Children's Crusade

a scare this year, and the trem-
bling Americans still aren't entire-
ly calmed. Russia pressured the
UN to admit Communist Outer
Mongolia. Nationalist C h i n a
promptly declared it would veto
Mongolia, and Russia retaliated by
threatening to veto the applica-
tion of Mauritania, a new African
This was an obvious move to
put pressure on the United States
and her Chinese allies, and it
worked to perfection. The Afri-
can members clamored for Maur-
itania's admission and promised
to oppose the West on the Red
China question unless the Afri-
can nation was seated.
After a few weeks, the United
States succeeded in explaining
this to Chiang Kai-shek, Nation-
alist Chinese "president," who
withdrew his vitriolic vow and
permitted a compromise by which
both Mongolia and Mauritania be-
came members of the United Na-
THE PRESENT controversy,
however, is not over the "admis-
sion" of Red China. For China
cannot be "admitted" to the UN;
it is already a member-and has
been since the organization was
founded. The question is merely
one of credentials-which Chi-
nese government should be al-
lowed to fill China's seat - and
consequently is not one for the
Security Council. Disputes of this
nature, therefore, are not subject
to an American veto.
It is possible, at least tech-
nically, to give UN representation
to both governments. In this case,
one of them would have to be
formally "admitted" or the UN
charter would have to be chang-
ed. In either case, the approval
of the Security Council would be
required, and the United States
could veto the measure.
But seeing two Chinas in the
UN in the near future seems high-
ly unlikely. President Chiang has
violently dismissed the possibility
a number of times. On the other
side of the Formosa Strait, Com-
munist Premier Chou En-La said
in 1955, "Only when the represen-
tative of the Chiang Kai-shek
clique has been driven out from
the Security Council . .. can the
People's Republic of China agree
to send a representative."
Until then, he said, all discus-
sion by that body regarding China
is "illegal, null and void." The
Communists have stuck to this
policy ever since.
WITHIN a few weeks the unit-
ed Nations of the world will con-
sider whether to debate the ap-
plication of the People's Republic
of China. If the United States is
successful, discussion of the ques-
tion will be kept from the As-
sembly. If not, the African bloc
will decide the issue.
At best, we can hope to delay
the inevitable. The problem will
appear next year, and every year
until a reasonable solution is
found. Chiang Kai-shek is a na-
tional leader, and entitled to UN
representation. He is not the ef-
fective ruler of China, however,
and it is foolish for the Western
powers to continue claiming that
he is.
Red China is as worthy of a
UN seat as many of the nations
now in the organization. Its pres-
ence will shortly become vital,
when its top-quality scientists
succeed in developing a nuclear
bomb. The People's Republic of
China should be represented in
the United Nations.
In the meanwhile, the 669 mil-
lion people of the Chinese main-
land will remain thorns in the side
' of the assembly that calls itself a
world organization.

. a i _ --
, ,,. ,






STotal Biraci Disfrk43i-t
1961 Districts Desegreatedma
'.ii ". 19 V y 23
>: ^ NTE1
A190. -0 Miss. ALA.-Q
- WASH. D.C.
j49 LA.
..... .FLA.
E§3 Majority of Dsfrids Desegregated
Minority of Distri Desegregafed
No Districts De groaaed A Newsf atures


To the Editor:
that there are some children
on this campus under the delu-'
sion; that they are responsible
University students. Those to
whom I refer, who by their own
choice wish to remain anony-
mous, are the four or five little
boys who have set themselves,
blankets, radio and all (I guess
the only thing they're missing is
the booze) across from the deeply
motivated Vigil for Peace support-
These clowns (all they do is
laugh if approached by a ques-
tioner) sport posters stating "Vig-
il for War," "End Human Suffer-
ing Once and For All" (by ending
humans, I suppose).
* *.*
WHAT makes me even sicker is
that this has been greeted mere-
ly with the laughter of most of
the rest of our intellectual Uni-
versity students. I thank those
little boys for making some of us,
myself included, think a little
more deeply about what the Vigil
for Peace supporters are saying.
By their silence and expression
of deep thought, they cry out for
us to show our disgust that there
exists a continual threat of war.
All of us may not agree that
standing in the Michigan cold for
an hour or so a day is an effec-
tive means. I challenge those to
find another satisfying way of ex-
pressing themselves.hh
Hour by hour the peace chain
remains unbroken. Go home little
boys! Go back to your play pens
and I promise many of -us will
come and shower you with, the at-
tention you apparently lack!
-Barbara Greenstein, '64
New Club.. .
To the Editor:
THERE is a new student club on
campus. Though not yet for-
mally organized with an office in
the SAB, its membership rolls in-
clude many SGC members and
candidates, Daily staff writers
and reviewers, and mostly those
smart little boys who show up to
ask "questions" at lectures.
It is the Student Pedants Club,
whose motto is, "Never use words
of two syllables when six-sylla-
ble ones will do." SPC has set up
incentives for its members to en-
courage their pedantry: speaking
for five minutes without finishing
a sentence-one box of Snickers;
speaking in the passive voice for
five minutes-two boxes of Snick-
ers; asking a "question" at a lec-
ture lasting five minutes or more
-three boxes of Snickers; using
"predilection" and "dichotomy"
in the same sentence-a case of
Demerits are handed out for
repeated use of the active voice
and members caught reading The
Elements of Style are severely rep-
ed nations of the world will con-
SPC, the club for phonies and

here when the Russians begin
testing nuclear bombs in the Unit-
ed States, whether they be the
aggressors or not.
This is a special time, this era
of ours. It is not a time for the
ignorant masses. The people must
know, the people must act, or
the people must die.
* * *
DEVASTATION has already be-
gun. The city of Los Angeles has
already been deceived. The mem-
bers of the surrounding commu-
nities have decided to shoot on
sight or turn into the desert any-
one escaping from the city in the
event of a nuclear attack. What is
going on in Chicago, New York
and in the minds of every Ameri-
can? Is there any other way?
Let's find out before it is too
late. I repeat. Devastation has
already begun: first our morale,
then our morals and finally our
lives. The latter cannot be saved
without the former. And if you,
think you have all three now,
wait until the time comes ...
I plea for education and or-
ganized, constructive action.
-Judith A. Madden, '63
YRs and Reds , . .
To the Editor:
TUESDAY NIGHT'S showing of
the film "Red Outlaw" spon-
sored by the Young Republican
Club, was followed by one of the
most interesting discussions I have
ever witnessed.
The discussion got off the
ground immediately when a little,
old woman in the audience com-
mented that the Communists only
showed their true colors when the
lights were off and that they
were "afraid of the light." She
was referring to the sporadic per-
iods of hissing which occurred
during the film.
However, some rather well-in-
formed grad students put the
damper on her fears when they
proceeded to systematically de-
molish the film's many dubious
assertions. T h e y' questioned,
among other things, the emotive
nature of scenes showing Mao and
Khrushchev meeting to the tune
of an Alfred' Hitchcock thriller
as compared to Chiang Kai-
shek's appearance, which was
heralded by musical strains rem-
iniscent of football days in Ann
The film was also criticized for
bearing too much resemblance to
the traditional battle between
Good and Evil (Free World and
Communist World) in which the
former always emerges with the
** *
NOT DETERRED in the least
by the dictates of reason, the
Young Republicans rose heroical-
ly to defend the film with a dis-
play of forensic talents which
would have stirred the hearts of
Protagoras and his band of Soph-
ists. Their use of double talk and
bombastic metaphors. totally lack-

M w


South Gradually
Integrates Schools

Associated Press Newsfeatures Writer
fading institution. So, grad-
ually, is the one-race school.
When opening school bells rang
throughout the South this fall, 31
districts saw Negro and white stu-
dents sitting in classrooms where
only white had sat before.
The number of Negro students
involved was small-only 392. But
friend and foe of desegregation
alike could take consolation from
one fact. Any fighting was con-
fined to the courtroom.
* * *
DALLAS, heretofore operator of
the nation's largest segregated
school system, integrated Negro
students without any of the up-
roar that occurred a year earlier
in New Orleans. New Orleans it-
self 'entered its second, year of
gradual integration without'a re
currence of the housewives' pick-
eting and violence that marked
the first year.
And in perhaps the major city

aren't outdatf
ganizations, whic]
ternity men with
The sorority sya
tion both locallys
anism which off
growth and matu
Sororities doc
people think of
sorority image-s
greater social lif
of the dorms.
dreadful evils.
the unique advan
A sorority is cc
who have chose:
chosen. They ha
together they coz
running the s
bers. Signs-ins, l
versity regulation
the individual g]
feasible in the sr
Simply because

he Value of Sororities
popular belief, sororities it is necessary that any individual who lives
Bd snobbery,, producing or- in a house develop tolerance and respect for
h exist only to provide fra- the opinions of others.
mates for T.G.I.F.'s. The housemother, meals, social events and
stem is a powerful organiza- general house rules are, for the most part,
and nationally. It is a mech- left up to the members of the house. This
ers a frame for individual means that many decisions are going to have
irity. to be made. Minor decisions like "tomato or
ffer All the things which orange juice for breakfast" and decisions that
when they formulate their vitally affect the life of the house such as
ecurity, group identification, alumni-national relations at conventions must
e, and a chance to get out be made-by compromise. You can't just tell
the other girls in the house who feel dif-
ferently about things than you do to go to hell.
RS EXIST, but they aren't Consequently the ,individual develops the
In fact, from them come ability to work to accomplish things about
tages of sorority living, which she feels very strongly, while learning
mposed of a group of girls that compromise is necessary and must be
n you and who you have used wisely.
ve Joined together, because GIRL ALSO GROWS when she realizes
rprise a mutually beneficial A GIL LS GRW whnserais
that she has a responsibility to her house,
because her actions reflect either credit or
OUNT of the mechanics of discredit upon the other girls in the house.
orority are left to the mem- This keeps the sorority girl in line with
ate minutes and other Uni- certain moral, legal and ethical standards
is are left to the honor of necessary to protect the members of the group.
irl anoreeftcotehonoreof Thus, a sorority utilizes the pressure that
alle Hono codes are more any organization places upon its members, to
develop in each sister a sense of these moral
of the structure of a sorority standards.
Also, a sorority ideally forces its member-
ship to get out into the world and meet
-, I other. npnnle The rrnrn realizes that neonle


of the Deep South-Atlanta-the
segregation walls came tumbling
down. So did Georgia Gov. Ernest,
Vandiver's election pledge that no
Negro child would sit in the same
classroom with a white during his
VANDIVER and the state legis-
lature were faced, after rioting
last January when two Negroes
entered the University of Georgia,
with closing the' institution. In-
stead Vandiver proposed ending
segregation laws and replacing
them with others that limit in-
tegration as much as possible.
Dallas faced a similar problem
in a 1957 Texas law which with-
held state school aid if a district
integrated without an approving
referendum. The state attorney.
general later ruled a district
would not have to forego state aid
if it integrated under a federal
court order, which was the case
in Dallas.
Memphis integrated peacefully.
Only in South Carolina, Alabama
and Mississippi this year are there
no integrated school districts.
*H * *~e aa
THE SOUTHERN Education Re-
porting service, 'which tabulates
integration in the South, reports
824 desegrated school districts
this year. (see map)
There are 6,599 districts in all
the area, 2,805 of them having
both Negro and white residents.
Last year 793 districts were de-
segrated out of 6,663.
At a higher level, six public col-
leges and universities changed
their racial policies to take stu-
dents of both races. They were
Georgia Tech, Texas Tech, Texas
Woman's University, St. 'Peters-
burg Junior College, Charlotte
College and Asheville-Biltmore
THE SOUTH now has 131 of its
277 public, institutions of higher
learning, once all white or pre-
dominately so, that will now take
Negroes. Fifteen of the region's
Negro colleges and institutions
now will take white students.
Integration was hardly more
than a token in Atlanta-nine
Negroes-or Dallas-18-or Mem-
phis-13. But the pattern in the
South has been to slowly increase
Negro enrollment once the bar-
rier has been reached.
Arkansas had 113 Negroes in bi-
racial schools last year. This year


The Daily Official Bulletin Is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
responsibility. Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3564 Administration Building
before 2 p.m., two days preceding
General Notices
President and Mrs. Hatcher will hold
open house for students at, their home
Wed., Nov. 15 from 4 to 6 p.m.
Petitions for membership on the Lit-
erary College Steering Committee may
be obtained in 1220 Angell Hall. These
must be returned by 5 p.m. Wed., Nov.
Faculty, College of Architecture and
Design: Midsemester reports are to be
sent to 207 Architecture Bldg., not later
than 5 p.m. Tues., Nov. 14.
Events Monday
Automatic Programming and Numer-
ical Analysis Seminar: "FORTRAN
Arithmetic Scan" by Frank W. Wester-
velt on Mon. ,Nov. 13 at 4:15 p.m. In
Computing Center, Seminar Room.
Women's Research Club: Mon., Nov.
13 at 8 p.m. in the West Conference
Room, Rackham Bldg. Mrs. Kenneth
Pike will discuss "Some Linguistic Re-

"Determination of Slope Contours in
Flexed Elastic Plates by the Salet-Ike-,
da Technique."
Doctoral Examination for Richard
Douglas Hugh Dingle, Zoology; thesis:
"Correcting Behavior in Boxelder Bugs,"
Tues., Nov. 14, 2097 Natural Science
Bldg., at 1:00 p.m. Chairman, L. B.
Beginning with Mon., Nov. 13, the
following schools will have represen-
tatives at the Bureau to interview for
the second semester and the" 1962-1963'
school year.
MON., NOV. 13-
Ferndale, Mich.-7 & 8th grade Libr.,
1st grade, 3rd grade, Art (k-6)-Only
Interviewing for second semester grad-
THURS., NOV. 16-
Cleveland, O.-All fields.
For any additional information and
appointments, contact the Bureau of
Appointments, 3200 SAB, NO 3-1511, Ext.
The Los Angeles Public School system
will be in Chicago, Ill. at the Conrad
Hilton Hotel interviewing teachers on
Nov. 17, 18, 19 & 20, 1961. The fields
being interviewed are: Elem., Agric.,
°Bus. Educ., Girl's PE, Engl., Home Ec.,
Ind. arts, Math, Sc., Span., Spec. Educ.
For additional information contact
the Bureau of Appointments, 3200 SAB,
P ENO 3-1511, Ext. 3547.



!Ts / . l"

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