THE MICHIGAN DAILY
rtok Utilized Folk Sources
Foundation Seeks Future Educators
4ARTHA MAC NEAL
tmosphere of Hungarian
music became Bartok's
mother tongue even be-
had developed his in-
style, and it became the
that style," Prof. Halsey
of the University of
Stevens spoke Friday on
k Influence on the Music
3artok," at Lane Hall.
nusic of the 19th century,
after the consolidation of major
scales, sought to revitalize itself
in a process that is still going on
Before that time, the primitive
scale of two or three notes de-
veloped into the five-note pen-
tatonic scale of the plainsong.
Russian nationalism in the lat-
ter half of the 19th century
caused Russian composers to turn
to folk sources. However, Hun-
garians of this time seemed un-
aware of their folk music. Franz
Liszt considered the peasant mu-
sic a debasement of gypsy songs,.
while in fact it was the gypsies
who drew from peasant sources,
popular tunes of the cities and
obscured their nature in the gypsy
interpretation, Stevens noted.
When Bartok became involved
in the Hungarian nationalist
movement, he drew at first upon
many non-authentic folk songs
which were, in -his own later
Freed from Tyranny
But in 1905, collecting folk songs
as an ethno-musicologist seeking
clues to national culture, Bartok
began to feel the influence of this
music in a way that "freed him
from the tyrannical rule of major
and minor scales. In their free
and varied rhythms, the old modes
had lost nothing of their vigor,"
... Bariok's music
Bartok's compositions from 1907-
8 already show slight but dis-
cernible contours and rhythms of
peasant songs At this time, too,
Bartok became familiar with the
pentatonic phrases that Debussy
had derived from music in Rus-
"Bartok set out to mine the re-
sources of European folk music.
He distinguished himself from the
nationalistic musical stylists such
as Beethoven in that they em-
bedded the style of the country
into their own, so that it did not
greatly affect their own styles.
The Hungarians were different;
"emanations from folk sources
created a totally new style,"
In the unaccompanied folk song,
harmonics are only implied. Ste-
vens divided Hungarian folk songs
into three categories which Bar-
tok used: the old, the recent, and
the mixed styles.
The old, pentatonic style is
characterized by a descending
structure in that the first half
of the song is higher in the oc-
tave than the second. Words are
isometric, having the same num-
ber of syllables, and the rhythm
gives each note equal value, which
may correspond to the motions of
the human body. Later, rhythms
became adapted to rhythms ofj
words or to stricter dancing pat-
The recent style shows a round-
ed architectural structure involv-
ing the repetition of verse forms.
The scale is seven-tone hepta-°
tonic. Tempo is more variable, and
stlye is characterized by various°
modes, such as the Dorian andl
The third stage is the highest
composition form which contains
original production is the most
itual music without literal quo-
tation from it. This mixed style
shows the inflence of Czech, Mor-
avian and Slovakian peoples.
"Bartok made a dichotomy be-
tween music based on folk sources
and music characterized by orig-
inal themes," Stevens noted. "He
took over the unchanged folk
melody, and provided harmonies
for simple songs.
New Folk Form
Later the borrowed melody be-
came secondary to what happened
to it, so that the folk essence isl
found in a new form revealing thet
power of the artist..Only the art
of formation can make something
out of these themes.".
"Bartok was a composer, per-.
former and ethnologist, and more
than all of these. His .useof Hun-1
garian peasant niusic was not bor-
rowing but recreating. culminat-
ing in art music of the highest
level," Stevens concluded.
estrator for Land-Ho'
iders Work as Education
orking on the music, for an
al music incorporating spir-
tant education an orchestra-
n get,", Robert James, Grad.,
;strator for Musket's pro-
m of "Land-Ho," said.
)rk like this is on a level
the artist can afford to
mistakes, and yet can have
usic heard. Waiting for pro-
lal, experience would take
years, An original amateur
gives the .opportunity to
a million different ways of
ving, of evaluating all
es. The . orchestrator can
his music coming back at
and can tell whether it is
or .bad,. without having his
depend on it," he empha-
author of the script, Jack
in, Grad., had written some
for the production last
and consulted James about
is effects then.
yen I got a definite idea of
was to be done, and of the
ranges and key of the music,
ked on the orchestration all
Boning for the literary school
1g committee will open to-
petitions may be obtained
'office of Associate Dean
H. Robertson of the literary
and must be turned in by
15. Interviewing of those
etition will. take place Nov.
MISSING MOLAR-This prehistoric tooth from a mammoth was
discovehred in a gravel pit in western Michigan. The mammoths,
similar to modern day elephants, roamed the Michigan area
during the Pleistocene period.
Tooth from Pleistocene
donated to U Museum
summer," he said. "This semester,
we have written scene change,
music and other. extra music, and
have' given the parts to a copyist'
to copy them for each member of
Working with O'Brien "demand-
ed complete understanding and
respect for each other's ability.
We never had the slightest prob-
lem with that," James noted.,
James took the melodies for
specific numbers for which O'Brien
had written and organized har-'
mony, established length, and util-
ized suggestions for "color" ef-
fects to point up specific hap-
penings on stage.
"Color" must be'considered very
specifically because "the music is
planned with a piano background.
When the same music is trani-
scribed for orchestra, completely,
different effects and dramatic
connotations may result," he said.
Balance must alsobe carefully
considered because heavy" orches-
tration may drown out a singer's
"One. of the. biggest problems, is
setting up where a musical num-
ber will come in the plot of the
play," James said. "High points
should not come too close to-
gether. A scene and a whole act
must be built to a certain drama-
"Musical comedy now shows
much less definition in each musi-
cal number. It used to be that
action was followed by song, but
now musical numbers tend to flow
one into the other all through
By HELENE SCHIFF
A nine and one half pound, 11
inch-long tooth of a mammoth
found near Watervliet, Michigan
has been donated to the Univer-
sity's museum of Paleontology.
The tooth will be added to a
At 'U' Hospital
Permits have been issued to the
University Hospital for two re-
modeling projects which will im-
prove the facilities for patient
In the first, an old cafeteria
area is scheduled to be converted
in an area for clinical research.
The unit will include 20 beds and
The construction is being paid
for through a research grant,
The second permit will be used
for an expansion of the physical
medicine and central service de-
partments of the hospital. Part of
the remodeling will include new
Physical medicine is the group
which used to treat sore arms with
liquid rinses. Since the depart-
ment's -founding, however, they
have made "tremendous progress"
and will need extra facilities and
space. The area will also incorpor-
ate the occupational therapy divi-
collection of about 15 mammouth
teeth that were found in Michi-
gan, Miss Margaret A. Skeels,
The mammouth is a large spe-
cies of elephantdcomparable in
size to a modern day African ele-
phant. It roamed over this area
in the late Pleistocene until be-
coming extinct about seven or
eight thousands years 'ago, she
Mammouth in Washtenaw
A similar mammoth tooth was
found in Waslitenaw county in
June, 1943 near Chelsea. There
has been no evidence of the Jef-
ferson mammoth found north
of the Saginaw area, Miss Skeels
The Jefferson mammoth is a
species distinct from the wooly
mamoth found in the Artie re-
The mammoth tooth was dis-
covered by two men working in
a gravel pit at the 120-foot level.
The finders didn't know what the
object was and Professor Claude
Hibbard of the University was
asked to examine it, Miss Skeels
The tooth is an upper right
third molar, she added. It differs
from a tooth pf a mastedon, an-
other Pleistocene period animal
which lived in the Michigan area,
by its. surface which is smooth
for grinding. A mastedon's tooth
has cusps on its surface which en-
abled it chew its food, she ex-
(Continued from Page 1)
to get excited are those who are
recruited for college teaching
careers but don't quite make the
grade as fellowship winners. They
are encouraged to seek other help
to get them started on their
There are suprisingly few re-
strictions on the fellowship win-
They don't even have to promise
to go into college teaching-only
that they will consider it. They
go to the graduate school of their
own choice. Although the em-
phasis is on recent college grad-
uates or college seniors, there is
no age limit, and no limit on the
number of years the candidate has
been out of college.
The search for future college
teachers has even extended to
thousands just starting college.
. Last August, Rosenhaupt sent
letters to 38,000 high school grad-
uates in all 50 states who won dis-
tinction in the National Merit
"You may like the life of a
professor," Rosenhaupt told them,
"and his continual search for
knowledge and understanding, his
daily contact with students, his
freedom of movement and
If the idea was appealing,
Rosenhaupt said, they should plan
Hillel To Give
"The Wise Men of Chelm," tales
by Sholem Aleichem from tradi-
tional Jewish humor, will be the
theme of the 13th annual "Hillel-
zapoppin' " to be presented at
8:30 p.m. Saturday at Hill Aud.
The program, sponsored by the
B'nai B'rith Hillel Foundation, will
consist of skits given by five
fraternities and sororities and an
Following the show, there will
be a party at Hillel with refresh-
ments and music by the Art Bart-
Groups participating in the pro-
gram include: Alpha Epsilon Phi,
Delta Phi Epsilon, and Phi Sigma
Sigma sororities, and Phi Sigma
Delta and Zeta Beta Tau frater-
nities. The independent group is
under the direction of Richard
Proceeds from the presentation
will go to charity.
Offer Music, Dances from Philippines
GUYS AND DOLLS
The University Musical Society
will present "Bayanihan, Music
and Dances from the Philippines,"
at '8:30 .p.m. tomorrow at Hill
Aud., in the Choral Union series.
* * *
Prof. Hans David, of the school
of music,. will lecture on "J. S.
Bach's 'The Art of the Fugue,'"
at 4:15 p.m. tomorrow in Rack-
The University Players will pre-
sent the second production ineits
Playbill series, "Arms and the
Man," by George Bernard Shaw
at 8 p.m. Wednesday-Saturday, at
Lydia Mendelssohn Theatre.
Under the direction of Hugh Z.
Norton, the cast is striving to mas-
ter the levels of realism which
Shaw presents. There are con-
trasts in realism between char-
acters (Bluntschli and Saranoff)
and between social classes (the
aristocracy and their servants).
William Irvine, Professor of
English at Stanford University
and critic of, G. B. Shaw, has de-
scribed the drama~ as "a polite
play about revolution, a common-
sense play about war, a realistic
1.50 Thurs., 1.75 Fri. and Sat.
OW -League Box Off ice
TON IGHT at 7 and 9
"T HE IDIOT"
Gerald Phili e. Hedwiae Feuillere
play about love, a fantastic play
Tickets will be on sale from 10
a.m.-5 p.m. tomorrow and Tues-
day from 10 a.m.-8 p.m. during
the run of the ,play, at the Lydia
Mendelssohn Box Office.
* * *
Students of the school of music
will play works composed by other
music students at 8:30 p.m. Mon-
day in Lane Hall Auditorium. The
program will include "Suite for
Violin and Cello," by Arthur
Hunkins. "Suite for Solo Viola,"
by Walter Everich; "Andante for
Clarinet and Piano," by Williard
Brask; "Sonata for Unaccom-
panied Flute," by Gregory Kostek;
"Sky" and "Four Etudes for Flute
Quartet," by Roger Reynolds and
"Four Pieces for Flute, Xylophone
and Timpani," by Philip Krumm.
The University Symphony Or-
chestra will present "The Art of
the Fugue," by J. S. Bach, at 8:30
p.m. Thursday and Friday in Hill
Aud. Thursday's performance will.
be a final rehearsal and offers an
opportunity for the public to hear
the work twice. Prof. Hans David
of the school of music will con-
duct and use an original orches-
tration. He provides an ending for
the last fugue which Bach left
unfinished. The performances at
Hill Aud. are the first in America.
The Kingston Trio, the George
Shearing Quintet, and comedian
Ronnie Schell will appear at 8
pam. tonight at the Cobo Arena.'
The school of music will' pre-
sent studentsnstudying wind in-
struments in a recital at 4:15
today in Lane Hall Aud. The
Program includes "Cantabile and
Presto" by Enesco; "Concerto for
Oboe" by Goossens; "Sonata in
G Minor" by Eccles; "Sonata Op,
167" by Saint-Saens; "Concerto
No. 1" by Strauss; "Concertino"
by Bozza; "Concertino" by Vidal;
and "Introduction and Rondino"
The University television series
"Family Living," will open with
"Television and the Family" at
8:30 a.m. today on radio station
WXYZ. Prof. George Kish, of the
geography department, will open
the series "Story of Italy" on the
first program, "Land of Contrast,"
at noon today on radio station
The International Center is
planning an international folk-
sing at 8:00 p.m. today. A show-
ing of a foreign film at 7:30 will
precede the folk-sing.
Violinist Yehudi Menuhin will
play compositions by Beethoven,
Ross Lee Finney, Debussy, Bartok
and Paganini in _ his concert at
Hill Auditorium, 2:30 p.m., Nov.
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INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS' ASSOCIATION
Colonel W. Bruce Pirmne giving a
"Survey of the Formosan Situation"
1103 S. Univ. NO 2-6362
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