EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
Where Opinions-Are Free STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH.'* Phone NO 2-3241
Truth Will Preva"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
JRSDAY, OCTOBER 26, 1961 NIGHT EDITOR: MICHAEL HARRAH
Modern Dilemma for Democracy
'U'Se'crecy Makes Sham'
Of Democratic Procedure
N RELATION to the University, the people
Of the state of Michigan and the students
at its greatest center of learning have as little
political power as the voteless Negro populace
in Fayette or Pike counties, Southland U.S.A.
It is true enough that the citizens of this
state democratically elect eight other citizens
to serve as Regents of the University and con-
trol its policies and operations. The students
here have the opportunity-twice a year-to
elect Student Government Council members to
represent their views. This same group casts
ballots for <student members of the Board in'
Crontrol of Student Publications, which pub-
lishes this newspaper, the Ensian, Generation,
the Student Directory, and-when the reins
are loosened-the Gargoyle.
A somewhat smaller constituency , (ie., the
hale student) elects in a democratic fashion
members to the Union Board of Directors
and. the Board in Control of Intercollegiate'
Athletics, each a highly significent organ of
power In ther respective areas.
The people who do all this voting, however,
have no chance at all to know-iin most cases
-how they are being represented or' how
r'esponsible the men they put into office have
been in discharging their duties in an intel-
ligent, thoughtful manner.
THE REGENTS-who have gained nomina-
tion because of significant assistance, pri-
marily financial, to one of the two political
parties-form University policy in closed ses-
sons. They set up semi-public affairs for a
:ouple of hours a month where a limited num-
Der of press -men witness what amounts to
4 dull comedy. The meetings, if not rehearsed
are tired by the fact that the Regents have'
already discussed the issues earlier that morn-
ng or the day before. No debate is aired and
0egenta motions nearly always pass by a
A clear and flagrant example of this oc-
urred last summer when the University's
governing board adopted sweeping revisions of
,he academic calandar and revolutionized a
wo semester program that had existed for
a century. The item of "trimester" was on
he floor less than 60 seconds. One Regent
pokbe a dozen syllables in its behalf. No one
else commented. It was approved without
Everyone in the community knew the Re-
ents had debated the full year calendar loud
and long. In an earlier "private' session in
fanuary, the Regents decided in favor of year-
ound integrated operation "in principle."
President Hatcher picked a special faculty
ommission (violating the domain of the regu-
ar University Senate committee on the cal-
ndar) to work out the exact plans.
The commission-headed by Prof. William
?aber-presented its findings to the Regents,
gain in closed session, In May. No public
fiscussion was. forthcoming.
O, THE UNIVERSITY proceeds with a rad-
ical change in its operation, a change ap-
>roved by eight men who represent the entire
tate. There are only a handful of citizens,
owever, who know what any of the Regents
hinks of the plan.
How can the citizens be expected to cast
tn intelligent ballot for the re-election of any
f these Regents when the majority of the
ecisions are reached in a private "committee
If the whole?"
'ONTIRARY TO THE REGENTS, Student
Government Council holds the majority
f its meetings in public session with fully
rmed and uncensored Daily staffers observ-
ng. Healthy and vigortus debate is often
heard-except, of course, when the Council
decides to move into executive session.
The room is then vacuumed of "constitu-
ents" and the corridors sealed off; the Coun-
cil settles down for a long session unencum-
bered by any responsibility to bind itself to
report what motions are made, by what vote
they pass or just how members vote.
Here again, the pressures are put on the
voting population to assay candidates and
consider them for election and re-election.
With a r'ampant number of executive sessions,
the individual voter-unless he gets his hands
on the few Council members Who don't mind
breaking the sanctity of the closed proceed-
ings-can't really make a proper decision on
his Hare ballot.
THE REGENTS and SGC, however, are pillars
of responsibility when stacked against the
secrecy of the actions of publications, athletics
and Union boards.
The council on athletics holds no open meet-
-ings. 'The press is not allowed. The same is
true of the Board.in Control of this newspaper.
Minutes of the proceedings are not publicly
The Union board meetings are similarly
closed to attendance by Union members.
"Guests are invited" and these usually con-
sist of the chairmen of Homecoming, Michi-
gras, Musket, etc., some junior executive offi-
cers and a Daily reporter.
STUDENTS on the athletic board are usually
top name sophomore athletes. Many do
not have any particulari desire to serve on the
board, but are picked by the controversial
method of nomination by the team managers.
A non-athlete who desires to run for the
post must collect 300 signatures (more than
for any other campus post) to be put on the
ballot. Once on, he usually loses to the athlete's
popularity And oft-headlined name.
Former senior editors of the major campus
publications traditionally become the nucleus
of student membership on the publication
board. They have a knowledge of the inner
workings of the publications and (usually) a
belief in editorial freedom for the press.
What the members of these :boards do in
the closed chambers of the conference room
once a month, however, is a mystery to the
students whose votes put them there.
An elected position has lost its meaning
when the basis for initial selection and later
evaluation is dark ignorance.
TRADITION also has it that the junior Union
officers who don't seek senior posts run
for the Union board's four undergraduate seats.
The graduate students are dredged up from
somewhere to fill the other two slots. One
can assume that the undergraduates, at least,
have a good working knowledge of Union opera-
tion and an appreciation of its problems
gained through three years of hard work.
This does not mean, however, that the stu-
dents who elect them have given them a free
rein to act as they please on matters affecting
the Union. The elected representative should
have the right to speak and vote freely, but he
carries the obligation to report his and the
board's actions and ideas to the campus.
Not all the student members, however, can
claim intensive association with the Union.
When a law student whose undergraduate
days were spent off campus, a former IFC
treasurer, and a Daily reporter whose only
nonconsumer contact with the Union was a
"beat" assignment lasting five months are
serving as members, the people who put them
in office have a legitmate right to question
what ideas they bring into office (something
which should be, but is not done in the pas-
sive campaigning) as well as the right to
know what these people (and the other mem-
bers),do once they get into the confines of
the Bates Room.
THE QUESTION of open meetings is officially
being discussed by one of these groups. The
Union board has appointed a special com-
mittee which began discussion yesterday on the
feasibility of holding open meetings of the
full board. This is a hopeful sign.
The other policy formulating bodies must"
examine the question and examine it closely,
if they have any commitment to the process of
a democratic etate, an order based on the
notion of an intelligent and an informed voter.
By PHILIP SUTIN
Daily Staff Writer
IN THE FRUSTRATION of the
nuclear age, the nations of the
world are turning to an old, but
previously little used form of
In the past, nations have at-
tempted to solve their political
problems and whet their territorial
ambitions by using general war
with its overtly disciplined forces..
But, in the shadow of Hiroshima
and Nagasaki, the major nuclear
powers and their allies or agents
have been forced away from gen-
eral war and its atomic implica-
Korea was the site of the last
major general war. Even that was
strategically limited by the threat
of atomic devastation-a threat
which eventually rendered it a
meaningless stalemate. The abor-
tive Suez war was halted 'in ten
days under the pressure of the
United States and the Soviet
Union which feared this incident
might have lead to general, nu-
ALTHOUGH the United States
has been involved in guerilla war-
fare since 1946,dit is just now
realizing the military significance
of the cold war deadlock. This
year the United States Army es-
tablished a guerilla and anti-
guerilla warfare training center
at Fort Benning, Georgia and re-
cently brought Gen. James Van
Fleet out of retirement as a special
advisor for the center.
Next to nuclear warfare, guer-
illa warfare is the most terrifying
and heartless type of conflict. It
is a "total war" in the true sense
of the word. In an attempt to
control territory by terror, sol-
diers fight in small marauding
bands which strike targets and
immediately seem to disappear in-
to the populace.
THE HUNT-South Viet Nam Marines attempt to flush out a guerilla band in the north of the South-
east Asian republic. The Marines use ,American weapons and their training is based upon methods
developed by United States Marines.
BECAUSE guerilla warfare is so
intimately tied to the citizenry
of a particular country, fighting
it presents important moral and
The guerillas care little for the
lives of the populace. And in an
overzealous attempt to suppress
them or in frustration caused by
failure, the loyalist forces are led
to commit similar atrocities.
Thus the non-combatants are
caught in a terrifying and some-
times fatal squeeze.
Guerilla warfare is a long de-
bilitating process in which the
combatants hope to win by pick-
ing up the pieces of an exhausted
nation. No government attacked by,
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR:
To the Editor:
THE HEADLINE in The Daily
(October 24) "Needle Test
Merit Seen by Haddock" was 'com-
Many astronomers, including
myself, have at various scientific
meetings expressed the fear that
putting 350 million wire needles in
orbit will set a precedent and
will be used in the future as an
excuse for an experiment, includ-
ing an enlargement of this one,
that would interfere or damage
astironomy or other science. I am
not in a position to judge its
overall value as a communications
scheme, but speaking as an as-
tronomer, I can see no merit in
this Needles experiment. In the
interview I tried to give both sides
of this controversial experiment
and correct a common miscon-
ception that this particular test
belt will seriously interfere with
astronomy, radio or optical.
-Prof. Fred T. Haddock
Free Speech . .
To the Editor:
JT IS NOT the function of my-
* self or the organization which
I represent to continue the dis-
tressful Arab-Israel conflict on
the local scene. However, in re-
gard to a letter to the editor on
October 24 from four obviously
Arab students, I feel itis my
duty to clarify a few points.
Just because the Arab students
in particular and the ISA in gen-
eral did not feel it was their posi-
tion to discuss the Syria-Egypt
split, does not mean that a group
of American students, in the coun-
try of free speech, do not have
the right to comment on a situa-
tion fraught with international
In questioning Nasser's next
move, the objective, like that of
so many political commentators,
was to ascertain whether or not
the Arab countries, especially
Egypt, would create another world
crisis to worry us in these al-
ready over-troubled times.
Sarabeth Richman, '62
Student Zionist Organization
Sour Grapes? .. .
To the Editor:
IN REGARD to Thomas Rogers'
letter, I have this to say: the
sad part about any contest, is that
everybody can not win.
To the Editor:
1 BELIEVE that one can draw
an analogy between The Daily's
infantile editorial on William.
Buckley, and the tears of a spoiled
child who has been scolded for
-Barry Litvin, '64
(Letters to the Editor should be
limited to 300 words, typewritten
and double spaced. The Daily re-
serves the right to edit or withhold
any letter. Only signed letters will
guerilla warfare' has used demo-
cratic means to, suppress it. In
the mildest incidents, whole popu-
lations are moved without their,
consent to relocation camps -
which at times contain the worst
abuses of concentration camps.
In harsher incidents, civilians
have been tortured to gain in-
formation on the guerillas or their
suppliers. Especially 'in Algeria
this has led to cruel deaths.
* * $
COMMONLY, armies impose
themselves on the populace with
little thought of protecting it. The
plight of the Vietnamese woman
in The Ugly American who has
seen her family killed by the Viet-
minh and her home burnt out by
the French accurately dramatizes
Often the army "guards" a vil-
lage by day and withdraws to a
safety position at night leaving
it open to enemy attack and ter-
A great moral problem involves
the handling of prisoners. As hu-
mans and soldiers they deserve de-
cent treatment under the Geneva
Convention, yet many have been
tortured for information or merely
for spite. Critics of the Algerian
War, for example, have exposed
French prison camps as equal in
brutality to those of the Nazis.
OCCASIONALLY, a guerilla war
is used as a vehicle to impose
military dictatorship oin a coun-
try as was accomplished in Laos
and is being attempted today in
In Laos, the army under Gen.
Phoumi Nosovan, inflamed a new
guerilla war to justify Phoumi's
coup d'etat of the compromise
neutralist. government. Later he
overthrew another government us-
ing the same rationale.
In France a similar situation
exists. President Charles de Gaulle
came to power on the-basis of a
military coup over the Fourth Re-
public's failure to solve the Al-
gerian war to the satisfaction of
the army,. Three times since, army
elements have attempted to over-
throw de Gaulle and observers say
they are on the verge of a fourth.
SUCH ARE THE major ethical
and moral considerations Ameri-
can experts 'must consider when
involved in guerilla warfare. As
Lt. Col. T. A. Harris, head of the
University ROTC says, the best
way to fight guerilla warfare is
to understand it. Yet this does
not mean the army should neces-
sarily adopt its ethics. If the U. S.
is to remain true to its ideals-as
it must-the new training pro-
gram should also research effec-
tive, more democratic methods
to wage such warfare.
The Army should not be the
willing dupe of a dictatorship in-
terested in entrenching its power
on the excuse of a guerilla war,
The conduct of the fight in South
Vietnam indicates that the United
States is helping President Ngo
Diem Dien tighten his autocratic
hold on the country.
Van Fleet does not share this
viewpoint. Last summer he visited.
Korea where he is considered a
military hero. While there, he
expressed great praise and ad-
miration for the Korean military
junta which is ruling the country.
He claimed that underdeveloped'
nations were not ready for demo-
cracy and that military' rule such
as that of the junta was the best
Jorm of government for such coun-
* * *
THIS ATTITUDE, aside from
being against American principles,
will not win friends in any area
where the Army is likely to give
its "aid." It may keep a dictatorial
government in power, but it will
win few friends among the people
--those who will actually deter-
mine the outcome of the fighting.
As the anti-Rhee revolution and
the attempted coup against Diem
shows, the masses of Asia are
growing restive of military rule.
Unless a better alternative is of-
fered, these people may favor the
Communists as the lesser of two
Thus the Communists could win
the cold war in Asia. Unless the
United States makes a firmer com-
mitment to democracy in fighting
guerilla warfare, it may find that
it will be loser in the long run
as the people select Communism
in desperation. Democracy is too
valuable to be thrown away like
HE CURTAIN of the Lydia
Mendelssohn Theatre parted
last night to reveal the dark,
symbol-laden mind of Franz Kaf-
ka. In that mind we were intro-
duced to emotional stimuli: some
of them with names, some with-
Racing through these stimuli,
first' with some confidence and
finally with abject mindlessness,
is Josef K., a white rat of a man
searching for the solution to the
very labyrinth in which he finds
himself trapped. There is no solu-
tion. Indeed, any solution would
render the whole tale meaning-
less. The curtain closes when K.
reaches the last of the stimuli-
The play is, of course, taken
from the novel by Kafta. The
Playbill presentation is the sec-
oild anywhere, thus affording a
new experience. It is not a perfect
play. The use of a narrator (well
handled by Edward Cicciarell is
clumsy and unconvincing, and
some scenes are overly long for
their purpose. Aside from this it
is a faithful stage-replica of the
The production has been tail-
ored to fit exactly the needs of
the script. The set suggests the
labyrinth of K.'s mind, leaping
from level to level. In an amazing
array of dovetailed lighting, the
many scenes of the play move ef-
fortlessly from one to the other.
THE LARGE CAST (37 parts)
literally flows around the figure
of Josef K., a lead role that in-
volves much stamina as well as
the usual demands on an actor
faced with German expressionism.
Richard Levy not only proved hini-
se 'totally adept, but with this
performance establishes himself
as one of the finest male actors
on this campus since Nafe Katter.
His range of emotions is shatter-
ingly great, and Levy gives each
one directly to his audience -
clear, forceful and, above all, with
the sincerity that marks much of
his acting. One could hardly im-
agine a more mature, professional
It would be an injustice to sin-
gle out performances from a large
cast that obviously has been work
ing with an ensemble concept in
mind. They meshed with accuracy,
and though they are, as char-
acters, almost stock figures, they
gave the impression of a frighten-
ing wax-museum that K. finds im-
possible to communicate with.
However, among all of them we
should say that Paul Chapel, Dor.
othy Doe, Cynthia Beerboht,
Herbert Propper and Carl Schurr
were especially memorable.
Except at the end, the sound
was almost inaudible and achieved
little effect. It was perhaps the
only' technical flaw.
A GROUP of students at the re-
recent National Students' As-
sociation gathering was horrified
when William F. Buckley referred
to Congolese insurrectionists as
We we'e equally horrified to
come across a news dispatch short-
ly thereafter, mentioning that Ba-
luba tribesmen In the Congo re-
cently killed and then ate two
British soldiers serving with the
Why No American Student Reaction?9."
By GAIL EVANS
Daily Staff Writer
THE SOVIET announcement to
test the big bomb-2,500 times
more powerful than the one drop-
ped on Hiroshima-was heard
around the world last week. Tues-
day, the Russians detonated a 30-
megaton superbomb in the Arctic
--the biggest explosion in history.
Many American student leaders
cannot understand why the ini-
T IS A CURIOSITY of our time that the
only country really preparing itself for
uclear destruction is the peace-loving United
tates of America. In explaining why no similar
henomenon has captured the Russian imagi-
ation, pudgy Mrs. Nikita Khrushchev gave
ur own shovel and pick men the best answer
o their grand illusion:
"There is no defense in a 'nuclear war.
'herefore we are not building any bomb
helters. We are not getting ready."
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
tial declaration, the scheduling of
the 50-megaton blast and, now,
the exploding of ,the superbomb
have failed to instigate student
reaction as was exhibited in oth-
er countries-notably Britain and
In explanation, Mike Miller, of-
ficer of SLATE, the liberal stu-
dent group which was banned
from the Berkeley campus of the
University of California last June,
suggests "the simple fact that the
American peace movement is sim-
ply not as big as the British or
He also points ot that Russia's
initial announcement came before
students had returned to universi-
ties and colleges,-"a time when it
is very difficult to organize dem-
onstrations." Of course, this does'
not explain the lack of protest to
the more recent actual detona-
* * *,
PAUL POTTER, national affairs
vice-president of the United States
National Student Association, rea-
sons that the American goal in
demonstrations is to achieve some.
direct moral or political results.
Certainly, moral protests against
a country ringed by an iron cur-
tain will not bring significant
"In fact, the resumption of tests
nouncement. For example, SLATE
staged an open air rally earl in
September. Also, a resolution con-
demning both the United States,
and Russia for the resumption of
testing was passed by SLATE's
Now the resumption of nuclear
testing is history. Students and
the public in general have been.
simply stunned, first by the an-
nouncement and then by the se-
ries of tests spiraling in power to
the probable 50-megaton blast
peak. And there are those who
attribute the student inaction to
apathy and a failure to recognize
a role of responsibility in world-
But it is more probable that
students just came to realize that
present peace demonstrations are
simply not' effective because mem-
bership is too small and organiza-
tion too incomplete. Perhaps, stu-
dent leaders should concentrate on
Frevamping peace movements to
make them more effective. This
'is what Voice's peace 'project inw
tends to do.
HOWEVER, even small demon-
strations do serve a useful 'pur-
pose by calling attention to the
problem. Students can also bring
pressure to bear upon policy-
makers through publications - a
more sophisticated form of-direct
But, although demonstrations
can raise issues, they cannot solve
them or alleviate the causes of
tensions. In fact, often demonstra-
tions are a back-door approach
to world problems. Instead of
having active students spend a
majority of their time and efforts
Critic of the Press
SSISTANT FBI DIRECTOR Cartha D. De-
Loach has asked members of the American
'ness to "lift their green eye-shades" and be-
ome more vigilant against Communist infil-
ration of their profession.' He further charged
hat some newspapermen "supposedly giving
he reading public unbiased news, accounts
nd infiltrators into legitimate newspapers are
pewing forth a stream of vilification which
as the effect of helping to weaken our foun-
ations of security."'
publications going around that the FBI might
consider dangerous, but their political affilia-
tions are quite clearly labeled so that anyone
reading them knows what they stand for.
In fact, if anything is really wrong with
much of the American press it is weak-
mindedness and unwillingness to take a stand
on anything more controversial than the in-
stallation of parking meters downtown and
whose total societal involvement is to back
safe Republican candidates.
'The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
responsibility. Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3519 Administration Building
before 2 %.m., two days preceding
THURSDAY, OCTOBER 26
Regents' Meeting: Fri., Nov. 17. Com-
munications for consideration at this
meeting must be in the President's
hand not later than Nov. 7. Please sub-
mit twenty-one copies of each commu-
The Student Locator Service (NO 5-
4491) will be discontinued as of 6:00
p.m., Fri., Oct. 27.
"Etruscans and Latins in the Sixth
Century B.C." will be discussed by An-
drew Alfoldi, Prof. of Roman History,
Institute for Advanced Study, Prince-
ton, New Jersey, on Fri., Oct. 27 at
4:15 p.m. in Aud. B.
Biological Chemistry Lecture: Dr. Pe.
ter M. Ray, Ass't. Prof. of Botany,,will
speak on "Cell-Wall Biochemistry and
Plant Cell Growth" on Fri., Oct. 27at
4:00 p.m. in M6423 Medical Science
Bldg. Coffee in the Department Li-
brary. M5410 at 3:30 pa.
Astronomy Department Visitors'
Night: Fri., Oct. 27, 8:00 p.m., 2003 An-
gell Hall. Stephen P. Maran will speak
on "The Space Between the,. Planets."
After the lecture, the Student Observa-
tory, fifth floor, Angell Hall, will be
open for inspection and for telescopic
observations oof Jupiter, Saturn, and
double star. Children welcomed, bait
;' : >