Mc om b-A
(EDITOR'S NOTE-The writers were In Jackson, Mississippi and Atlanta
this(weekend and attended strategy meetings of the Student Non-Violent
Coordinating Committee staff.).
8y JOHN ROBERTS
and FAITH WEINSTEIN
Mississippi is a state in siege.
In all the areas of segregation, Mississippi has held out longer
than any other state in the union. Direct action-sit-ins, protest
marches, picketing-has been methodically crushed. The pattern was
most dramatically demonstrated in the Freedom Rides this summer,
when more than 300 persons were jailed almost as soon as they dis-
embarked from their buses. Resistance is bitter, but they-struggle has
Last week news of one battle echoed North-when 114 students
walked out of Burgland, Negro High School in McComb, Mississippi,
and were summarily arrested by police. That walkout was a flam-
boyant event which masked a less public but far more crucial revo-
lution-the Negro voter registration project, centered in McComb and
run entirely by students.
Students 'are running the McComb' project and, indeed virtually
every action program in the South, partly because they want to and
partly because they have to. The enlightened public favors their cause,
and, perhaps, gives moral support. The adult integration movements
-NAACP, CORE, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference-
raise bail money and supply lawyers.'
The United States Justice Department, in a shadowy and not
at all public way, helps whenever it feels it can. But, for the most
part, the fight is being waged by students. Ranged against them are a
resolutely anti-integration public, a battery of legal obstacles, a state
pledged from top to bottom to resistance at any cost, and a tradition
of Negro oppression which dates back hundreds of years.
ew' Focus fo
The major student organization in the South is the Student Non-
Violent Coordinating Committee; and it is SNCC which has taken up
the battle with Mississippi. SNCC started out as a communications
group connecting various segments of the Southern student move-
Last July, SNCC turned to voter registration as a project, hired a
staff, and set up somewhat dangerous housekeeping in McComb, cen-
ter of Pike County, a rural area in Southern Mississippi and prob-
ably the most determinedly anti-integrationist area in the South.
On August 7th, 1961, Robert Moses, a Negro schoolteacher and a
member of the SNCC staff, came from New York. He and several
other SNCC people set up ;three schools in the Pike County area-
schools where they could teach the local Negroes enough about the
Mississippi constitution so they could pass the test required for voters
in that state.
It wasn't ever an easy job. Moses and his group canvassed from
door to door, precinct by precinct trying to talk the farmers into
coming to classes and attempting to register. Some were indifferent,
many were afraid. He held mass meetings, spoke at the local Negro
churches, published a newsletter, "The Informer," ran classes, ac-
companied people to the registrar.
The most interested single group was the student body at Burg-
land Negro High School. The students turned out in force-to help
canvass, to come to meetings, to do what ever they could.
The drive was met with hatred and violence. On August 15th,
Moses was arrested between Liberty and McComb.
On August 25th, he was beaten uplin Liberty, by a white man who
attacked him in the middle of the street, in full sight of the sheriff and
the sheriff's deputy.
On Sept. 7th John Hardy, another nmember of the SNCC staff, was
pistolwhipped by the registration clerk in Tylertown, and then arrested
r the Southern Strugg
and put in jail. SNCC staff member Travis Britt had been beaten two
On September 25th, Herbert Lee, a Negro farmer who was attend-
ing Moses' voter registration classes, was shot by State Representative
Eugene Hurst, his next door neighbor. The coroner's jury ruled the
killing self-defense, but attendance at the voter registration classes
One hundred thirteen Negroes have been registered since the be-
ginning of the program, all of them in Pike County. The SNCC leaders
admit that it will be a long, long time before anyone will be allowed to
register in neighboring Amite or Walthall counties.
By the end of summer, the, voter registration drive in Pike
County had become entangled in another movement. The direct
action wing of SNCC, represented by Marion Barry, had arrived
in McComb, and set up the Pike County Direct Action Movement.
Barry organized sit-ins at, the local Woolworth's and the bus
depot-using primarily the students from Burgland Negro High
School who were already helping Moses with voter registration. On
August 30th three students, Brenda Travis, 15, Isaac Lewis, 20,
and Robert Talbert, 19, were arrested in the McComb bus depot
on charges of breach of the peace and failure to obey orders to
They stayed in jail for 28 days. Last week Miss Travis and
Lewis tried to re-enter Burgland High, and were refused admittance
by the principal and the superintendent of schools. The Burgland
students threatened a mass walk-out in sympathy unless the two
were accepted. They were turned down.
On October 4, 150 of them walked out in the middle of Chapel
to the SNCC office-above a grocery store in the local Masonic
Temple-where the staff gave them placards and instructions in
the technique of non-violence. They then marched on into down-
Downtown, quite a crowd had formed, including the McCc
police force. On the steps of City Hall, the students heard speec
and began a pray-in, The police moved in and arrested 114 persc
including three SNCC leaders.
Moses and several others spent the night in jail, after
students under the age of 18 had been released in the cust
of their parents. A CORE representative, Thomas Gaither fr
Jackson, brought money from the NAACP Legal Education E
Defense Fund, and put up bond for their release Friday.
The SNCC staff members were taken to Atlanta for spe
strategy meetings. Brenda Travis went back to jail-this ti
for breaking probation rules by participating in the Burgle
So far, the SNCC staff has been fighting a lone battle-w
little public support from anywhere. But the mass arrests 1
week prompted Martin Luther King to send a telegram to Attor
General Robert Kennedy protesting the "reign of terror" in P
An official in Washington replied that "for about two weeks
Department of Justice has been investigating incidents in the I
Comb area, including those referred to by the Rev. MartinLut
For example, John Doar, a member of the department's c
rights section intervened in the trial of John Hardy, asking U.S. I
trict Judge Harold Cox in Meridian, Mississippi, to stop the heari
Doar said that the arrest, which followed Hardy's attempt to regis
Negroes in Tylertown, violated the Civil Rights Act of 1957 because
criminal law was being used to hamper voter registration. Cox refus
and Doar has carried his fight to the Fifth Circuit Court of Appe
in Montgomery, Alabama, where it is still pending.
In addition, FBI agents joined in the investigation of the c
See RESISTANCE, Page 2
See Page 4''
:43 a t I
Partial clearing by afternoon,
fair and warm tomorrow.
Seventy-One Years of Editorial Freedom
VOL. LXXII,,No. I'
ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 11, 1961
To Back Three
By GAIL EVANS
A campus-wide student peace
movement may soon be initiated
by Voice Political Party to get
students to use their potential po-
litical power in the field of peace
immediate support for Kenneth
MacEldowney, Richard Magidoff
and Robert Ross as Voice candi-
dates for the November Student
Government Council elections was
also approved by Voice last night.
"We're going to move peace on
this campus," Robert Ross, '63,
said. The project, proposed by
Ross, aims to utilize potential
sources of peace, information on
and off the campus such as the
Conflict Resolution Center and the
Student Peace Union to form an
ever increasing nucleus of student
actuaries for peace.
A sub-committee of about 15
students was formed to study the
roblems of instigating the move-
ment. Tentative plans, once this
pilot group has the necessary
background, include a Voice For-
um, advocacy of an "undergradu-
ate, interdisciplinary, credit course
in peace and disarmament," and
student articulation for peace on
the national level.
The main problem facing the
committee is to determine how to
raise issues in a community and
then to do it. The committee is
attempting to define areas for ac-
tion and to find ways to fight
studenuh study of present and
past peace movements and avail-
able literature on disarmament
Voice hopes :to prepare students
capable of presenting alternatives,
issues and timely actions.
By The Associated Press
The Atomic Energy Commission
announced yesterday that a nu-
clear test of low yield was con-
ducted urnderground at the Com-
mission's Nevada test site.
The test is the third announced
by the United States since it re-
sumed underground blasts a few
weeks ago. However, the 'American
Broadcasting Co. has reported that
the United States hs carried out
a series of unannounced under-
ground nuclear weapons tests:
SGC TO MEET TONIGHT:
May Ask Membership Data
By JUDITH OPPENHEIM ,
Motions on fraternity and
sorority membership statements,
non-academic evaluations in the
women's residence halls and exec-
utive session procedure will face
Student Government 'Council at its
A motion by Brian Glick, '62, and
Women's League President Bea
Nemlaha, '62, would instruct the
Council president to send a 'letter
to all affaliated groups which have
not yet submitted to the Office of
Student Affairs ,required state-
ments interpreting their member-
ship selection data in compliance
with a regulation passed by SGC
The letter would say that the
Committee on Membership Selec-
tion in Student Organizations has
asked for a time limit of Dec. 1,
after which groups failing to sub-
mit the required information would
It would express SGC's hope and
assumption that the groups in-
volved would soon submit the re-
quired statements of their own
initiative and in good faith with-
out forcing SGC to set a time limit.
Glick and Panhellenic Associa-
The University of Wisconsin
faculty vote to suspend Phi Delta
Theta fraternity from the campus
for violation of the university's
human rights policy was last week
postponed for one month.
At Cornell University action has
been recommended against dis-
crimination in sororities' alumnae
Wisconsin's faculty Student Life
and Interest Committee has rec-
ommended immediate suspension
of the Phi Delta Theta chapter.
The Senate of the National Stu-
dent Association at Wisconsin re-
cently passed a resolution suggest-
ing that the fraternity be given a
year to remove its discriminatory
The November faculty vote will
determine the fate of Phi Delta
Theta at Wisconsin.
The fraternity has been under
fire for its national constitution
which states that members must
be "socially acceptable to aill other
chaaters." This automatically ex-
cludes Jews, Negroes and Orientals
from membership, the fraternity's
national magazine reports.
The Cornell Commission on Dis-
crimination has issued three pro-
posals on the sororities' recom-
mendation system, by which most
national sororities require that an
alumna of alumnae grout recom-
mend a student before she can be
The Commission advised that
tion President Susan Stillerman,
'62, are proposing the motion on
executive sessions. It would estab-
lish additions to the Council's
The motion provides that at the
close of each executive session the
council will report out all motions
and amendments, the number of
The University Club, a faculty
organization, is discussing the pos-
sibility of constructing separate
quarters for themselves, Prof.
Charles A. Sawyer, chairman of
the University Senate Advisory
Committee said Monday.
However, as yet no building site
has been selected and no architect
consulted, Prof. Sawyer said.
Since 1938 the University Club
has been meeting in the Michigan
Union. A lounge with an adjacent
library, a recreation room and a
lunch room have been set aside for
the use of members.
When the University Club was
first -established in 1911, the Re-
gents granted it use of the large
room on the basement floor of
Alumni Memorial Hall.
About a year later a prospectus
was prepared, calling for the con-
struction of a University Club
building on property near the cam-
pus. Plans and specifications were
drawn up by an architect.
However when their request for
financial help was refused by the
Regents, the proposal was dropped.
Finding the facilities in the
Memorial Hall inadequate, the
club sought and obtained permis-
sion in 1936 to have space set aside
in the addition to the Michigan
OSA Study Group
The Study Committee on the
Office of Student Affairs discuss-
ed general group philosophy and
methods of obtaining information
from residence halls at its weekly
Council members for, and against
each motion, abstentions if mem-
bers ask to have them recorded
and any roll call votes taken.
The Council would also report
out the criteria used in judging all
applicants for positions being
A similar proposal failed last
Assembly Association President
Sally Jo Sawyer, '62, will move
that SGC express its disapproval
of the non-academic evaluations
used in the women's residence
halls to the Office of the Dean of
Coll ee Tells,
To Quit School
The president of Jackson (Mis-
sissippi) State College yesterday
suspended a student for his part
in "certain student demonstra.
tions" that have "made it im-
possible to operate the college
The suspended student was
Walter Williams, a history and
political science major at the all-
Negro institution. Williams was
president of the Jackson State'
student body last year and is ac-
tive in the local Jackson Non-
Last spring, to protest the jail-
ing of several students who had
staged a sit-in at a segregated li-
brary, Williams helped organize a
student march from the Jackson
State campus to downtown Jack-
son. That march was broken up
Yesterday's action by the college
president, Jacob L. Reddix, follow-
ed his dissolution Thursday of the
Student Government Association
In a memorandum addressed
to the faculty, staff and student
body, Reddix stated that "the
leadership of the Association has
not only taken actions that are
actually illegal, but they have em-
barrassed departmental heads and
administrators to a point border-
ing on gross insubordination."
By The Associated Press
LANSING - Michigan's Consti-
tutional Convention adopted 70
rules yesterday under which it will
operate while rewriting the state's
basic law document - but side-
stepped momentarily the issue of
secret committee meetings.
Prof. James K. Pollock of the
political science department was
named chairman of the Declara-
tion of Rights, Suffrage and Elec-
tions Committee while Michigan
State University President John
A. Hannah took the chair on the
Legislative Reapportionment Com-
mittee. Alvin Bently, of Owosso,
was named chairman of the Edu-
President Hannah's Committee,
dealing with the controversial sub-
ject of legislative reapportionment,
has 21 members, 14 Republicans
and 7 Democrats. The two-to-one
membership ratio was imposed on
A rule defining the powers of
committees was sent back on an
89-50 vote for further study.'
As proposed, the rule said that
committees may hold public hear-
ings at the seat of the convention
and may be authorized by the con-
vention to hold public hearings
any place in the state.
The rule, however, remained
silent on the question of whether
committee chairmen would have
the power to call closed-door exec-
utive sessions, either on their own,
by a vote of the committee mem-
bers, or with approval of the con-
vention as a whole.
In explaining the rule, the Ar-
rangements Committee Chairman,
Richard Van Dusen (R-Birming-
liam), said his understanding was
that by not mentioning open meet-
ings it was implied that chairmen
would bring to the floor any re-
quest for executive sessions.
"The committee would have to
have awfully good reasons for
doing do," Van Dusen said. "The
committee would ask for executive
sessions at its peril."
0,Optimistic over Beri
Talks with Allie,
OPTIMISM-Two Communist bloc officials expressed optimism
over the Berlin crisis yesterday in meetings with Western officials.
Andrei Gromyko, left, met with British Prime Minister Harold'
Macmillan and Secretary of State Dean Rusk met Polish Foreign
Minister Adam Rapicki.
Warn West Not To Send
German Police. to Berlin
BERLIN (P)-East Germany's Communist regime last night told
the West that attempts to bring West German police into West Ber-
lin by air or land would be considered aggression and met accordingly.
The East Germans meanwhile extended military service terms
and engaged in the biggest-ever maneuvers around Berlin.
The warning regarding West German police was in a' note by the
East German Foreign Ministry directed to the United States, Britain
Wand France. It was released by
Reach Same Ends
By The Associated Press
Two Communist foreign minis
ters' yesterday expressed opti
mism on the solution of the Berlir
crisis after separate talks 'wit]
United States and British polic:
Soviet Foreign Minister Andre
Gromyko said a peaceful solution
of the crisis is possible, but "no
everything depends on the Sovie
Union, after his meeting witl
British Prime Minister Harol
Poland's Foreign Minister Adan
Rapacki expressed similar hope
for a solution after, meeting wit]
United States Secretary of Stat
The State Department made n
comments on the talks.
Gromyko, flashing smiles and V
signs, told reporters after' a 1.
hour-and-40 minute meeting wit:
Macmillan that "everything mus
be done, to avoid collision."
The 'Soviet foreign ministe
seemed to reporters here rarel
so approachable or confident. Bu
British informants said this pub
lic posture of Gromyko was les.
evident during the meeting wit.
The informants said Macmilla:
warned him that any aggressiv
Communist action against Wes
Berlin or interference with Allie(
access to the city would creat
Macmillan stressed that Britai:
stands solidly behind the Unite
States in its determination to de
fend western interests in Berli:
Berlin was the only subject dis
cussed, the informants said.
"The same ground was covered,
the British Foreign Office an
nounced later, as that covered it
Gromyko's talks with Presiden
John F. Kennedy and Secretarl
of State Dean Rusk.
To West Berlin
BERLIN (AP)-The United States
Army yesterday rescued four more
East German refugees by helicop-,
ter from the tiny isolated com-
munity of Steinstuecken.
Scientists, Humanists Must Communicate
the official East German news
The note referred to West Ger-
man plans to send traffic police
to Berlin to relieve West Berlin
police already burdened by bor-
der duty along the 25-mile Iron
Curtain dividing the city.
In the past the Allies have nev-
er taken note of such communi-
A spokesman for the West Ber-
lin city government of Mayor Wil-
ly Brandt said no West German
police have arrived in Berlin yet.
"But we don't think that bring-
ing 40 to 50 traffic policemen to
West Berlin will increase tension
in our city any more than the re-
cent visit of some traffic police
A group of international police
experts, including, several from
Paris, visited the city last week.
The Communists made no mention
An East German decree extend-
ing services in the armed forces
by six months was published on
the inside pages of East German
newspapers. The announcement
By BARBARA PASH
The three major problems in the modern world are the H-bomb,
the population explosion and the lack of industrialization in large
areas of the world, two faculty members agreed last night.
To solve these problems, there must be communication between
the two major intellectual schools-the humanists and the scientists-
Professor Robert Angell of the sociology department and James N.
Spuhler, chairman of the anthropology department said last night in
the Student Government Council Reading and Discussion Seminar.
The discussion was based on C. P. Snow's book, "Two Cultures."
r~;~m " -