T 20, 1962
THE MICHIGAN DAILY
Y 20, 1962 THE MICHIGAN DAILY PAGE THREE
Will Blast Formation
Of Mixed Ruling Bloc
WASHINGTON (R) - Congres-
sional Republican leaders are sup-
porting President John F. Kenne-
dy in the immediate Southeast
Asia crisis but are reserving the
right tt criticize his diplomatic
course in Laos.
And, if a coalition government
eventually is formed to rule that
unhappy country, Kennedy can
expect to hear in the fall cam-
paign that his "mistakes" have
made it certain that the Commu-
nists will control Laos.
Sen. Bourke B. Hickenlooper of
Iowa, chairman of the Senate Re-
publican Policy Committee, made
It clear in an interview that GOP
members have no criticism of the
President's sending United States
troops to Thailand.
"We are agreed," Hickenlooper
said, "that a display of military
strength was necessary. But we do
not agree with the policies that
brought about this crisis.,
"In our view the policy of fcrc-
ing Western elements in Laos into
a coalition with the Communists
and the neutralists is wrong. If
there is a coalition government,
eventually the Communists will
Sen. Thomas H. Kuchel of Cal-
ifornia, the assistant Senate Re-
publican leader, said in a separate
interview it is fair to say that the
Republicans are going along with
the President now but reserving
the right to criticize him later.
Kuchel was critical at a White
House briefing of members of both
parties last week on the failure of
United States allies to "send at
least a platoon of troops into
Thailand as a token of their sup-
port of our move.
Subsequently, the British made
Royal Air Force units available on
The Republicans were not un-
animous in their critical viewpoint.
Sen. Clifford P. Case, of New Jer-
sey, said he thinks that on the
whole Kennedy has acted "wisely
and rightly" in the difficult situ-
ation in Laos.
He said on a television program
taped for New Jersey stations that
because there is grave doubt the
Laotians will fight against the
Communists, Kennedy is being
forced to "take the next best thing
to a pro-Western government, a
Case said the Eisenhower ad-
ministration had been forced to
adopt the same policy.
PURCHASE-A Thailander makess
a pair of U. S. Marines at Udorn,'
on duty with a Marine unit near t
CLEVELAND ()) - The Brother
jected a new element into the troubled
terday with the announcement of den
increase and a fully paid health and
It was the first wage demand to<
way operating unions that are deadlo
Buildup To Depend
On Thai Government
WASHINGTON (P) - No fixed
i ceiling has been imposed on the
eventual size of the United States
military forces assigned to help
Thailand guard against Commun-
ist attack, it was learned yester-
The program, which until now
has been referred to officially as
involving a total of about 5,000
-AP wirephoto army, marine and air force per-
sale of a bunch of bananas to sonnel, actually is a flexible, "open
Thailand today. The pair are end" plan under which thousands
he Thai-Laos border. of additional men might be mov-
How many more men might be
ION: sent depends on requirements as
seen by the Thai government,
United States military leaders -in
Thailand, Headquarters of the Pa-
cific command and Washington,
lb government sources explained.
Senenits They cautioned against pre-
dicting any specific figure for pos-
sible additional strength, saying
hood of Railroad Trainmen in- it could turn out to be 3,000 or
d railway-labor negotiations yes- 5,000 or 10,000-or any other size.
mands for a 2 5-cent hourly pay Deployment of the initial 5,000
welfare plan from the nation's men was continuing as the week-
end arrived. Units of army troops
come from any of the five rail- were flying out of the 25th divi-
.asion in Hawaii and landing in
cked with the railroads in a dis- Thailand.
ate over proposed work rule The 1,800 man marine battalion
Exeeseo was in position at Udon, in North-
The das Re' eeedathn02 east Thailand, 40 miles from the
Ts dmandurrecmedted1f.Laotian border and Red Pathet
evennon-operatinu nsM Lao troops. The Army's 1,000-man
by a presidential fact-finding battle group had moved up from
ard. The non-operating unions a training area used during re-
presenting some 450g000 em-' cent joint exercises with Southeast
prgesentingasoedan 45,00em-Asian Treaty Organization units.
aoyes, had asked an ncreae sm- It was in position 40 miles West
A spokesman for the railroads of Khorat a rail-highway-air junc-
mediately branded the BRT de- tion point from which they could
and as inflationary. James E.b moved swiftly North or East
olfe, who has acted as spokes- From Red China yesterday
an for the nation's railroads in came a warning that the dispatch
eir negotiations, said in Chica- of United States forces to South-
""evir w neg tassaidgein el east Asia could not be ignored and
: "We view it as being entirely that Communist China "absolutely
flationary and contrary to pub- cannot permit establishment of a
Inpolicy."j bridgehead" in Southeast Asia by
Wolfe previously expressed op- the United States.
Wsition also to the recommenda- The declaration was carried by
on of the fact-finding board, a Peiping paper, but Red Chinese
tying that any increase was un- papers usually are the media for
stified. expression of government views.
The BRT is the largest of the TheRed Chinese warning was
ve operating brotherhoods, which couched in language far stronger
ver a total of about 210,000 rail- than the comparatively moderate
ad employes. The BRT reported- assertions of Soviet Premier Nikita
covers about half of these. Khrushchev during a visit in Bul-
A spokesman for the Brother- garia Thursday.
)od of Locomotive Engineers, The Russian boss said the United
hich also has headquarters here, States had "ventured on a diffi-
id that union had no plans at cult situation in Laos" and he pre-
ie moment to follow the lead of dicted they would be forced out.
.e BRT. But he added, "we all The difference in the tenor and
el an increase is needed." language of the two pronounce-
The spokesman noted that a 2 ments raised again the question
er cent wage increase was re- of whether Russia would back up,
ived in March 1961, in the second militarily, Red China if the latter
ear of a contract that went into opened a shooting war against the
fect July 1, 1960. United States in Asia.
SAIGON (P)-Three American
servicemen and eight Vietnamese
were injured last night by a gre-
nade explosion on a street before
a United States military billet in
The attack fanned speculation
that Communist guerrillas have
launched a new Algeria-style ter-
The bombing followed a similar
incident Thursday when a grenade
explosion at a sidewalk cafe fre-
quented by United States service-
men injured two Germans.
The latest attack coincided with
the birthday of Ho Chi Minh,
leader of Communist North Viet
Nam, which is supporting the
Communist push against this
Southeast Asian country. Ho may
be 71 or 73; records as to the year
of *his birth are obscure.
None of yesterday's victims was
believed seriously injured.
Policy Causes Crises
... flight delayed
CAPE CANAVERAL (om) - The
second United States man-in-orbit
was postponed yesterday for at
least another two days when
scientists spotted new technical
bugs, this time in the Atlas
The delay was the second in
It came as scientists finished
clearing up other troubles in the
Aurora 7 space capsule's para-
The news broke as Astronaut
Malcom Scott Carpenter, a Navy
Lieutenant Commander, was run-
ning through final preparations
for a launch he had expected for
The National Aeronautics and
Space Administration said the next
target date is Thursday, May 24,
at the earliest.
The new bugs were found in a
thermostat in the gyro system that
helps keep the rocket on course
during the powered portion of
Doubts about the parachute sys-
tem prompted Project Mercury
officials last Thursday to postpone
Carpenter's takeoff from yesterday
to next Tuesday, so they could
have changes made in the interests
of assuring Carpenter's safety.
As it turned out, the weather
probably would have permitted
a shot today-although the fore-
cast last week had indicated only
a 50-50 chance.
WASHINGTON 03) - The Unit-
ed States yesterday set off its 12th
nuclear explosion in less than a
month in the Pacific and alsodet-
onated an underground blast at
the Atomic Energy Commission's
Nevada test site.
The underground shot was the
33rd in a series that began last
September. The Pacific tests began
April 25 and all explosions includ-
ing yesterday's - with one excep-
tion-occurred in the atmosphere.
A 73-word announcement from
the AEC covered yesterday's twin
blasts and like previous govern-
ment announcements of nuclear
detonations was shy of details. It
said the Pacific shot was fired at
about 11:30 a.m. (EDT) in the vi-
cinity of Christmas Island.
The device was dropped from an
airplane and the detonation was
in the intermediate yield range-
which means it had a force less
than the equivalent of one million
tons of conventional explosives.
By JOHN HIGHTOWER
Associated Press News Analyst
WASHINGTON - The sudden
crisis which swept United States
troops into Southeast Asia this
week appears to have resulted in
part from a failure of United
States policy in Laos.
This has caused searching but
so far informal discussion among
high officials of the Kennedy Ad-
ministration about what went
wrong, and whether similar error
can be avoided in future.
So far President John F. Kenne-
dy's angry dissatisfaction has cen-
tered on Gen. Phoumi Nosavan,
strongman in the pro-Western
Royal Lao government of Premier
The White House and State De-
partment are understood to have
told American representatives in
the field that Phoumi's power
must behcurtailed-preferably by
getting him to yield his various
cabinet positions and confine him-
self to purely military matters.
Administration informants said
yesterday all United States govern-
ment agencies involved in Laos
have given assurances that they
have loyally supported Kennedy's
policy of trying to settle the dis-
pute through formation of a
three-way coalition government.
There have been suspicions, par-
ticularly in high quarters of the
State Department, that some ele-
ments of the United States govern-
ment might have been pulling
against other elements and en-
couraging Phoumi to disregard the
United States advice he was re-
This speculation arose because
there are divisions within official
Washington over whether a neu-
tral Laos with a government of
neutralists, Communists and pro-
Western elements has any chance
Debre Declares Salan
Mis led Army Followers
PARIS (IP) - Former Premier Michel Debre yesterday declared
that ex-general Raoul Salan had led his Secret Army followers into
a dead end of terrorism that is compromising their future in Algeria.
Debre was called as a defense witness in the treason trial of
Salan, who is charged with participating in the abortive generals'
revolt in Algiers in April 1961, and heading the Secret Army, which
has used bombings and assassinations in an effort to block Algerian
independence. Debre, who steppedt
of withstanding an eventual Com-
The groups principally involved
in the Laos struggle, apart from
the White House, have been the
State and Defense Departments
and the Central Intelligence Agen-
The basic problem with which
they have been trying to work since
1954 arises from the fact that when
Laos was created out of the wreck-
age of French Indo-China certain
pro-Communist Pathet Lao rebel
forces were left unreconciled with-
in the country.
With the long-distance support
of Russia, the more immediate en-
couragement of Red China and the
direct help of the neighboring
Communist state of North Viet
Nam, the Pathet Lao developed
into the spearhead of a Red cam-
paign to take over the country.
Several years ago, during the
Eisenhower administration, the
United States rejected a neutralist
solution for Laos and the Boun
Oum government took over as a
strongly pro-Western regime.
Gen. Phoumi became the central
figure in the administration, re-
portedly with powerful backing
from the CIA. As deputy premier,
minister of defense and minister
of the interior he has wide powers.
A year ago, President Kennedy
moved United States sea and air
forces into the Southeast Asian
Kennedy decided also to support
a program to make Laos neutral
under a government of National
Union headed by neutralist Prince
Souvannah Phoumi. Soviet Pre-
mierNikita Khrushchev subscribed
to this program, including a cease-
fire, when Kennedy and he met at
Vienna a year ago.
The cease-fire has been violated
from time to time, but a little more
than two weeks ago it was shat-
tered by a Communist assault on
the Royal Lao garrison town of
Nam Tha, provincial capital in
The rebel move produced an ex-
traordinary reaction in Washing-
ton. Instead of raising a massive
outcry against the Communists,
United States officials told news-
men that Phoumi carried at least
a large part of the responsibility.
The Reds were publicly accused
of breaking the cease-fire. But
from Kennedy down, Administra-
tion officials accused Phoumi of
having (1) reinforced the Namn
Tha garrison with too many troops,
(2) deployed his forces on low
ground instead of high ground
recommended by United States
military advisers, (3) ignored Unit-
ed States warnings that his ac-
tions would provoke the Reds, (4)
permitted the retreat to develop
into a complete rout with the of-
ficers running away faster than
The debate within the Adminis-
tration over what went wrong has
involved such questions as wheth-
er Phoumi provoked the Reds into
an attack and then pulled out his
forces in an effort to force the
United States to intervene in Laos.
In spite of his distrust of Phou-
mi, Kennedy was uncertain when
the Red advance started what the
Communist intentions might be.
With Phoumi's troops crumbling,
Kennedy was faced with the possi-
bility of a Red drive across the
borders of Thailand, endangering
all of Southeast Asia immediately.
The President therefore felt
compelled to introduce United
States power into Thailand quick-
ly to stabilize the situation.
He felt compelled, in fact, to do
what for several years United
States policy had aimed at avoid-
ing-that is, land combat forces
to help hold the line against the
expanding Communist threat.
While Kennedy had found him-
self unable to exert effective in-
fluence over Phoumi, his appeal to
Khrushchev to Join in measures to
restore the cease-fire evidently
found a ready response once Ken-
nedy had made it clear that Unit
ed States power was moving into
The Pathet Lao advance, though
well forward of the old cease-fire
line, stopped far short of sweep-
ing over all of Northwestern Laos.
The fighting dropped off a week
ago and the lull has been un-
out as Premier a month ago, heat-
edly denied that he had any know-
ledge of the conspiracy for the
unsuccessful attack on Salan's life
before a revolt in Algeria toppled
in January, 1957, several months
before a revolt in Algeria toppled
the Fourth Republic and brought
Ccharles de Gaulle to power.
Defense statements have strongly
hinted-without making a formal
accusation-thatDebre and other
political figures had seen the at-
tack as a means for setting off
the insurrection. Salan escaped
two bazooka shells fired into his
office in downtown Algiers when
he stepped into another room. His
aide was killed.
Pascal Arrighi, a deputy from
Corsica who was involved in the
May, 1958, revolt that led to the
Fifth Republic, said de Gaulle
knew of some of the activities then
and approved of them. He said
Salan had been hesitant.
Bentley To Seek
Alvin M. Bentley, former con-
gressman from Owasso, has an-
nounced that he will seek the
state's new 19th congressional post.
at:. (u '"
LONG or SHORT SLEEVES
o $ 95
eBy The Associated Press
ALGIERS--Explosions shook the Algiers area nearly every hour
yesterday as Europeans crowded to the airport trying to leave the
* * * .
NEW YORK-President John F. Kennedy urged all organized la-
or yesterday to help the country complete its unfinished business
and create a better world in which to live.
* * * *
PORTLAND-Oregon Republicans handed to Sig Unander, 48,
Portland, in yesterday's primary election their No. 1 job: trying to
anseat Democratic Sen. Wayne L. Morse who once was one of their
MEXICO CITY-A severe earthquake, the second in eight days,
rocked a seven-state area in Central M9exico yesterday.
TOKYO-Deployment of Japan-based United States planes to
rhailand threatened trouble yesterday for staunchly pro-American
Prime Minister Hayato Ikeda. With upper house elections scheduled
July 1, opposition Socialists are expected to deplore the shifting of an
unannounced number of United States reconnaissance, transport and
iir rescue craft to the Laotian crisis area from Japanese bases.
* * * *
WASHINGTON-Vice-President Lyndon B. Johnson hailed the
Administration's record in civil rights yesterday but jabbed at the
Senate leadership for failing to get a literacy test bill.
SOFIA-Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev told a rally of Hun-
,arians last night that President John F. Kennedy is following "close
to the dangerous road of his predecessors."
WASHINGTON-Rep. Melvin R. Laird (R-Wis) expressed con-
fidence yestreday that Republicans will find in a meeting with Gen.
Dwight D. Eisenhower Monday a key to party campaign unity.
BERLIN-Gen. George H. Decker said yesterday that Red China
may be stirring up the trouble in Southeast Asia and warned that
United States forces there, though small, are backed by formidable fire
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