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May 15, 1962 - Image 2

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1962-05-15

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Spotlight on Research
with Malinda Berry

Many monuments such as stat-
utes, oblisques, and empty build-
ings have been built to the memory1
of the men who died in World'
War II, and they just sit there do-,
ing nothing; how much more use-,
ful is a functioning memorial.-
This was the idea behind the.
establishment of the Michigan Me-
morial Phoenix Project on North
Campus. It was to be a contribut-
ing memorial, dedicated to the
students and alumni of the Uni-
versity who died in the war. In
1946, a group of alumni and fac-
ulty who started the project decid-
ed that a research project dedicat-
ed to discovering peaceful uses of
nuclear energy would be a mean-
ingful memorial.
In addition to honoring the dead
of the University, the founders
wanted to help eliminate the stig-
ma which became attached to the
United States as a result of its
dropping the first atomic bomb.
Authorized Campaign
So, with this two-fold purpose,
the University in 1950 authorized
a campaign to raise $6 million
which would be used for this re-
search project. It was to sponsor
faculty research through grants
and fellowships. Some $8 million
was raised, and since that time
$2 million:.more has been added.
The facilities at the project in-
clude the reactor, lab space, which
is designed to handle research with
both high and low level radiation,
the two hot caves, and the Co-
balt-60 source. They are open to
University faculty and graduate
students who have need to use the
special facilities and are permitted
the space after their projects have
been approved by the executive
committee who scrutinizes requests
once a month.
In 1951, the project embarked
on its first enterprise.
Sciences Served
In the 11 years which have pass-
ed, the breadth of activity has been
great. Not only the physical sci-
ences have been served, but areas
within the social sciences have
made use of the facilities.
All the funds used are the Uni-
versity's. No government support
is given the project. Some of the
people who have Phoenix grants
will have some outside source of
funds, but this is incidental to
their use of it.
Phoenix takes justifiable pride
in the assistance it has offered
many individuals and groups in
their research. There are projects
from 3 schools which, as examples,
show the diversity of those using
the project.
Legal Responsibility
First is the Law School Project,
which investigated the legal as-
pects of large-scale use of nuclear
energy. And as a secondary proj-
ect, the legal responsibility of the

government for accidents to those
who use radio-active materials in
their jobs was investigated. I
Interest in the Law School Proj-
ect led to considerable participa-
tion by members of the Law School
staff in the re-writing of the
Atomic Energy Act in 1954. Thist
re-evaluation of the earlier act
opened way to greater use of nu-1
clear energy by industry. The pre-
vious act had restricted private1
use of atomic energy.
The best-known venture in
which the Phoenix Project has;
participated is probably the devel-
opment of the "Bubble Chamber"
by Prof. Donald Glaser, formerly
of the physics department. This
was supported by that department,'
and the graduate school as well as
the Phoenix Project, and won the
Nobel Prize in physics for 1960.
Glaser Rejected
The principal contribution of the
Project to the deveuopment of the
chamber was the funds it made
available. Prof. Glaser had been
turned down by the Atomic Ener-
gy Commission previously.
"We have attempted to support
people like Prof. Glaser, who have
had difficulty getting support, sim-
ply because of their lack of repu-
tation," Prof. William Kerr, act-
ing director of the project, noted.
"We try to make it as easy as
possible for a faculty man to get
permission and cut down on the
red-tape. Being a local organiza-
tion helps."
Nuclear Pictures
The bubble chamber has pro-
vided scientists with pictures of a
large number of nuclear events
that were rarely or never seen be-
fore. Thirty years ago such a pho-
tograph was a rare and cherished
object. Today, 'physicists have lit-
e'rally millions of such photographs
to study and analyze, due to the
advent of the bubble chamber.
The Phoenix Project has also as-
sisted the Medical School in the
research of many of its projects.
One of the first the project worked
with was the study of the relation-
ship between various clinical symp-
toms and particular thyroid mal-
functions, and to diagnose cretin-
ism in unborn children. This was
but one of the medical uses of ra-
dioactive iodine, which was discov-
ered with the aid of the project.
They also perfected a method of
sterilization of living bone tissue
through radiation. Previously a
useful degree of sterilization meant
harm to the sensitive living tissue.
This method is now used at the
Medical Center.
Faculty Grants
Future plans for the project in-
clude, generally, keeping the lab-
oratories in operation for faculty,
and continuing to award about
$100,000 in grants per year to fac-

"Of course the ideas do not
come from within the project, but
we try to make ourselves avail-
able to aid those from the cam-
pus with the ideas," Prof. Kerr
One specific project, to which
the Ford Motor Company Fund
and Detroit Edison Co. are con-
tributors, is the study of the di-
rect conversion of heat to elec-
tricity. Reactors give off heat as
one of their by-products and if this
heat could be converted directly
to electricity "it would have inter-
esting implications both on earth
and inspace," Prof. Kerr said.
Department Developed
A by-product to the Phoenix
Project was the development ofthe
nuclear engineering department,
which is one of the biggest and
considered to ze one o fthe best in
the country.
"It has been extremely helpful to
the department to have the facili-
ties on the campus," Prof. Kerr
Those who work for the project
are proud of its accomplishments,
but they never forget that an oper-
ation like the Phoenix Project
"needs to live in an environment
where there are the properly train-
ed and interested people to make
good use of the facilities."
Gullen Notes
Union Process
In Bargaining
"Collective bargaining between
unions and management is a hu-
man problem," George Gullen, Di-
rector of Industrial Relations for
American Motors said Thursday in
a speech before an Economics 102
Discussing the businessman's
view of collective bargaining, he
emphasized that it was a day-to-
day process in a dynamic environ-
This daily human process in-
cludes people working together,
each with their own problems,
such as the foreman teaching
workers and the shop steward tak-
ing grievances, he added.
Acceptance of Union
Gullen noted three stages 'of
acceptance of the union: accep-
tance by violence as in the early
day of unions, reluctant accep-
tance and acceptance with volun-
tary cooperation.
American Motors is fast reach-
ing this third stage. Strikes are
part of this collective process that
American Motors has accepted, he
"If union and management are
to get along, they must realize
that we (the management) are
not trying to weaken the union,"
Gullen pointed out.
Effective Cooperation
For effective cooperation, the
members of the union must be
fully informed. This allows for
improved communication, he con-
Gullen noted that his company,
however, felt that it was not good
for the power of the unions to go
unlimited. The union should not
be able to control an entire in-
dustry any more than a company

Cite Theory
of Business
"Advertising theory can be
viewed from two different ap-
proaches," Michael H. Halbert,
operations research specialist from
E. I. duPont de Nemirs Inc., told
the business schools Thirty-second
Alumni Conference Saturday.
The first is the sales managers'
approach which considers how
much profit is being made from
advertising, he said. The second
is the psychological approach
which includes motivational re-
search. "The sales managers want
to know if it is financially profit-
able for them to spend money on
research." Halbert added.
He maintained that research
was profitable, pointing out that
the business manager had various
courses of actions open to him,
each one producing a different
outcome. "This is where the
function of research comes in. It
helps to develop facts which will
enable the decision makers to
make a choice."
Answers Not Evident
But, he stressed, once the facts
are presented, the answers are not
necessarily evident. "The decision
that they finally make depends on
what kind of company they are
running or would like to run."
"Nobody has all information in-
stantaneously, correctly and free,"
Halbert maintained. "Therefore,
information is a quantity that
people buy."
Using inventory research as an
example, he illustrated his point,
"There is always argument over
how much 'buffer stock' should be
kept by a company because it
costs money to maintain it.
Lost Opportunity Cost
But if they don't have any stock,
there is the chance that they will
run out and lose profit they could
have had if they had, had the
stock. This is called a lost oppor-
tunity cost."
As the solution to the problem
he advocated that the company
spend more money for market re-
search which could forecast hte
demand accurately. "In that way
the company could keep stock at
a minimum."
"The impact of this changing
emphasis to operational research
will raise the level of the kinds
of market problems tackled," Hal-
bert said. "Perhaps in ten to 2
years all of today's problems will
be solved, and we will be dealing
with problems that we neve
thought of attacking today."
Pledges Join
In Help Week
Junior Panhellenic Associatior
and Junior Inter-Fraternity Coun-
cil will sponsor Help Week start-
ing today through Friday.
Every afternoon pledges will g
to the University Fresh Air CamI
to rake, paint and clean up ht
buildings. This year Junior Pan-
hel is offering a scroll to the sor
ority pledge class that has th
largest percentage of girls parti-
Help Week is an annual even
held every spring semester. It is a
service project for volunteers t
combine hard work and social ac-
. tivity.

ELI Emphasizes Research, Instruction

(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the
first in a two part series about the
English Language Institute.)
There is only one English Lan-
guage Institute in the country; it
is located at the University.
Its function is to teach English
to foreign students and instruct
prospective English teachers for
assignments abroad, Prof. Edward
M. Anthony, acting director of
ELI, said recently.
The institute fulfills its func-
tions by research, experimenta-

working for their doctorates," he
The teaching method is based
on the audio-linguo or aural-oral
approach, he emphasized. "We
try to teach understanding and
speaking before reading and writ-
ing. This is not because we think
understanding and speaking are
necessarily more important, but
because we feel they are prior to
reading and writing," Prof. An-
thony continued.
Teaching Methods
He mentioned other teaching
attitudes such as "the necessity

TEACHING TECHNIQUE-ELI uses many modern techniques to
teach English to foreign students. The television camera is being
employed in an intensive English course. The picture is trans-
mitted to a nearby classroom, making it possible for 100 students
to be trained at the same time.



Ed. School Student Council
at Undergraduate Advising Office
1203 U.H.S.

tion, special projects and mater-
ials development. It is a division
of the literary school consisting of
seven administrative officers: di-
rector, admissions officer, coordin-
ators of intensive English, teacher
training, research and testing de-
partments, supervisor of student
affairs and administrative assist-
Founded in 1941 by Charles
Fries with initial funds provided
by the Rockefeller Foundation,
ELI is the "oldest continuous in-
stitution of its kind," Prof. An-
thony continued.
Expanded Programs
It has since expanded to in-
clude many varied programs. One
of the most important projects is
testing foreign students for their
proficiency level in English. Their
rating is then used by American
universities and colleges to deter-
mine acceptance or rejection of
the student's application for ad-
The institute's tests are also
used by the United States Infor-
mation Agency, which works
through the University to give cer-
tificates of ability to foreign stu-
dents who pass an English exam-
This test is administered to ap-
proximately, 3,000-4,000 people in
more than 100 countries. Usually
60 to 70 per cent pass. A person
who receives a certificate of abil-
ity from the University does not
have to take the English test for
entrance into an American school,
Jack Upshur, research associate in
charge of testing and certification
at ELI, explained.
Faculty Members
Presently there are 34 faculty
members employed by the insti-
tute. They must be "native speak-
ers of English; there are few ex-
ceptions," Prof. Anthony noted.
"A full-time instructor has three
classes, but many of the faculty
devote part of their time to out-
side duties such as research and

to compare and contrast the stu-
dent's language with English in
pronunciation and the repetition
of English to form a 'habit' of the
The difficulty a student meets
in learning English depends on his
native tongue as compared to
English. A problem area is the
difference between two languages.
"We must teach the foreign stu-
dent different vocal patterns,"
Prof. Anthony said.
For example, he continued, the
vocal patterns of English and Ger-
man are more similar than those
of English and a Southeast Asian
language. Hence, an American will
have an easier time learning Ger-
man, or any of the Romance lan-
guages, than he would have stud$-
ing Thai, Lao or Vietnamese.
The intensive English depart-
ment entails an eight-week course
given five times a year with about
100 students in each session. Each
student attends class five hours
a day, five days a week for train-
ing in pronunciation, grammar,
vocabulary, pattern practice and
language laboratory.
Informal Classes
Each class has approximately
10 students and is conducted "with
an air of informality, one to which
many of the students are not ac-
customed," he noted.
ELI also operates a teacher
training program which lasts for
one semester. It is held three
times a year for Americans and
foreign students who want to
teach English in foreign- lands.
"Because of the size of our staff
and facilities, we have to limit en-
rollment to 100 for the eight week
intensive course and 30 for the
teacher training program," Prof.
Anthony commented. The pro-
gram is held four hours a day,
four days a week.
The program includes English
phonology, grammar, teaching
methods and American culture, he

Smith Explains Development
Of New Leukemia Death Rates

Howe about some fun before linals.
All I.S.A. Members are invited to a Picnic:
WHEN: Sat., May 19th.
WHERE: Dexter-Huron Park.
TIME: 1 p.m.
MEETING PLACE: International Center.
Call room 18 at I.C. to reserve transportation-25c each.
FREE COKES-bring your own food-
(Don't forget to vote beforehand-mail in your ballot
as soon as possible.)

"The fact that leukemia is now,
one of the leading causes of child-
hood deaths indicates the great
need for research in this area,"
Donald C. Smith of the Medical,
School said yesterday at a region-
al conference of Pi Lambda Theta,
an organization of professional
Speaking on' "The Problem of
Leukemia Among Children," Prof.
Smith went on to say that can-
cer is the second largest cause of
childhood diseases for children
from five years of age to 19. Can-
cer runs fourth for the 1-4 age
Prof. Smith said that a region-
al survey of leukemia death rates
based on figures from the 1950
census revealed that the highest
death rates are in California,
Minnesota, and New York. He
added that it is not known wheth-
er this is due to actual factors
such as climate or better diagnos-
tic facilities.
It has also been found that the
incidence of leukemia is nigher
in high-income families than in

low-income families. This finding
rases the question of better diag-
nostic facilities available to the
former and also more exposure to
x-ray radiation, a possible factor
causing leukemia.
Referring to a survey in Buf-
falo, Prof. Smith pointed out the
fact cases occurred in clusters in-
dicated possible communicative
properties of the disease. He also
mentioned research has turned up
a correlation between leukemia
and the presence of allergies in
the patients.
Announcing ... THE SECOND ANNUAL
September 4th to 7th, 1962
For Beautiful Color Brochure
And All Information, Write To
53 W. 23rd St., New York 10, N.Y.





Free Admission



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